Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Horizontal logistics collaboration : cases from agri-food supply chains in Morocco
Badraoui, Ismail - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Y. Boulaksil. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439053 - 212
Horizontal logistics collaboration: an exploratory study in Morocco’s agri-food supply chains
Badraoui, Ismail ; Vorst, Jack G.A.J. Van der; Boulaksil, Youssef - \ 2019
International Journal of Logistics research and applications (2019). - ISSN 1367-5567
agri-food supply chains - collaboration enablers - conceptual model - Horizontal logistics collaboration - Morocco

Horizontal logistics collaboration (HLC) practices have gained much attention in recent years as innovative ways for companies to improve their performance. However, literature does not reveal which factors influence the success or failure of HLC, especially in agri-food supply chains (AFSCs) in developing countries. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate HLC in the context of AFSCs in Morocco as a case of a developing country. First, a literature review is performed to develop a conceptual model for HLC considering AFSCs characteristics. Then, in-depth case studies are conducted in Morocco to refine the conceptual model based on insights from real collaboration experiences. The results show that collaboration outcomes are influenced by operational collaborative activities through the mediation of relational elements. The operational collaborative activities are impacted by AFSCs’ characteristics, such as products specific handling conditions. Furthermore, the research shows that local cultural factors influence the development of trust in the relationship.

WRF Model Prediction of a Dense Fog Event Occurred During the Winter Fog Experiment (WIFEX)
Pithani, Prakash ; Ghude, Sachin D. ; Chennu, V.N. ; Kulkarni, Rachana G. ; Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Sharma, Ashish ; Prabhakaran, Thara ; Chate, D.M. ; Gultepe, Ismail ; Jenamani, R.K. ; Madhavan, Rajeevan - \ 2019
Pure and Applied Geophysics 176 (2019)4. - ISSN 0033-4553 - p. 1827 - 1846.
Liquid water content - PBL scheme - vertical level - WIFEX - WRF model

In this study, the sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the life cycle of a dense fog event that occurred on 23–24 January 2016 is evaluated using different model configurations. For the first time, intensive observational periods (IOPs) were made during the unique winter fog experiment (WIFEX) that took place over Delhi, India, where air quality is serious during the winter months. The multiple sensitivity experiments to evaluate the WRF model performance included parameters such as initial model and boundary conditions, vertical resolution in the lower boundary layer (BL), and the planetary BL (PBL) physical parameterizations. In addition, the model sensitivity was tested using various configurations that included domain size and grid resolution. Results showed that simulations with a high number of vertical levels within the lower PBL height (i.e., 10 levels below 300 m) simulated the accurate timing of fog formation, development, and dissipation. On the other hand, simulations with less vertical levels in the PBL captured only the mature physical characteristics of the fog cycle. A comparison of six local PBL schemes showed little variation in the onset of fog life cycle in comparison to observations of visibility. However, comparisons of observations with thermodynamical values such as 2-m temperature and longwave radiation showed poor relationships. Overall, quasi-normal scale elimination (QNSE) and MYNN 2.5 PBL schemes simulated the complete fog life cycle correctly with high liquid water content (LWC; 0.5/0.35 g m −3 ), while other schemes only responded during the mature phase.

Straightforward Regeneration of Reduced Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Required for Enzymatic Tryptophan Halogenation
Ismail, Mohamed ; Schroeder, Lea ; Frese, Marcel ; Kottke, Tilman ; Hollmann, Frank ; Paul, Caroline E. ; Sewald, Norbert - \ 2019
ACS Catalysis 9 (2019)2. - ISSN 2155-5435 - p. 1389 - 1395.
enzymatic cofactor regeneration - FADH - flavin-dependent halogenases - hydride transfer - NADH mimics - regioselective chlorination

Flavin-dependent halogenases are known to regioselectively introduce halide substituents into aromatic moieties, for example, the indole ring of tryptophan. The process requires halide salts and oxygen instead of molecular halogen in the chemical halogenation. However, the reduced cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) has to be regenerated using a flavin reductase. Consequently, coupled biocatalytic steps are usually applied for cofactor regeneration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) mimics can be employed stoichiometrically to replace enzymatic cofactor regeneration in biocatalytic halogenation. Chlorination of l-tryptophan is successfully performed using such NADH mimics. The efficiency of this approach has been compared to the previously established enzymatic regeneration system using the two auxiliary enzymes flavin reductase (PrnF) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The reaction rates of some of the tested mimics were found to exceed that of the enzymatic system. Continuous enzymatic halogenation reaction for reaction scale-up is also possible.

Biofilm formation and granule properties in anaerobic digestion at high salinity
Gagliano, M.C. ; Ismail, S.B. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Temmink, H. ; Lier, J.B. Van - \ 2017
Water Research 121 (2017). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 61 - 71.
Anaerobic digestion - Anaerobic granules - Biofilm - High salinity - Methanosaeta - UASB
For the anaerobic biological treatment of saline wastewater, Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is currently a possibility, even though elevated salt concentrations can be a major obstacle. Anaerobic consortia and especially methanogenic archaea are very sensitive to fluctuations in salinity. When working with Upflow Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) technology, in which the microorganisms are aggregated and retained in the system as a granular biofilm, high sodium concentration negatively affects aggregation and consequently process performances. In this research, we analysed the structure of the biofilm and granules formed during the anaerobic treatment of high salinity (at 10 and 20 g/L of sodium) synthetic wastewater at lab scale. The acclimated inoculum was able to accomplish high rates of organics removal at all the salinity levels tested. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses identified the acetoclastic Methanosaeta harundinacea as the key player involved acetate degradation and microbial attachment/granulation. When additional calcium (1 g/L) was added to overcome the negative effect of sodium on microbial aggregation, during the biofilm formation process microbial attachment and acetate degradation decreased. The same result was observed on granules formation: while calcium had a positive effect on granules strength when added to UASB reactors, Methanosaeta filaments were not present and the degradation of the partially acidified substrate was negatively influenced. This research demonstrated the possibility to get granulation at high salinity, bringing to the forefront the importance of a selection towards Methanosaeta cells growing in filamentous form to obtain strong and healthy granules.
Digital growth response maps for assessment of cooling requirement in greenhouse production of tomato
Shamshiri, R. ; Che Man, H. ; Zakaria, A.J. ; Beveren, Peter van; Wan Ismail, W.I. ; Ahmad, D. - \ 2017
Acta Horticulturae 1152 (2017). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 117 - 124.
Computer simulation - Cooling requirement - Greenhouse - Growth response map - Temperature - Tomato - Tropical lowland

The objective of this work was to generate a series of digital growth response maps that address specific times of cooling requirement for tomato production in a tropical lowland greenhouse. Collected data from a net-screen covered greenhouse were processed by a computer model that utilized a mathematical approach to simulate tomato's growth responses (GR) to air temperature at early growth and development growth stages. Orthogonal projection was applied on three-dimensional GR plots to create top-view sketch to demonstrate variations with respect to changes in hours and days. Results indicated that air temperature inside the greenhouse was 65% optimal at the early growth stage and 72% optimal at the development growth stage of tomato.

Membership function model for defining optimality of vapor pressure deficit in closed-field cultivation of tomato
Shamshiri, R. ; Che Man, H. ; Zakaria, A.J. ; Beveren, Peter van; Wan Ismail, W.I. ; Ahmad, D. - \ 2017
Acta Horticulturae 1152 (2017). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 281 - 290.
Greenhouse - Growth response - Membership functions - Optimal value - Tomato - Vapor pressure deficit

Estimation of plant's evapotranspiration (ET) or water loss to the atmosphere depends on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of the closed-field environment (greenhouse). The objective of this work was to develop a membership function model for defining optimal VPD of greenhouse air for tomato cultivation (Lycopersicon esculentum) at different growth stages (GS) and light conditions (sun, cloud, night). Mathematical descriptions of a peer-reviewed published growth response (GR) model for optimal greenhouse air temperature (T) and relative humidity (rH) were derived and implemented in a computer program. An incremental algorithm was written in MATLAB

Os desafios de transferência de tecnologia no setor produtivo do leite : O estudo de caso do Projeto Balde Cheio
Monteiro Novo, A.L. ; Jansen, C.E.P. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Ismail, Ramalho Haddade ; Chinelato de Camargo, Artur - \ 2016
In: Pecuária de leite no Brasil / Vilela, Duarte, de Paula Ferreira, Reinaldo, Nogueira Fernandes, Ellizabeth, Vieiera Juntolli, Fabrício, Embrapa - ISBN 9788570356444 - p. 285 - 304.
Comparative evaluation of naturally ventilated screenhouse and evaporative cooled greenhouse based on optimal vapor pressure deficit
Shamshiri, Ramin ; Ahmad, Desa ; Wan Ismail, Wan Ishak ; Man, Hasfalin Che ; Zakaria, Abd Jamil ; Beveren, Peter Van; Yamin, Muhammad - \ 2016
In: 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting, ASABE 2016. - American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers - ISBN 9781510828759 - 10 p.
Evaporative cooling - Greenhouse - Natural ventilation - Optimal - Screenhouse - Tomato - Vapor pressure deficit
The objective of this study was to compare two closed-field plant production environments for tomato cultivation based on optimal vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Experiment was carried out in tropical lowlands of Malaysia by collecting 11 days of sample data during March (2014), from an evaporative cooled Polycarbonate Panel (PP) covered greenhouse and a naturally ventilated Screenhouse (SH). A computer application was designed and used for VPD calculation and data processing with respect to three light conditions (night, sun and cloud). The average and maximum VPD were respectively equal to 0.97 and 3.81 kPa for SH and 1.19 and 5.1 kPa for PP. The largest differences in the VPD of the two environments were between 2.9 and 3.1 kPa and were observed between hours of 12:30 and 17:30 at sun conditions. Results did not show significant differences in the two environments between hours of 00:00 and 8:00, when inside air temperature was between 24 to 26°C, and relative humidity was near 90%. The hypothesis that the PP, compared to SH, provides VPD closer to the optimal range was rejected. Further analysis of the results showed that linear correlations with R2>0.9 exist between daily averaged VPD of each greenhouses. It was concluded that VPD in the SH was closer to the optimal range in the entire days of experiment. The outcome of this study contributes to knowledge-based information for greenhouse growers by addressing questions about trends in VPD data, peak-hours and light conditions associated with maximum and minimum values.
Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple
Ismail, Siti Izera ; Batzer, Jean Carlson ; Harrington, Thomas C. ; Crous, Pedro W. ; Lavrov, Dennis V. ; Li, Huanyu ; Gleason, Mark L. - \ 2016
Mycologia 108 (2016)2. - ISSN 0027-5514 - p. 292 - 302.
Dothideomycetidae - Multilocus phylogeny

Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi.

Hepatic genome-wide expression of lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity rats treated with cocoa polyphenols
Ali, Faisal ; Ismail, Amin ; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd ; Pei, Chong Pei ; Kersten, Sander - \ 2015
Journal of Functional Foods 17 (2015). - ISSN 1756-4646 - p. 969 - 978.
Cocoa polyphenols treatment - DNA microarray - Genes expression profiling - Lipid metabolism - Liver steatosis - Obesity

Cocoa polyphenols (CPs) have been shown to exhibit hypolipidaemic actions, suggesting that CPs offer great potential for ameliorating lipid abnormalities. However, the conceivable molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological activity of CPs in obesity-induced liver steatosis have yet to be an investigated. This study analysed the hepatic genome-wide expression patterns in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats using DNA microarray. Rats were fed either a low fat (LFD) or high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. After supplementation, HFD rats (n = 10/group) were treated with 600 mg/kg bw/day CPs (HFD + CPs) for 4 weeks. As a result, compared to the HFD group, CP treatment significantly lowered lipid in the liver and attenuated the increases in body weight as well as visceral fat accumulation in the CP group. DNA microarray analysis resulted in a differential expression of 862 genes of the 12,282 genes expressed in the liver. The differential expression patterns of selected genes were validated with real-time-PCR. Metabolic pathway analysis via bioinformatic tools showed that genes in lipid catabolism, primarily in fatty acid oxidation, were up-regulated in the CP group, whereas genes in lipid synthesis pathways were down-regulated. Together, these findings provide a novel insight into possible molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological actions of CPs on the management of the obesity-induced steatosis markers in rats with diet-induced obesity.

Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols
Ali, F. ; Ismail, A. ; Kersten, A.H. - \ 2014
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 58 (2014)1. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 33 - 48.
low-density-lipoprotein - diet-induced obesity - flavanol-rich cocoa - high-fat diet - nf-kappa-b - ldl oxidative susceptibility - alpha-mediated inflammation - insulin-resistance - dark chocolate - in-vitro
Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually becomes systemic. One potential dietary strategy to reduce glucose intolerance and inflammation is consumption of polyphenol-rich cocoa-like cocoa or their by-products. In vitro as well as in vivo data indicate that cocoa polyphenols (CPs) may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Polyphenols commonly found in cocoa have been reported to regulate lipid metabolism via inducing metabolic gene expression or activating transcription factors that regulate the expression of numerous genes, many of which play an important role in energy metabolism. Currently, several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor Kappa B, activated protein-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver X receptors, and adiponectin gene) have been identified, which may explain potential beneficial obesity-associated diseases effects of CPs. Further studies have been performed regarding the protective effects of CPs against metabolic diseases by suppressing transcription factors that antagonize lipid accumulation. Thus, polyphenols-rich cocoa products may diminish obesity-mediated metabolic diseases by multiple mechanisms, thereby attenuating chronic inflammation.
Characterisation of Neofusicoccum species causing mango dieback in Italy
Ismail, A.M. ; Cirvilleri, G. ; Lombard, L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Polizzi, G. - \ 2013
Journal of plant pathology - Formerly Rivista di patologia vegetale 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 1125-4653 - p. 549 - 557.
mangifera-indica - phylogenetic analysis - south-africa - 1st report - sp-nov - botryosphaeria - pathogenicity - lasiodiplodia - morphology - grapevine
Species of Botryosphaeriaceae are important fungal pathogens of mango worldwide. A survey of 11 mango orchards located in the provinces of Catania, Messina, Palermo and Ragusa (Sicily, southern Italy), resulted in the isolation of a large number (76) of Neofusicoccum isolates associated with decline and dieback symptoms. Isolates were identified based on morphology and DNA sequence data analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nrDNA and partial translation of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Two species of Neofusicoccum were identified, which included N. parvum and N. australe, the former of which was the dominant species. The high incidence in local orchards and the pathogenicity results indicate that N. parvum and N. australe are important pathogens of mango in Sicily where they may significantly limit mango production.
Anaerobic wastewater treatment of high salinity wastewaters: impact on bioactivity and biomass retention
Ismail, S. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jules van Lier, co-promotor(en): Hardy Temmink; Caroline Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738189 - 144
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - afvalwater - anaërobe behandeling - zoutgehalte - biomassa - waste water treatment - water treatment - waste water - anaerobic treatment - salinity - biomass

Anaerobic sludge bed reactor systems like the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expended granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors are currently the mostly applied high-rate reactor systems for anaerobic wastewater treatment. The success of both systems has changed the world conception of wastewater treatment with energy recovery being an intrinsic part of the treatment process, avoidance of excess sludge problems and extremely low space requirement. Nevertheless, while broadening the UASB reactor application to a diverse type of wastewaters, high salinity wastewaters were found to give an adverse effect to the granulation processes. Accumulation of Na+at high concentrations produced weaker and fluffy granules endangering the applicability of the mentioned sludge bed systems. In this thesis, research was conducted to investigate the mechanisms of destabilization of the granules at high Na+concentrations, while trying to improve the granules’ properties. Chapter 1gives an overview of high salinity wastewaters, the application and the bottlenecks of anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) technology under extreme conditions. Focus is given to the granulation process as a key factor in the operation of high rate anaerobic reactors. Indeed, it is a complex process that involves physicochemical as well as biological mechanisms. A short overview of the previous research on anaerobic wastewater treatment processes for high salinity wastewaters is discussed, followed by granulation theories and processes. Referring to the imbalance in the monovalent to divalent cation ratio, the Ca2+augmentation approach is discussed in this chapter as a tool to establish a favourable ratio for the required granulation process. The chapter also discusses the need for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production, depending on the types of substrates, as a major factor for a successful granulation process. Specifically for high Na+concentrations, also the importance of K+and more specifically the K+/Na+ratio is discussed as a control regulator to alleviate the negative effects of Na+. Finally, the review discusses microbiological aspects related to the anaerobic treatment of high salinity wastewaters such as the adaptation of sludge to high Na+concentrations and the presence of halophilic/halotolerent microorganisms and their application in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

In Chapter 2, the effects of high Na+concentrations on methanogenic sludge bed reactor systems were investigated. In three different UASB reactors a rapid acclimation to 5 or 15 g Na+/L was observed, showing satisfactory results for a period of 100 days, when the reactors were fed with a mixture of acetate, gelatine and ethanol. Loading rates up to at least 18 kg COD/m3.d gave a good COD removal performance and the cultivated sludge showed high specific methanogenic activities (SMA) on acetate, propionate, butyrate and H2compared to the inoculated granules. Remarkably, only the reactor which was operated at a lower COD (5 instead of 50 g/L) exhibited severe washout, probably due to the much shorter HRT that was applied, i.e. 12 hours compared to 120 hours. Interestingly, the SMA of the biomass that washed out from this reactor showed considerably higher SMAs than the washed-out biomass from the other reactors. The performance of the granular sludge systems in this study shows the appropriateness of anaerobic inocula, pre-grown under saline conditions for the anaerobic treatment of high salinity wastewater.

In Chapter 3the production of EPS in UASB reactor systems that were operated under high salinity conditions was investigated. Four different UASB reactors were operated at loading rates up to 22 kg COD/m3.d with different acetate:gelatine:starch ratios as the substrate. Reactors were fed with partially acidified and fully acidified substrates, i.e. PAS and FAS respectively, and Na+concentrations of either 10 or 20 g Na+/L. One of the reactors additionally received 1 g of Ca2+/L. All four reactors showed a good performance with COD removal efficiencies exceeding 90 %. Proteins were the dominant EPS and the PAS-fed granules gave much higher EPS concentrations than FAS-fed granules. However, the proteins concentration was found not dependent on the Na+ concentration in the feed. Interestingly, the granules from the reactors which were operated at a Na+/Ca2+ratio of 770 contained more polysaccharides than granules from reactors operated at a high Na+/Ca2+ratio of 1540. SEM images showed that that PAS-fed granule had a smoother granule surfaces than FAS-fed granule. PAS-fed granules also were considerably larger than FAS-fed granules. When the influent contained additional Ca2+, clear cracks or fissures could be observed on the surface of the granules. Na+ concentrations of 10 g/L seemed to increase the granule size, which may have been caused by swelling of the EPS matrix. Shear tests indicated that PAS-fed granules were stronger than the FAS fed granules and that Ca2+ addition had a positive effect on granule strength. The calcium content of these granules also was higher with 150 mg/g TSS compared to 60 mg/g TSS in the other reactors. Batch tests at high Na+concentrations confirmed calcium leaching from the granules. When granular sludge was exposed to 20 g Na+/L in batches, leaching of Ca2+from granules took place with a maximum obtained after 10 days. The calcium content of the granules decreased from approximately 85 to 52 mg/g TSS. Therefore, the highest Na+concentrations resulted in the weakest granules.

Chapter 4describes the results of batch incubation studies in which anaerobic granular sludge was augmented with 0.3 g Ca2+/L at Na+concentrations of 20 g/L. Experiments followed the previously described results of Chapter 3 showing that high Na+concentrations caused Ca2+leaching from anaerobic granules. Extensive SEM-EDX and SEM-BSE measurements confirm leaching of calcium from the granules when these are exposed to higher Na+ concentrations. Moreover Ca2+additions seemed to indeed maintain the Ca2+content of granular sludge.

Initial attachment of microorganism is very important for the development of granules and biofilms. Therefore, biofilm studies were conducted and explained in Chapter 5. Four different biofilm reactors with a non-woven carrier material were exposed to different Na+ concentrations (10 or 20 g/L) and inoculated with crushed granules. Acetate was used as the substrate. One of the reactors received 0.3 g Ca2+/L and another one 0.7 g K+/L. The reactors were operated as sequencing batches. The reactor fed with K+ gave the best performance. Lower salinity (10 compared to 20 g Na+/L) improved the performance and the reactor which received calcium gave the worst results. This finding contradicts with previous experiments in Chapter 3. However, the situation in the biofilm reactors is completely different because the biofilms had to form from scratch. FISH-CLSM images revealed no significant visible differences in microbial coverage (i.e. bacteria and archea) of the non-woven fabric, except for the calcium enriched reactor. After 40 days of operation, it was clearly observed that 20 g Na+/L does not prevent the initial microbial attachment under anaerobic conditions. From 16 sRNA DGGE measurements it was shown that the biofilms had a similar population and that this population did not change very much in time. The Archea were related to Methanosaeta harundinacae (acetoclastic), Methanolinea tarda and Methanobacterium subteraaneum (both hydrogenotrophic). Apparently these species can easily adapt to high salinity. However, the biofilms in the reactors did not show any of the known acetate-oxidizing bacteria that are expectedly needed for the production of H2from acetate as source for the growth of the found hydrogenotrophic Archea. Therefore, it is assumed that H2leakage by acetoclastic methanogen explain their presence in the reactor.

Four identical UASB reactors treating concentrated wastewaters (10 – 30 g COD/L) were operated at 20 g Na+/L and in detail described in Chapter 6. PAS and FAS substrates were fed to different reactors to compare the effect of different organic substrates on granule activity, stability and growth. The effect of calcium augmentation on anaerobic granules’ properties was studied by feeding two of the reactors with additional calcium at a concentration of 0.3 g Ca2+/L. A beneficial effect of potassium was demonstrated in Chapter 5 and it therefore was added to all the reactors, at a concentration of 0.7 g K+/L. The treatment performance of the reactors was compared during a period of 120 days at increasing volumetric organic loading rates (OLRs). Physicochemical and microbiological properties of the anaerobic granules were determined and discussed. The results showed that high COD removal efficiencies are possible at 20 g Na+/L, up to an organic loading rate of at least 14 g COD/L.d. At a loading rate of 25 g COD/L.d the performance and stability of all reactors deteriorated. There were indications that calcium augmentation had a positive effect on biomass retention, but this could not be further quantified. The microbial assays gave similar results as in Chapter 5. Compared to the inoculum, bacterial diversity in FAS-fed granules did not change significantly but was changed considerably in PAS-fed granules. Complex organic PAS feed resulted in more complex bacterial populations that were not related to archea. The bacterial presence of a dominant phylotype, belonging to the family of Marinilabiliaceaeand specifically Alkaliflexus imshenetskiiwas evidenced. Members of Marinilabiliaceae are capable of degrading polymeric substances such as starch and gelatine. The dominant archeal species in the reactors was related to Methanosaeta harundinacea. Methanosaetahave been found to play a major role in granulation

In Chapter 7the results of this research are discussed in a general context. Directions for further research are presented focussing on the increase in biomass activity and biomass retention in high salinity wastewaters by improving the adaptability of microbes and the anaerobic sludge granulation process.

Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback disease of mango (Mangifera indica) in Egypt
Ismail, A.M. ; Cirvilleri, G. ; Polizzi, G. ; Crous, P.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Lombard, L. - \ 2012
Australasian Plant Pathology 41 (2012)6. - ISSN 0815-3191 - p. 649 - 660.
multiple gene genealogies - south-africa - phylogenetic analysis - sp-nov. - botryosphaeria - theobromae - morphology - diplodia - trees - reevaluation
We constructed several multilocus DNA sequence datasets to assess the phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria, especially focusing on those housed at the Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF), and to aid molecular identifications of unknowns via the FUSARIUM-ID and Fusarium MLST online databases and analysis packages. Analyses of a 190-taxon, two-locus dataset, which included 159 isolates from insects, indicated that: (i) insect-associated fusaria were nested within 10 species complexes spanning the phylogenetic breadth of Fusarium, (ii) novel, putatively unnamed insecticolous species were nested within 8/10 species complexes and (iii) Latin binomials could be applied with confidence to only 18/58 phylogenetically distinct fusaria associated with pest insects. Phylogenetic analyses of an 82-taxon, three-locus dataset nearly fully resolved evolutionary relationships among the 10 clades containing insecticolous fusaria. Multilocus typing of isolates within four species complexes identified surprisingly high genetic diversity in that 63/65 of the fusaria typed represented newly discovered haplotypes. The DNA sequence data, together with corrected ABI sequence chromatograms and alignments, have been uploaded to the following websites dedicated to identifying fusaria: FUSARIUM-ID ( at Pennsylvania State University’s Department of Plant Pathology and Fusarium MLST ( at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS-KNAW) Fungal Biodiversity Center.
The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature
Hawksworth, D.L. ; Crous, P.W. ; Redhead, S.A. ; Reynolds, D.R. ; Samson, R.A. ; Seifert, K.A. ; Taylor, J.W. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Abaci, Ö. ; Aime, C. ; Asan, A. ; Bai, F.Y. ; Beer, W. de; Begerow, D. ; Berikten, D. ; Boekhout, T. ; Buchanan, P.K. ; Burgess, T. ; Buzina, W. ; Cai, L. ; Cannon, P.F. ; Crane, J.L. ; Damm, U. ; Daniel, H.M. ; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Druzhinina, I. ; Dyer, P.S. ; Eberhardt, U. ; Fell, J.W. ; Frisvad, J.C. ; Geiser, D.M. ; Geml, J. ; Glienke, C. ; Gräfenhan, T. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Groenewald, M. ; Gruyter, J. de; Guého-Kellemann, E. ; Guo, L.D. ; Hibbett, D.S. ; Hong, S.B. ; Hoog, G.S. de; Houbraken, J. ; Huhndorf, S.M. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Ismail, A. ; Johnston, P.R. ; Kadaifciler, D.G. ; Kirk, P.M. ; Köljalg, U. ; Kurtzman, C.P. ; Lagneau, P.E. ; Lévesque, C.A. ; Liu, X. ; Lombard, L. ; Meyer, W. ; Miller, A. ; Minter, D.W. ; Najafzadeh, M.J. ; Norvell, L. ; Ozerskaya, S.M. ; Öziç, R. ; Pennycook, S.R. ; Peterson, S.W. ; Pettersson, O.V. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Robert, V.A. ; Ruibal, C. ; Schnürer, J. ; Schroers, H.J. ; Shivas, R. ; Slippers, B. ; Spierenburg, H. ; Takashima, M. ; Taskin, E. ; Thines, M. ; Thrane, U. ; Uztan, A.H. ; Raak, M. van; Varga, J. ; Vasco, A. ; Verkley, G. ; Videira, S.I.R. ; Vries, R.P. de; Weir, B.S. ; Yilmaz, N. ; Yurkov, A. ; Zhang, N. - \ 2011
IMA fungus 2 (2011)1. - ISSN 2210-6340 - p. 105 - 112.
The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature offungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented.
Attachment and granulation of anaerobic consortia under high salinity conditions
Ismail, S.B. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Lier, J.B. van - \ 2010
Blood urea level and diabetes duration
Bosevski, M. ; Georgievska-Ismail, L. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. - \ 2010
In: Diabeto-angiology / Bosevski, M., Nova Science Publishers - ISBN 9781616689261
Rebuilding Resilient Shrimp Aquaculture in South-east Asia: Disease Management, Coastal Ecology and Decision Making
Bush, S.R. ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Visser, L.E. ; Dijk, J.W.M. van; Bosma, R.H. ; Boer, F. de; Verdegem, M.C.J. - \ 2010
In: Tropical Deltas and Coastal Zones. Food Production, Communities and Environment at the Land-Water Interface / Hoanh, C.T., Szuster, B.W., Suan-Pheng, K., Ismail, A.M., Noble, A.D., Wallingford, Oxfordshire : CAB International - ISBN 9781845936181 - p. 117 - 132.
An Extended Hydrological Classification for Mangrove Rehabilitation Projects: a Case Study in Vietnam
Dijksma, R. ; Loon, A.F. van; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van; Huijgevoort van, M.H.J. ; Brake, B. te - \ 2010
In: Tropical Deltas and Coastal Zones: Food Production, Communities and Environment at the Land-Water Interface / Hoanh, C.T., Szuster, B.W., Suan-Pheng, K., Ismail, A.M., CABI International (Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture Series 9) - ISBN 9781845936181 - p. 384 - 397.
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