New directions in earth system governance research
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Inoue, C. ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Gerlak, Andrea K. ; Ishii, Atsushi ; Patterson, James ; Pickering, Jonathan ; Scobie, M. ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, J. ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael ; Djalante, Riyante ; Dryzek, John ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renée ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, R. - \ 2019
Earth System Governance 1 (2019). - ISSN 2589-8116 - 18 p.
Governance - Research networks - Earth system - Transformation
The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe
Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Cooke, L.R. - \ 2015
In: Fungicide resistance in plant pathogens / Ishii, H., Hollomon, D.W., Tokyo : Springer - ISBN 9784431556411 - p. 355 - 378.
The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It is controlled by foliar fungicides, with up to 15–20 sprays being used per season. A wide range of fungicides is approved for the control of late blight including nonsystemics (e.g. mancozeb, fluazinam), numerous translaminar compounds (e.g. cymoxanil, dimethomorph, mandipropamid) but few fully systemic fungicides (viz. the phenylamides including metalaxyl-M, and propamocarb hydrochloride). Resistance to metalaxyl appeared in 1980, within a few years of its introduction, and led to control failures in Ireland and the Netherlands. Subsequently, anti-resistance management strategies were developed which allowed continuing use of phenylamides only in mixtures with nonsystemic multisite-inhibiting fungicides and with a limited number of applications. Resistance to other fungicides used to control late blight or early blight (caused by Alternaria spp.) has not developed or has not led to major reductions in control, perhaps in part as a consequence of effective resistance management. The potato is also susceptible to many tuber pathogens, which can cause rots and blemishes and are frequently transmitted via the seed tuber. Relatively few fungicides are approved for tuber or soil application to control tuber diseases. Resistance to thiabendazole, first used on potatoes in the 1970s, developed in several pathogens and resulted in loss of control where it was used alone. Resistance management has focused on avoiding repeated use of thiabendazole during multiple generations of the potato crop and use in mixtures with imazalil. In Europe, resistance has not developed to other fungicides used to control tuber diseases, although pathogen strains resistant to fludioxonil have been reported elsewhere.
Real-time multi-model decadal climate predictions
Smith, D.M. ; Scaife, A.A. ; Boer, G.J. ; Caian, M. ; Doblas-Reyes, F.J. ; Guemas, V. ; Hawkins, E. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Hermanson, L. ; Ho, C.K. ; Ishii, M. ; Kharin, V. ; Kimoto, M. ; Kirtman, B. ; Lean, J. ; Matei, D. ; Merryfield, W.J. ; Muller, W.A. ; Pohlmann, H. ; Rosati, A. ; Wouters, B. ; Wyser, K. - \ 2013
Climate Dynamics 41 (2013)11-12. - ISSN 0930-7575 - p. 2875 - 2888.
surface-temperature - data assimilation - atlantic hurricanes - north-american - ensemble - model - design
We present the first climate prediction of the coming decade made with multiple models, initialized with prior observations. This prediction accrues from an international activity to exchange decadal predictions in near real-time, in order to assess differences and similarities, provide a consensus view to prevent over-confidence in forecasts from any single model, and establish current collective capability. We stress that the forecast is experimental, since the skill of the multi-model system is as yet unknown. Nevertheless, the forecast systems used here are based on models that have undergone rigorous evaluation and individually have been evaluated for forecast skill. Moreover, it is important to publish forecasts to enable open evaluation, and to provide a focus on climate change in the coming decade. Initialized forecasts of the year 2011 agree well with observations, with a pattern correlation of 0.62 compared to 0.31 for uninitialized projections. In particular, the forecast correctly predicted La Nia in the Pacific, and warm conditions in the north Atlantic and USA. A similar pattern is predicted for 2012 but with a weaker La Nia. Indices of Atlantic multi-decadal variability and Pacific decadal variability show no signal beyond climatology after 2015, while temperature in the Nio3 region is predicted to warm slightly by about 0.5 A degrees C over the coming decade. However, uncertainties are large for individual years and initialization has little impact beyond the first 4 years in most regions. Relative to uninitialized forecasts, initialized forecasts are significantly warmer in the north Atlantic sub-polar gyre and cooler in the north Pacific throughout the decade. They are also significantly cooler in the global average and over most land and ocean regions out to several years ahead. However, in the absence of volcanic eruptions, global temperature is predicted to continue to rise, with each year from 2013 onwards having a 50 % chance of exceeding the current observed record. Verification of these forecasts will provide an important opportunity to test the performance of models and our understanding and knowledge of the drivers of climate change.
|Emulsion compression and coalescence under enhanced gravity studied with in-situ microscopy
Krebs, T. ; Slot, J.J. ; Schroën, C.G.P.H. ; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2012
- p. 1 - 12.
We report the results of experiments and numerical calculations of compression and coalescence in a monodisperse oil-in-water emulsion upon centrifugation. A custom-built setup allows in-situ monitoring of a rotating bilayer of emulsion droplets using an optical microscope. The oil volume fraction in a compressed layer of oil droplets stabilized against coalescence was measured experimentally as a function of time for different radial accelerations. The sedimentation was simulated using CFD in order to test the applicability of the computationalmethod and the Ishii-Zuber drag law for very high dispersed phase volume fractions. Quantitative agreement of emulsion sedimentation as a function of time between the experiments and simulations is good at higher accelerations, but decreases with decreasing accelerations. Coalescence in a centrifuged emulsion, which was destabilized prior to centrifugation by adding sodium chloride, was also quantified. The growth of a pure oil phase on top of the droplet layer was measured as a function of time. From the growth rate, a characteristic time for droplet coalescence with the pure oil phase was deduced The experimental method may serve as a tool to study the compression and coalescence kinetics of emulsions under enhanced gravity, which may be of use to assess emulsion stability for industrial applications. Possible improvements of the current experimental setup are also discussed
|Historical analysis of the effectiveness of AKST systems in promoting innovation
Dreyfus, F. ; Plencovich, C. ; Petit, M. ; Akca, H. ; Dogheim, S. ; Ishii-Eitman, M. ; Kingamkono, R. ; Jiggins, J.L.S. ; Keith, D. - \ 2008
In: Agriculture at a Crossroads: The IAASTD Global Report / McIntyre, B.D., Herren, H.R., Wakhungu, J., Watson, R.T., Washington, DC : Island Press - ISBN 9781597265393
|Chemical control of plant diseases.
Waard, M.A. de; Georgopoulos, S.G. ; Hollomon, D.W. ; Ishii, H. ; Leroux, P. ; Ragsdale, N.N. ; Schwinn, F.J. - \ 1993
Annual Review of Phytopathology 31 (1993). - ISSN 0066-4286 - p. 403 - 421.
|Decreased binding of carbendazim to cellular protein from Venturia nashicola and its involvement in benzimidazole resistance.
Ishii, H. ; Davidse, L.C. - \ 1986
In: Proc. 1986 British Crop Protection Conf. Pests and Diseases, Vol. 2 - p. 567 - 573.