Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Correction to: Effects of reward magnitude and training frequency on the learning rates and memory retention of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni
    Heinrich, Dennis D.U. ; Vila Pouca, Catarina ; Brown, Culum ; Huveneers, Charlie - \ 2020
    Animal Cognition (2020). - ISSN 1435-9448

    In the original publication of the article, the Fig. 4 was erroneously published.

    Author Correction: Nitrogen and phosphorus constrain the CO2 fertilization of global plant biomass
    Terrer, César ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Keenan, Trevor F. ; Kaiser, Christina ; Vicca, Sara ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Hungate, Bruce A. ; Peñuelas, Josep ; McCallum, Ian ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Cernusak, Lucas A. ; Talhelm, Alan F. ; Sundert, Kevin Van; Piao, Shilong ; Newton, Paul C.D. ; Hovenden, Mark J. ; Blumenthal, Dana M. ; Liu, Yi Y. ; Müller, Christoph ; Winter, Klaus ; Field, Christopher B. ; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang ; Lissa, Caspar J. Van; Hoosbeek, Marcel R. ; Watanabe, Makoto ; Koike, Takayoshi ; Leshyk, Victor O. ; Polley, H.W. ; Franklin, Oskar - \ 2020
    Nature Climate Change 10 (2020). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 696 - 697.

    Effects of reward magnitude and training frequency on the learning rates and memory retention of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni
    Heinrich, Dennis D.U. ; Vila Pouca, Catarina ; Brown, Culum ; Huveneers, Charlie - \ 2020
    Animal Cognition (2020). - ISSN 1435-9448
    Cognition - Conditioning - Elasmobranchs - Management - Tourism

    The development of adaptive responses to novel situations via learning has been demonstrated in a wide variety of animal taxa. However, knowledge on the learning abilities of one of the oldest extant vertebrate groups, Chondrichthyes, remains limited. With the increasing interest in global wildlife tourism and shark feeding operations, it is important to understand the capacities of these animals to form associations between human activities and food. We used an operant conditioning regime with a simple spatial cognitive task to investigate the effects of reinforcement frequency and reward magnitude on the learning performance and memory retention of Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Twenty-four Port Jackson sharks were assigned one of four treatments differing in reward magnitude and reinforcement frequency (large magnitude–high frequency; large magnitude–low frequency; small magnitude–high frequency; small magnitude–low frequency). The sharks were trained over a 21-day period to compare the number of days that it took to learn to pass an assigned door to feed. Sharks trained at a high reinforcement frequency demonstrated faster learning rates and a higher number of passes through the correct door at the end of the trials, while reward magnitude had limited effects on learning rate. This suggests that a reduction in reinforcement frequency during tourism-related feeding operations is likely to be more effective in reducing the risk of sharks making associations with food than limiting the amount of food provided.

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
    Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
    Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.

    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.

    A sustainable food system for the European Union
    Jackson, Peter ; Candel, J.J.L. ; Davies, Anna ; Vries, Hugo de; Derani, Cristiane ; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica ; Hoel, Alf Håkon ; Holm, L. ; Morone, Piergiuseppe ; Penker, Marianne ; Guadalupe Rivera Ferre, Marta ; Śpiewak, Ruta ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Thøgersen, John ; Mathijs, Erik - \ 2020
    SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (Evidence Review Report 7) - ISBN 9783982030173 - 224 p.
    Food lies at the heart of our lives. It is vital for our survival, and links us to our natural and social environment in a unique way. But our food system is unsustainable. How can we ensure future food security without treating people unfairly or leaving them behind?
    Food systems have complex social, economic and ecological components, and radical transformation is needed to make them sustainable. This report from SAPEA lays out the science on how that transition can happen in an inclusive, just and timely way.
    he global demand for food will increase in the future. To meet this demand, it is not enough simply to increase productivity in a sustainable way. We also need to change from linear mass consumption to a more circular economy — which will mean changing our norms, habits and routines.

    The evidence shows that this kind of behaviour change needs to happen collectively, not just individually. So we need joined-up governance at local, national and international levels.

    Food systems also contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. This can be addressed by reducing waste or directing it back into the supply chain.

    A mix of different measures will be most effective. The evidence shows that taxation is one of the most effective ways to modify behaviour. Accreditation and labelling schemes can also have an impact.

    Meanwhile, reform of European agriculture and fisheries policies offer great opportunities to develop resilience and sustainability.

    But there is not yet enough evidence to know for sure exactly what works in practice, so the steps we take should be carefully evaluated, and trade-offs anticipated.
    Effects of climate and land-use changes on fish catches across lakes at a global scale
    Kao, Yu Chun ; Rogers, Mark W. ; Bunnell, David B. ; Cowx, Ian G. ; Qian, Song S. ; Anneville, Orlane ; Beard, T.D. ; Brinker, Alexander ; Britton, J.R. ; Chura-Cruz, René ; Gownaris, Natasha J. ; Jackson, James R. ; Kangur, Külli ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Lukin, Anatoly A. ; Lynch, Abigail J. ; Mercado-Silva, Norman ; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo ; Njaya, Friday J. ; Ostrovsky, Ilia ; Rudstam, Lars G. ; Sandström, Alfred L.E. ; Sato, Yuichi ; Siguayro-Mamani, Humberto ; Thorpe, Andy ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van; Volta, Pietro ; Wang, Yuyu ; Weiperth, András ; Weyl, Olaf L.F. ; Young, Joelle D. - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Globally, our knowledge on lake fisheries is still limited despite their importance to food security and livelihoods. Here we show that fish catches can respond either positively or negatively to climate and land-use changes, by analyzing time-series data (1970–2014) for 31 lakes across five continents. We find that effects of a climate or land-use driver (e.g., air temperature) on lake environment could be relatively consistent in directions, but consequential changes in a lake-environmental factor (e.g., water temperature) could result in either increases or decreases in fish catch in a given lake. A subsequent correlation analysis indicates that reductions in fish catch was less likely to occur in response to potential climate and land-use changes if a lake is located in a region with greater access to clean water. This finding suggests that adequate investments for water-quality protection and water-use efficiency can provide additional benefits to lake fisheries and food security.

    Towards a unified study of multiple stressors : divisions and common goals across research disciplines
    Orr, James A. ; Vinebrooke, Rolf D. ; Jackson, Michelle C. ; Kroeker, Kristy J. ; Kordas, Rebecca L. ; Mantyka-Pringle, Chrystal ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Laender, Frederik De; Stoks, Robby ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Matthaei, Christoph D. ; Monk, Wendy A. ; Penk, Marcin R. ; Leuzinger, Sebastian ; Schäfer, Ralf B. ; Piggott, Jeremy J. - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 287 (2020)1926. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 10 p.
    antagonism - combined effects - global change factors - multiple drivers - multiple stressors - synergism

    Anthropogenic environmental changes, or 'stressors', increasingly threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. Multiple-stressor research is a rapidly expanding field of science that seeks to understand and ultimately predict the interactions between stressors. Reviews and meta-analyses of the primary scientific literature have largely been specific to either freshwater, marine or terrestrial ecology, or ecotoxicology. In this cross-disciplinary study, we review the state of knowledge within and among these disciplines to highlight commonality and division in multiple-stressor research. Our review goes beyond a description of previous research by using quantitative bibliometric analysis to identify the division between disciplines and link previously disconnected research communities. Towards a unified research framework, we discuss the shared goal of increased realism through both ecological and temporal complexity, with the overarching aim of improving predictive power. In a rapidly changing world, advancing our understanding of the cumulative ecological impacts of multiple stressors is critical for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. Identifying and overcoming the barriers to interdisciplinary knowledge exchange is necessary in rising to this challenge. Division between ecosystem types and disciplines is largely a human creation. Species and stressors cross these borders and so should the scientists who study them.

    Developmental plasticity and evolutionary explanations
    Uller, Tobias ; Feiner, Nathalie ; Radersma, Reinder ; Jackson, Illiam S.C. ; Rago, Alfredo - \ 2020
    Evolution & Development 22 (2020)1-2. - ISSN 1520-541X - p. 47 - 55.
    developmental plasticity - explanation - idealization - plasticity-first evolution - reaction norm

    Developmental plasticity looks like a promising bridge between ecological and developmental perspectives on evolution. Yet, there is no consensus on whether plasticity is part of the explanation for adaptive evolution or an optional “add-on” to genes and natural selection. Here, we suggest that these differences in opinion are caused by differences in the simplifying assumptions, and particular idealizations, that enable evolutionary explanation. We outline why idealizations designed to explain evolution through natural selection prevent an understanding of the role of development, and vice versa. We show that representing plasticity as a reaction norm conforms with the idealizations of selective explanations, which can give the false impression that plasticity has no explanatory power for adaptive evolution. Finally, we use examples to illustrate why evolutionary explanations that include developmental plasticity may in fact be more satisfactory than explanations that solely refer to genes and natural selection.

    Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research
    Dannheim, Jennifer ; Bergström, Lena ; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. ; Brzana, Radosław ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Mesel, Ilse De; Derweduwen, Jozefien ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Hutchison, Zoë L. ; Jackson, Angus C. ; Janas, Urszula ; Martin, Georg ; Raoux, Aurore ; Reubens, Jan ; Rostin, Liis ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Wilding, Thomas A. ; Wilhelmsson, Dan ; Degraer, Steven ; Norkko, Joanna - \ 2020
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 77 (2020)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1092 - 1108.
    benthos - environmental impact - knowlegde gaps - marine ecology - offshore wind farms - renewable energy
    As the EU's commitment to renewable energy is projected to grow to 20% of energy generation by 2020, the use of marine renewable energy from wind, wave and tidal resources is increasing. This literature review (233 studies) (i) summarizes knowledge on how marine renewable energy devices affect benthic environments, (ii) explains how these effects could alter ecosystem processes that support major ecosystem services and (iii) provides an approach to determine urgent research needs. Conceptual diagrams were set up to structure hypothesized cause-effect relationships (i.e. paths). Paths were scored for (i) temporal and spatial scale of the effect, (ii) benthic sensitivity to these effects, (iii) the effect consistency and iv) scoring confidence, and consecutively ranked. This approach identified prominent knowledge gaps and research needs about (a) hydrodynamic changes possibly resulting in altered primary production with potential consequences for filter feeders, (b) the introduction and range expansion of non-native species (through stepping stone effects) and, (c) noise and vibration effects on benthic organisms. Our results further provide evidence that benthic sensitivity to offshore renewable effects is higher than previously indicated. Knowledge on changes of ecological functioning through cascading effects is limited and requires distinct hypothesis-driven research combined with integrative ecological modelling.
    Revision of the EU-MAP and Work Plan template (STECF-19-12)
    Stransky, C. ; Sala, A. ; Armesto, Angeles ; Avdic, E. ; Berkenhagen, J. ; Cervantes, A.D. ; Dalskov, J. ; Dannewitz, J. ; Davidjuka, I. ; Freese, M. ; Grati, F. ; Jackson, E. ; Kaslauskas, E. ; Koutrakis, E. ; Moutopoulos, D. ; Nermer, T. ; O'Dowd, L. ; Pakarinen, T. ; Renaud, F.G. ; Sakas, R. ; Spedicato, M.T. ; Torreele, E. ; Overzee, H.M.J. van; Verver, S.W. ; Vigneau, J. ; Virtanen, J. ; Visnic, S. ; Warnes, S. ; Woljcik, I. ; Zhelev, K. - \ 2019
    Luxembourg : European Union (Report / Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries STECF-19-12) - ISBN 9789276112556 - 60 p.
    Commission Decision of 25 February 2016 setting up a Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries, C(2016) 1084, OJ C 74, 26.2.2016, p. 4–10. The Commission may consult the group on any matter relating to marine and fisheries biology, fishing gear technology, fisheries economics, fisheries governance, ecosystem effects of fisheries, aquaculture or similar disciplines. This report
    deals with the revision of the EU-MAP and Work Plan template. The Expert Group report was reviewed during the 2019 STECF November plenary meeting during the 2019 STECF November plenary meeting.
    Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
    Tiegs, Scott D. ; Costello, David M. ; Isken, Mark W. ; Woodward, Guy ; McIntyre, Peter B. ; Gessner, Mark O. ; Chauvet, Eric ; Griffiths, Natalie A. ; Flecker, Alex S. ; Acuña, Vicenç ; Albariño, Ricardo ; Allen, Daniel C. ; Alonso, Cecilia ; Andino, Patricio ; Arango, Clay ; Aroviita, Jukka ; Barbosa, Marcus V.M. ; Barmuta, Leon A. ; Baxter, Colden V. ; Bell, Thomas D.C. ; Bellinger, Brent ; Boyero, Luz ; Brown, Lee E. ; Bruder, Andreas ; Bruesewitz, Denise A. ; Burdon, Francis J. ; Callisto, Marcos ; Canhoto, Cristina ; Capps, Krista A. ; Castillo, María M. ; Clapcott, Joanne ; Colas, Fanny ; Colón-Gaud, Checo ; Cornut, Julien ; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica ; Cross, Wyatt F. ; Culp, Joseph M. ; Danger, Michael ; Dangles, Olivier ; Eyto, Elvira De; Derry, Alison M. ; Villanueva, Veronica Díaz ; Douglas, Michael M. ; Elosegi, Arturo ; Encalada, Andrea C. ; Entrekin, Sally ; Espinosa, Rodrigo ; Ethaiya, Diana ; Ferreira, Verónica ; Ferriol, Carmen ; Flanagan, Kyla M. ; Fleituch, Tadeusz ; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J. ; Barbosa, André Frainer ; Friberg, Nikolai ; Frost, Paul C. ; Garcia, Erica A. ; Lago, Liliana García ; Soto, Pavel Ernesto García ; Ghate, Sudeep ; Giling, Darren P. ; Gilmer, Alan ; Gonçalves, José Francisco ; Gonzales, Rosario Karina ; Graça, Manuel A.S. ; Grace, Mike ; Grossart, Hans Peter ; Guérold, François ; Gulis, Vlad ; Hepp, Luiz U. ; Higgins, Scott ; Hishi, Takuo ; Huddart, Joseph ; Hudson, John ; Imberger, Samantha ; Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos ; Iwata, Tomoya ; Janetski, David J. ; Jennings, Eleanor ; Kirkwood, Andrea E. ; Koning, Aaron A. ; Kosten, Sarian ; Kuehn, Kevin A. ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Leavitt, Peter R. ; Lemes Da Silva, Aurea L. ; Leroux, Shawn J. ; LeRoy, Carri J. ; Lisi, Peter J. ; MacKenzie, Richard ; Marcarelli, Amy M. ; Masese, Frank O. ; McKie, Brendan G. ; Medeiros, Adriana Oliveira ; Meissner, Kristian ; Miliša, Marko ; Mishra, Shailendra ; Miyake, Yo ; Moerke, Ashley ; Mombrikotb, Shorok ; Mooney, Rob ; Moulton, Tim ; Muotka, Timo ; Negishi, Junjiro N. ; Neres-Lima, Vinicius ; Nieminen, Mika L. ; Nimptsch, Jorge ; Ondruch, Jakub ; Paavola, Riku ; Pardo, Isabel ; Patrick, Christopher J. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Pozo, Jesus ; Pringle, Catherine ; Prussian, Aaron ; Quenta, Estefania ; Quesada, Antonio ; Reid, Brian ; Richardson, John S. ; Rigosi, Anna ; Rincón, José ; Rîşnoveanu, Geta ; Robinson, Christopher T. ; Rodríguez-Gallego, Lorena ; Royer, Todd V. ; Rusak, James A. ; Santamans, Anna C. ; Selmeczy, Géza B. ; Simiyu, Gelas ; Skuja, Agnija ; Smykla, Jerzy ; Sridhar, Kandikere R. ; Sponseller, Ryan ; Stoler, Aaron ; Swan, Christopher M. ; Szlag, David ; Teixeira-De Mello, Franco ; Tonkin, Jonathan D. ; Uusheimo, Sari ; Veach, Allison M. ; Vilbaste, Sirje ; Vought, Lena B.M. ; Wang, Chiao Ping ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Wilson, Paul B. ; Woelfl, Stefan ; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A. ; Yates, Adam G. ; Yoshimura, Chihiro ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Zhang, Yixin X. ; Zwart, Jacob A. - \ 2019
    Science Advances 5 (2019)1. - ISSN 2375-2548 - p. 14966 - 14973.

    River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.

    Global carbon budget 2019
    Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Jones, Matthew W. ; O'Sullivan, Michael ; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Hauck, Judith ; Peters, Glen P. ; Peters, Wouter ; Pongratz, Julia ; Sitch, Stephen ; Quéré, Corinne Le; Bakker, Dorothee C.E. ; Canadell1, Josep G. ; Ciais1, Philippe ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Anthoni, Peter ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bastos, Ana ; Bastrikov, Vladislav ; Becker, Meike ; Bopp, Laurent ; Buitenhuis, Erik ; Chandra, Naveen ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Currie, Kim I. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Gehlen, Marion ; Gilfillan, Dennis ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Goll, Daniel S. ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Gutekunst, Sören ; Harris, Ian ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Hurtt, George ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul K. ; Joetzjer, Emilie ; Kaplan, Jed O. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Goldewijk, Kees Klein ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lauvset, Siv K. ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Marland, Gregg ; McGuire, Patrick C. ; Melton, Joe R. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Neill, Craig ; Omar, Abdirahman M. ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Peregon, Anna ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rehder, Gregor ; Resplandy, Laure ; Robertson, Eddy ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Séférian, Roland ; Schwinger, Jörg ; Smith, Naomi ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Tubiello, Francesco N. ; Werf, Guido R. Van Der; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sönke - \ 2019
    Earth System Science Data 11 (2019)4. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 1783 - 1838.

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2009-2018), EFF was 9:5±0:5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1:5±0:7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4:9±0:02 GtC yr-1 (2:3±0:01 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN 2:5±0:6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3:2±0:6 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.4 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For the year 2018 alone, the growth in EFF was about 2.1% and fossil emissions increased to 10:0±0:5 GtC yr-1, reaching 10 GtC yr-1 for the first time in history, ELUC was 1:5±0:7 GtC yr-1, for total anthropogenic CO2 emissions of 11:5±0:9 GtC yr-1 (42:5±3:3 GtCO2). Also for 2018, GATM was 5:1±0:2 GtC yr-1 (2:4±0:1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 2:6±0:6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3:5±0:7 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 407:38±0:1 ppm averaged over 2018. For 2019, preliminary data for the first 6-10 months indicate a reduced growth in EFF of C0:6% (range of.0:2% to 1.5 %) based on national emissions projections for China, the USA, the EU, and India and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. Overall, the mean and trend in the five components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959-2018, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. A detailed comparison among individual estimates and the introduction of a broad range of observations shows (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land use change emissions over the last decade, (2) a persistent low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent underestimation of the CO2 variability by ocean models outside the tropics. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2018a, b, 2016, 2015a, b, 2014, 2013). The data generated by this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2019 (Friedlingstein et al., 2019).

    Sustainability-Oriented Ecologies of Learning : A response to systemic global dysfunction
    Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2019
    In: Ecologies for Learning and Practice / Barnett, R., Jackson, N., London : Routledge - ISBN 9781138496859 - 18 p.
    The current sustainability crisis demands a radical reorientation of the way we learn. In this chapter, sustainability is considered an emergent property of an ecology of learning that is a reflexive purposeful mix of actors, perspectives, forms of learning, connections, and support mechanism, driven by an ethical concern for the well-being of people and planet both now and in the future. In this chapter, sustainability-oriented learning is defined as an organic and relational process of continuous framing, reframing, tuning and fine-tuning, disruption and accommodation, and action and reflection, which is guided by a moral compass inspired by an ethic of care. Such learning implies and demands a certain freedom to explore alternative paths of development and new ways of thinking, valuing, and doing. Sustainability-oriented ecologies of learning are visualised as a blended learning space where multiple actors having different backgrounds co-create sustainability organically using a variety of tools, relations, and forms of learning. The concept of whole school or whole institution approaches is introduced as a way to enact such ecologies of learning in a systemic way.
    The landscape of soil carbon data: Emerging questions, synergies and databases
    Malhotra, Avni ; Todd-Brown, Katherine ; Nave, Lucas E. ; Batjes, Niels H. ; Holmquist, James R. ; Hoyt, Alison M. ; Iversen, Colleen M. ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Lajtha, Kate ; Lawrence, Corey ; Vindušková, Olga ; Wieder, William ; Williams, Mathew ; Hugelius, Gustaf ; Harden, Jennifer - \ 2019
    Progress in Physical Geography 43 (2019)5. - ISSN 0309-1333 - p. 707 - 719.
    long-term ecological research - model–data integration - root traits - Soil carbon data - soil carbon stabilization - soil chronosequence - soil database - soil radiocarbon - wetland carbon

    Soil carbon has been measured for over a century in applications ranging from understanding biogeochemical processes in natural ecosystems to quantifying the productivity and health of managed systems. Consolidating diverse soil carbon datasets is increasingly important to maximize their value, particularly with growing anthropogenic and climate change pressures. In this progress report, we describe recent advances in soil carbon data led by the International Soil Carbon Network and other networks. We highlight priority areas of research requiring soil carbon data, including (a) quantifying boreal, arctic and wetland carbon stocks, (b) understanding the timescales of soil carbon persistence using radiocarbon and chronosequence studies, (c) synthesizing long-term and experimental data to inform carbon stock vulnerability to global change, (d) quantifying root influences on soil carbon and (e) identifying gaps in model–data integration. We also describe the landscape of soil datasets currently available, highlighting their strengths, weaknesses and synergies. Now more than ever, integrated soil data are needed to inform climate mitigation, land management and agricultural practices. This report will aid new data users in navigating various soil databases and encourage scientists to make their measurements publicly available and to join forces to find soil-related solutions.

    Macrophage-Specific NF-κB Activation Dynamics Can Segregate Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients
    Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia ; Burkitt, Michael D. ; Bergey, François ; England, Hazel ; Hough, Rachael ; Schmidt, Lorraine ; Spiller, David G. ; White, Michael H.R. ; Paszek, Pawel ; Jackson, Dean A. ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Sellge, Gernot ; Pritchard, D.M. ; Campbell, Barry J. ; Müller, Werner ; Probert, Chris S. - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 11 p.
    The heterogeneous nature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents challenges, particularly when choosing therapy. Activation of the NF-κB transcription factor is a highly regulated, dynamic event in IBD pathogenesis. Using a lentivirus approach, NF-κB-regulated luciferase was expressed in patient macrophages, isolated from frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. Following activation, samples could be segregated into three clusters based on the NF-κB-regulated luciferase response. The ulcerative colitis (UC) samples appeared only in the hypo-responsive Cluster 1, and in Cluster 2. Conversely, Crohn's disease (CD) patients appeared in all Clusters with their percentage being higher in the hyper-responsive Cluster 3. A positive correlation was seen between NF-κB-induced luciferase activity and the concentrations of cytokines released into medium from stimulated macrophages, but not with serum or biopsy cytokine levels. Confocal imaging of lentivirally-expressed p65 activation revealed that a higher proportion of macrophages from CD patients responded to endotoxin lipid A compared to controls. In contrast, cells from UC patients exhibited a shorter duration of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear localization compared to healthy controls, and CD donors. Analysis of macrophage cytokine responses and patient metadata revealed a strong correlation between CD patients who smoked and hyper-activation of p65. These in vitro dynamic assays of NF-κB activation in blood-derived macrophages have the potential to segregate IBD patients into groups with different phenotypes and may therefore help determine response to therapy.
    Nitrogen and phosphorus constrain the CO2 fertilization of global plant biomass
    Terrer, César ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Keenan, Trevor F. ; Kaiser, Christina ; Vicca, Sara ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Hungate, Bruce A. ; Peñuelas, Josep ; McCallum, Ian ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Cernusak, Lucas A. ; Talhelm, Alan F. ; Sundert, Kevin Van; Piao, Shilong ; Newton, Paul C.D. ; Hovenden, Mark J. ; Blumenthal, Dana M. ; Liu, Yi Y. ; Müller, Christoph ; Winter, Klaus ; Field, Christopher B. ; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang ; Lissa, Caspar J. Van; Hoosbeek, Marcel R. ; Watanabe, Makoto ; Koike, Takayoshi ; Leshyk, Victor O. ; Polley, H.W. ; Franklin, Oskar - \ 2019
    Nature Climate Change 9 (2019). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 684 - 689.

    Elevated CO2 (eCO2) experiments provide critical information to quantify the effects of rising CO2 on vegetation1–6. Many eCO2 experiments suggest that nutrient limitations modulate the local magnitude of the eCO2 effect on plant biomass1,3,5, but the global extent of these limitations has not been empirically quantified, complicating projections of the capacity of plants to take up CO2 7,8. Here, we present a data-driven global quantification of the eCO2 effect on biomass based on 138 eCO2 experiments. The strength of CO2 fertilization is primarily driven by nitrogen (N) in ~65% of global vegetation and by phosphorus (P) in ~25% of global vegetation, with N- or P-limitation modulated by mycorrhizal association. Our approach suggests that CO2 levels expected by 2100 can potentially enhance plant biomass by 12 ± 3% above current values, equivalent to 59 ± 13 PgC. The global-scale response to eCO2 we derive from experiments is similar to past changes in greenness9 and biomass10 with rising CO2, suggesting that CO2 will continue to stimulate plant biomass in the future despite the constraining effect of soil nutrients. Our research reconciles conflicting evidence on CO2 fertilization across scales and provides an empirical estimate of the biomass sensitivity to eCO2 that may help to constrain climate projections.

    An architectural understanding of natural sway frequencies in trees
    Jackson, T. ; Shenkin, A. ; Moore, J. ; Bunce, A. ; Emmerik, T. Van; Kane, B. ; Burcham, D. ; James, K. ; Selker, J. ; Calders, K. ; Origo, N. ; Disney, M. ; Burt, A. ; Wilkes, P. ; Raumonen, P. ; Gonzalez De Tanago Menaca, J. ; Lau, A. ; Herold, M. ; Goodman, R.C. ; Fourcaud, T. ; Malhi, Y. - \ 2019
    Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 16 (2019)155. - ISSN 1742-5689 - 9 p.
    The relationship between form and function in trees is the subject of a longstanding debate in forest ecology and provides the basis for theories concerning forest ecosystem structure and metabolism. Trees interact with the wind in a dynamic manner and exhibit natural sway frequencies and damping processes that are important in understanding wind damage. Tree-wind dynamics are related to tree architecture, but this relationship is not well understood. We present a comprehensive view of natural sway frequencies in trees by compiling a dataset of field measurement spanning conifers and broadleaves, tropical and temperate forests. The field data show that a cantilever beam approximation adequately predicts the fundamental frequency of conifers, but not that of broadleaf trees. We also use structurally detailed tree dynamics simulations to test fundamental assumptions underpinning models of natural frequencies in trees. We model the dynamic properties of greater than 1000 trees using a finite-element approach based on accurate three-dimensional model trees derived from terrestrial laser scanning data. We show that (1) residual variation, the variation not explained by the cantilever beam approximation, in fundamental frequencies of broadleaf trees is driven by their architecture; (2) slender trees behave like a simple pendulum, with a single natural frequency dominating their motion, which makes them vulnerable to wind damage and (3) the presence of leaves decreases both the fundamental frequency and the damping ratio. These findings demonstrate the value of new three-dimensional measurements for understanding wind impacts on trees and suggest new directions for improving our understanding of tree dynamics from conifer plantations to natural forests.
    Estimating architecture-based metabolic scaling exponents of tropical trees using terrestrial LiDAR and 3D modelling
    Lau, Alvaro ; Martius, Christopher ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Jackson, Tobias ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Herold, Martin ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick - \ 2019
    Forest Ecology and Management 439 (2019). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 132 - 145.
    The geometric structure of tree branches has been hypothesized to relate to the mechanical safety and efficiency of resource transport within a tree. As such, the topology of tree architecture links physical properties within a tree and influences the interaction of the tree with its environment. Prior work suggests the existence of general principles which govern tree architectural patterns across of species and bio-geographical regions. In particular, West, Brown and Enquist (WBE, 1997) and Savage et al. (2010) derive scaling exponents (branch radius scaling ratio α and branch length scaling ratio β) from symmetrical branch parameters and from these, an architecture-based metabolic scaling rate (θ) for the whole tree. With this key scaling exponent, the metabolism (e.g., number of leaves, respiration, etc.) of a whole tree, or potentially a group of trees, can be estimated allometrically. Until now, branch parameter values have been measured manually; either from standing live trees or from harvested trees. Such measurements are time consuming, labour intensive and susceptible to subjective errors. Remote sensing, and specifically terrestrial LiDAR (TLS), is a promising alternative, being objective, scalable, and able to collect large quantities of data without destructive sampling. In this paper, we calculated branch length, branch radius, and architecture-based metabolic rate scaling exponents by first using TLS to scan standing trees and then fitting quantitative structure models (TreeQSM) models to 3D point clouds from nine trees in a tropical forest in Guyana. To validate these TLS-derived scaling exponents, we compared them with exponents calculated from direct field measurements of all branches >10 cm at four scales: branch-level, cumulative branch order, tree-level and plot-level. We found a bias on the estimations of α and β exponents due to a bias on the reconstruction of the branching architecture. Although TreeQSM scaling exponents predicted similar θ as the manually measured exponents, this was due to the combination of α and β scaling exponents which were both biased. Also, the manually measured α and β scaling exponents diverged from the WBE's theoretical exponents suggesting that trees in tropical environments might not follow the predictions for the symmetrical branching geometry proposed by WBE. Our study provides an alternative method to estimate scaling exponents at both the branch- and tree-level in tropical forest trees without the need for destructive sampling. Although this approach is based on a limited sample of nine trees in Guyana, it can be implemented for large-scale plant scaling assessments. These new data might improve our current understanding of metabolic scaling without harvesting trees
    Data supporting the research of: Estimating architecture-based metabolic scaling exponents of tropical trees using terrestrial LiDAR and 3D modelling
    Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Jackson, T. ; Raumonen, P. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    architecture-based metabolic rate - destructive harvesting - quantitative structure models - terrestrial LiDAR - WBE plant scaling exponent
    Tree architecture influences physical and ecological processes within the tree. Prior work suggested the existence of general principles which govern these processes. Among these, the West, Brown and Enquist (WBE) theory is prominent; it holds that biological function has its origin in a tree's idealized branching system network; from which scaling exponents can be estimated. The scaling exponents of the WBE theory (branch radius scaling ratio, “a” and branch length scaling ratio “b”) can be derived from branch parameters and from these, metabolic scaling rate “ö” can be derived. Until now, branch parameter values are taken from direct measurements; either from standing trees or from harvested trees. Such measurements are time consuming, labour intensive and susceptible to subjective errors. Terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) is a promising alternative, being both less biased to error, scalable, and being able to collect large quantities of data without the need of destructive sampling the trees. In this thesis we estimated scaling exponents and derived metabolic rate from TLS and quantitative structure models (TreeQSM) models from nine trees in a tropical forest in Guyana. To validate these TLS-derived scaling exponents, we compared them with scaling exponents and derived metabolic rate from field measurements at three levels: branch-level, tree-level and plot-level. For that, we destructive sampled the scanned trees and measured all branches > 10 cm. Our results show that, with some limitations, radius, length scaling exponents and architecture-based metabolic rate can be derived from 3D data of tree point clouds. However, we found that only “ö” converged between our TreeQSM modelled and manually measured dataset at both, branch-level (0.59 and 0.50 for TreeQSM and manually measured exponent, respectively) and at tree-level (0.56 and 0.51). Our results did not support the same conclusion for “a” nor “b”- neither at branch-level nor at tree-level. The “a” diverged between TreeQSM and manually measured dataset at branch-level (0:45 and 0.63) and at the tree-level (0.46 and 0.64). The “b” was the exponent which most deviated between TreeQSM and manually measured dataset at branch-level (0.42 and 0.07) and at tree-level (0.41 and 0.05). At tree-level, we found that all estimated averaged exponents deviated significantly from metabolic scaling theory predictions (“a”=1/2 ; “b” =1/3 ; “ö”=3/4 ). Our study provides an alternative method to estimate scaling exponents variation at branch-level and tree-level in tropical forest trees without the need for destructive sampling. Although this approach is based on a limited sample of nine trees in Guyana, can be implemented for large-scale plant scaling assessments. This new data might improve our current understanding of metabolic scaling without harvesting trees.
    Finite element analysis of trees in the wind based on terrestrial laser scanning data
    Jackson, T. ; Shenkin, A. ; Wellpott, A. ; Calders, K. ; Origo, N. ; Disney, M. ; Burt, A. ; Raumonen, P. ; Gardiner, B. ; Herold, M. ; Fourcaud, T. ; Malhi, Y. - \ 2019
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 265 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 137 - 144.
    Critical wind speed - Finite element analysis - Resonant frequency - Terrestrial laser scanning - TLS - Wind damage

    Wind damage is an important driver of forest structure and dynamics, but it is poorly understood in natural broadleaf forests. This paper presents a new approach in the study of wind damage: combining terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data and finite element analysis. Recent advances in tree reconstruction from TLS data allowed us to accurately represent the 3D geometry of a tree in a mechanical simulation, without the need for arduous manual mapping or simplifying assumptions about tree shape. We used this simulation to predict the mechanical strains produced on the trunks of 21 trees in Wytham Woods, UK, and validated it using strain data measured on these same trees. For a subset of five trees near the anemometer, the model predicted a five-minute time-series of strain with a mean cross-correlation coefficient of 0.71, when forced by the locally measured wind speed data. Additionally, the maximum strain associated with a 5 ms−1 or 15 ms-1 wind speed was well predicted by the model (N = 17, R2 = 0.81 and R2 = 0.79, respectively). We also predicted the critical wind speed at which the trees will break from both the field data and models and find a good overall agreement (N = 17, R2 = 0.40). Finally, the model predicted the correct trend in the fundamental frequencies of the trees (N = 20, R2 = 0.38) although there was a systematic underprediction, possibly due to the simplified treatment of material properties in the model. The current approach relies on local wind data, so must be combined with wind flow modelling to be applicable at the landscape-scale or over complex terrain. This approach is applicable at the plot level and could also be applied to open-grown trees, such as in cities or parks.

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