Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
    Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
    Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.

    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.

    Bioraffinage Innovatie Cluster Regio Gelderland (BIC-Gelderland) : Valorisatie lignocellulose-rijke biomassa Fase 1: Technische haalbaarheidsstudie
    Ankone, Bouke ; Jacobs, Anneleen ; Brinkmann, Arjen ; Adriaanse, Michiel ; Bousios, Spyros ; Hooimeijer, Arie ; Jolink, Raymond ; Kooij, Aldert van der; Koene, Joep ; Boer, Louis de; Dijk, Lex van; Beekhuis, Harm ; Budding, Arjan ; Harmsen, Paulien ; Dam, Jan van; Annevelink, Bert ; Keijsers, Edwin ; Ree, René van - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Food & Biobased Research Wageningen UR - 43
    Comparison of volatile trapping techniques for the comprehensive analysis of food flavourings by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    Diez-Simon, Carmen ; Ammerlaan, Brenda ; Berg, Marco van den; Duynhoven, John van; Jacobs, Doris ; Mumm, Roland ; Hall, Robert D. - \ 2020
    Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1624 (2020). - ISSN 0021-9673
    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) - Headspace techniques - Maillard reaction - Process flavors - Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) - Volatiles

    Trapping volatiles is a convenient way to study aroma compounds but it is important to determine which volatile trapping method is most comprehensive in extracting the most relevant aroma components when investigating complex food products. Awareness of their limitations is also crucial. (Un)targeted metabolomic approaches were used to determine the volatile profiles of two commercial flavourings. Four trapping techniques were tested as was the addition of salt to the mixture. Comprehensiveness and repeatability were compared and SBSE proved particularly suitable for extracting components such as polysulfides, pyrazines and terpene alcohols, and provided an overall broader chemical spectrum. SPME proved to be more suitable in extracting sesquiterpenes and DHS in extracting monoterpenes. Adding salt to the sample had only quantitative effects on volatiles as detected by SPME. These results help clarify the advantages and limitations of different trapping techniques and hence deliver a valuable decision tool for food matrix analysis.

    De hittebestendige stad : Een koele kijk op de inrichting van de buitenruimte
    Kluck, Jeroen ; Klok, Lisette ; Solcerová, Anna ; Kleerekoper, Laura ; Wilschut, Liesbath ; Jacobs, Cor ; Loeve, Ronald ; Daniels, E.E. ; Dankers, Rutger - \ 2020
    Amsterdam : Hogeschool van Amsterdam - ISBN 9789492644800 - 128
    openbare ruimte - klimaatadaptatie - warmte - zorg - groene infrastructuur - public space - climate adaptation - heat - care - green infrastructure
    Het klimaat verandert. Het wordt natter en heter. Nederland moet zich aanpassen aan het veranderende klimaat. Daarom staan de gemeenten voor de uitdaging om er vanaf 2020 voor te zorgen dat een (her)inrichting van een straat of wijk klimaatbestendig is. Voor wateroverlast en waterveiligheid weten we ongeveer hoe dat moet. Voor hitte is eigenlijk nog niet duidelijk wat er moet gebeuren. En dat is zorgelijk, want hitte kan grote problemen geven. Hitte kan leiden tot extra sterfte en zal het leven in de stad bovendien steeds vaker onaangenaam maken. Duidelijk is dat er aandacht nodig is op het sociale vlak (o.a. in de zorg), voor gebouwen (koele binnenruimtes) en voor de buitenruimte. Dit rapport richt zich op dat laatste: op het hittebestendig inrichten van de buitenruimte, omdat daar nog veel kennis ontbreekt.
    Visualising blood flagellates infections in transparent zebrafish
    Jacobs, Sem H. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G.F. Wiegertjes; M. Forlenza, co-promotor(en): M.J.M. Lankheet. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463953726 - 226

    Trypanosomes of the Trypanosoma genus are blood flagellates, and important causative agents of diseases of humans, livestock and cold-blooded species. Numerous in vitro studies and infection studies in mice contributed enormously to the insights into the biology of trypanosomes, their interaction with and evasion of the host immune system, as well as into various aspects related to vaccine failure and (uncontrolled) inflammation. A tight regulation of the early innate immune response to trypanosome infections was shown to be critical to obtain a balance between parasite control and inflammation-associated pathology. Trypanosome morphology was observed to be essential for their motility, the adaptation to their host’s environment and pathogenesis. One of the best-studied non-mammalian trypanosomes is Trypanosoma carassii, which presents many morphological similarities to mammalian trypanosomes. T. carassii is regularly observed co-infecting fish with Trypanoplasma spp such as T. borreli. Currently, few or no in vitro studies have been performed to unravel the swimming behaviour and host-pathogen interaction of Trypanoplasma species. For both trypanosomes and trypanoplasma, in vivo studies to visualise the parasite motility and host immune response have not been reported so far.    
    In this thesis we describe for the first time blood flagellate infections in vivo in the natural environment of a vertebrate host (zebrafish). We did this by studying the parasite motility in vitro and in vivo and the kinetics of innate immune responses in vivo. The T. carassii and T. borreli zebrafish infection models are promising complementary models to existing (mammalian) animal models, and can contribute to fundamental mechanistic insights into host-parasite interactions.

    Mogelijke methaanuitstoot bij vernatting van natuurgebieden op organische bodems - Een beperkte literatuurstudie : Technische memo
    Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Kruijt, B. ; Veraart, J.A. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 21 p.
    Aanbevelingen voor directe kwantificering van broeikasgas-balansen van natte natuurgebieden : Technische adviesmemo
    Kruijt, B. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 20 p.
    Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer–Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
    Archambault, Alexi N. ; Su, Yu Ru ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Thomas, Minta ; Lin, Yi ; Conti, David V. ; Win, Aung Ko ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris ; Peterse, Elisabeth F.P. ; Zauber, Ann G. ; Duggan, David ; Holowatyj, Andreana N. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Cotterchio, Michelle ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Southey, Melissa C. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Song, Mingyang ; Cao, Yin ; Woods, Michael O. ; White, Emily ; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharoah, Paul D. ; Moreno, Victor ; Lindblom, Annika ; Wolk, Alicja ; Wu, Anna H. ; Li, Li ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Pearlman, Rachel ; Bishop, D.T. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Moreira, Leticia ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Kampman, Ellen ; Giles, Graham G. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Severi, Gianluca ; Chirlaque, María Dolores ; Sánchez, Maria José ; Palli, Domenico ; Kühn, Tilman ; Murphy, Neil ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N. ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Easton, Douglas F. ; Elliott, Faye ; English, Dallas R. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; FitzGerald, Liesel M. ; Goodman, Phyllis J. ; Hopper, John L. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Hunter, David J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Küry, Sébastien ; Markowitz, Sanford D. ; Milne, Roger L. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Rennert, Gad ; Rennert, Hedy S. ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Sandler, Robert S. ; Seminara, Daniela ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Toland, Amanda E. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Visvanathan, Kala ; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Potter, John D. ; Männistö, Satu ; Weigl, Korbinian ; Figueiredo, Jane ; Martín, Vicente ; Larsson, Susanna C. ; Parfrey, Patrick S. ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Lenz, Heinz Josef ; Castelao, Jose E. ; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela ; Muñoz-Garzón, Victor ; Mancao, Christoph ; Haiman, Christopher A. ; Wilkens, Lynne R. ; Siegel, Erin ; Barry, Elizabeth ; Younghusband, Ban ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Harlid, Sophia ; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne ; Liang, Peter S. ; Du, Mengmeng ; Casey, Graham ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Marchand, Loic Le; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Hampel, Heather ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Hsu, Li ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hayes, Richard B. - \ 2020
    Gastroenterology 158 (2020)5. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 1274 - 1286.e12.
    Colon Cancer - EOCRC - Penetrance - SNP

    Background & Aims: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. Methods: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. Results: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28–4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80–3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10–5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61–5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70–3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. Conclusions: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.

    Review : Synergy between mechanistic modelling and data-driven models for modern animal production systems in the era of big data
    Ellis, J.L. ; Jacobs, M. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Laar, H. van; Cant, J.P. ; Tulpan, D. ; Ferguson, N. - \ 2020
    Animal (2020). - ISSN 1751-7311 - 15 p.
    animal production - digital agriculture - hybridization - machine learning - mechanistic modelling

    Mechanistic models (MMs) have served as causal pathway analysis and 'decision-support' tools within animal production systems for decades. Such models quantitatively define how a biological system works based on causal relationships and use that cumulative biological knowledge to generate predictions and recommendations (in practice) and generate/evaluate hypotheses (in research). Their limitations revolve around obtaining sufficiently accurate inputs, user training and accuracy/precision of predictions on-farm. The new wave in digitalization technologies may negate some of these challenges. New data-driven (DD) modelling methods such as machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) examine patterns in data to produce accurate predictions (forecasting, classification of animals, etc.). The deluge of sensor data and new self-learning modelling techniques may address some of the limitations of traditional MM approaches - access to input data (e.g. sensors) and on-farm calibration. However, most of these new methods lack transparency in the reasoning behind predictions, in contrast to MM that have historically been used to translate knowledge into wisdom. The objective of this paper is to propose means to hybridize these two seemingly divergent methodologies to advance the models we use in animal production systems and support movement towards truly knowledge-based precision agriculture. In order to identify potential niches for models in animal production of the future, a cross-species (dairy, swine and poultry) examination of the current state of the art in MM and new DD methodologies (ML, DL analytics) is undertaken. We hypothesize that there are several ways via which synergy may be achieved to advance both our predictive capabilities and system understanding, being: (1) building and utilizing data streams (e.g. intake, rumination behaviour, rumen sensors, activity sensors, environmental sensors, cameras and near IR) to apply MM in real-time and/or with new resolution and capabilities; (2) hybridization of MM and DD approaches where, for example, a ML framework is augmented by MM-generated parameters or predicted outcomes and (3) hybridization of the MM and DD approaches, where biological bounds are placed on parameters within a MM framework, and the DD system parameterizes the MM for individual animals, farms or other such clusters of data. As animal systems modellers, we should expand our toolbox to explore new DD approaches and big data to find opportunities to increase understanding of biological systems, find new patterns in data and move the field towards intelligent, knowledge-based precision agriculture systems.

    Are urban water bodies really cooling?
    Jacobs, Cor ; Klok, Lisette ; Bruse, Michael ; Cortesão, João ; Lenzholzer, Sanda ; Kluck, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Urban Climate 32 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0955

    Small urban water bodies, like ponds or canals, are often assumed to cool their surroundings during hot periods, when water bodies remain cooler than air during daytime. However, during the night they may be warmer. Sufficient fetch is required for thermal effects to reach a height of 1–2 m, relevant for humans. In the ‘Really cooling water bodies in cities’ (REALCOOL) project thermal effects of typical Dutch urban water bodies were explored, using ENVI-met 4.1.3. This model version enables users to specify intensity of turbulent mixing and light absorption of the water, offering improved water temperature simulations. Local thermal effects near individual water bodies were assessed as differences in air temperature and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The simulations suggest that local thermal effects of small water bodies can be considered negligible in design practice. Afternoon air temperatures in surrounding spaces were reduced by typically 0.2 °C and the maximum cooling effect was 0.6 °C. Typical PET reduction was 0.6 °C, with a maximum of 1.9 °C. Night-time warming effects are even smaller. However, the immediate surroundings of small water bodies can become cooler by means of shading from trees, fountains or water mists, and natural ventilation. Such interventions induce favorable changes in daytime PET.

    Effect of rodent density on tick and tick-borne pathogen populations: Consequences for infectious disease risk
    Krawczyk, Aleksandra I. ; Duijvendijk, Gilian L.A. Van; Swart, Arno ; Heylen, Dieter ; Jaarsma, Ryanne I. ; Jacobs, Frans H.H. ; Fonville, Manoj ; Sprong, Hein ; Takken, Willem - \ 2020
    Parasites & Vectors 13 (2020)1. - ISSN 1756-3305
    Disease risk - Ixodes ricinus - Rodent density - Tick-borne pathogens - Transmission dynamics

    Background: Rodents are considered to contribute strongly to the risk of tick-borne diseases by feeding Ixodes ricinus larvae and by acting as amplifying hosts for pathogens. Here, we tested to what extent these two processes depend on rodent density, and for which pathogen species rodents synergistically contribute to the local disease risk, i.e. the density of infected nymphs (DIN). Methods: In a natural woodland, we manipulated rodent densities in plots of 2500 m2 by either supplementing a critical food source (acorns) or by removing rodents during two years. Untreated plots were used as controls. Collected nymphs and rodent ear biopsies were tested for the presence of seven tick-borne microorganisms. Linear models were used to capture associations between rodents, nymphs, and pathogens. Results: Investigation of data from all plots, irrespective of the treatment, revealed a strong positive association between rodent density and nymphal density, nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) with Borrelia afzelii and Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and hence DIN's of these pathogens in the following year. The NIP, but not the DIN, of the bird-associated Borrelia garinii, decreased with increasing rodent density. The NIPs of Borrelia miyamotoi and Rickettsia helvetica were independent of rodent density, and increasing rodent density moderately increased the DINs. In addition, NIPs of Babesia microti and Spiroplasma ixodetis decreased with increasing rodent density, which had a non-linear association with DINs of these microorganisms. Conclusions: A positive density dependence for all rodent- A nd tick-associated tick-borne pathogens was found, despite the observation that some of them decreased in prevalence. The effects on the DINs were variable among microorganisms, more than likely due to contrasts in their biology (including transmission modes, host specificity and transmission efficiency). The strongest associations were found in rodent-associated pathogens that most heavily rely on horizontal transmission. Our results draw attention to the importance of considering transmission mode of a pathogen while developing preventative measures to successfully reduce the burden of disease.

    Characterization of goat prions demonstrates geographical variation of scrapie strains in Europe and reveals the composite nature of prion strains
    Nonno, Romolo ; Marina Moreno, Alberto ; Espinosa, J.C. ; Fast, C. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Spiropoulos, J. ; Lantier, Isabelle ; Andrèoletti, Olivier ; Pirisinu, L. ; Bari, M.A. Di; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia ; Sklaviadis, Theodoros ; Papasavva-Stylianou, P. ; Acutis, Pier Luigi ; Acin, C. ; Bossers, A. ; Jacobs, Jorge G. ; Vaccari, G. ; Agostino, C. D'; Chiappini, B. ; Lantier, F. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Agrimi, U. ; Torres, Juan Maria ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the only animal prion which has been recognized as a zoonotic agent so far. The identification of BSE in two goats raised the need to reliably identify BSE in small ruminants. However, our understanding of scrapie strain diversity in small ruminants remains ill-defined, thus limiting the accuracy of BSE surveillance and spreading fear that BSE might lurk unrecognized in goats. We investigated prion strain diversity in a large panel of European goats by a novel experimental approach that, instead of assessing the neuropathological profile after serial transmissions in a single animal model, was based on the direct interaction of prion isolates with several recipient rodent models expressing small ruminants or heterologous prion proteins. The findings show that the biological properties of scrapie isolates display different patterns of geographical distribution in Europe and suggest that goat BSE could be reliably discriminated from a wide range of biologically and geographically diverse goat prion isolates. Finally, most field prion isolates showed composite strain features, with discrete strain components or sub-strains being present in different proportions in individual goats or tissues. This has important implications for understanding the nature and evolution of scrapie strains and their transmissibility to other species, including humans.
    Breast milk and erythrocyte fatty acid composition of lactating women residing in a peri‑urban South African township
    Siziba, Linda P. ; Chimhashu, Tsitsi ; Siro, Sicelosethu S. ; Ngounda, Jennifer Osei ; Jacobs, Adriaan ; Malan, Linda ; Smuts, Cornelius M. ; Baumgartner, Jeannine - \ 2020
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 156 (2020). - ISSN 0952-3278
    Breast milk - Fatty acids - Lactating mothers - Maternal fatty acid status

    Data on breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition in South African lactating women in relation to their FA status, as well as on potential compositional changes within feed, are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the FA composition of breast milk sampled at three time points within feed, and to determine associations with red blood cell (RBC) total phospholipid FA levels in lactating South African mothers of 2–4-month-old breastfed infants. FA composition (% total FAs) was analyzed in RBC total phospholipids, and in fore-, mid-feed and hind-milk samples of lactating mothers (n = 100) of Black African descent living in a peri‑urban township. The mean age of the lactating women was 27.8 ± 6.8 years. Geometric mean (95% CI) breast milk SFA, MUFA and PUFA contents were 37.7 (37.3,38.1), 28.5 (27.9, 28.8), and 23.5 (23.2, 24.5)%, respectively. Breast milk DHA and AA contents were 0.25 (0.24, 3.71) and 0.81 (0.79, 0.83)%, respectively, in fore-, mid- and hind-milk combined. Maternal RBC EPA, DHA and AA levels were 0.37 (0.34, 0.40), 3.8 (3.6, 4.0) and 15.4 (14.8, 16.1)%, respectively. Women who reported to consume fish often (n = 3) had significantly higher RBC EPA levels than women who consumed fish sometimes (n = 56), never (n = 14) or rarely (n = 19). Breast milk DHA positively correlated with maternal RBC DHA, while no correlations were found between breast milk AA and maternal RBC AA. Breast milk ALA and DHA contents were significantly higher in mid-feed [ALA= 0.8 (0.2, 0.2), DHA=0.3 (0.2, 0.3)] and hind-milk [ALA=0.8 (0.8, 0.9), DHA=0.3 (0.3, 0.3)] than foremilk [ALA=0.8 (0.7, 0.9), DHA=0.2 (0.2, 0.3)]. In contrast, LA and AA contents remained constant within feed. In this sample of peri‑urban South African lactating mothers, breast milk was low in DHA and high in AA compared to global means. Breast milk DHA was associated with maternal RBC status, while breast milk AA was not. We further showed that breast milk ALA and DHA increased, while LA and AA remained unchanged within feed. This suggests that n-3 PUFA maybe preferentially transferred to breast milk within feed through biomagnification.

    Understanding the acceptability of wolf management actions: Roles of cognition and emotion
    Straka, Tanya M. ; Miller, Kelly ; Jacobs, M.H. - \ 2020
    Human Dimensions of Wildlife 25 (2020)1. - ISSN 1087-1209 - p. 33 - 46.
    Wolf management actions are seldom universally accepted and understanding diverse opinions is of value for conservation practitioners. Previous research has either investigated cognitions or emotions to understand public acceptability of wolf management actions. We investigated both concepts simultaneously to identify whether their predictive potentials are mutually exclusive. A survey measuring wildlife value orientations, valence (positive-negative emotions) toward wolves, and responses to wolf management actions (doing nothing, public education, lethal control) was completed by 597 Dutch and German university students. Valence predicted the acceptability of all wolf management actions. Wildlife value orientations predicted the acceptability of lethal control and partially public education but not of doing nothing. Emotions thus added predictive potential next to cognitions to understand responses to wolf management actions. For both research and practice, it is important to acknowledge that the acceptability of wolf management actions is not only guided by what people think, but also by what they feel.
    Cognitive and Affective Predictors of Illinois Residents’ Perceived Risks from Gray Wolves
    Landon, A. ; Jacobs, M.H. ; Miller, C.A. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Williams, B. - \ 2020
    Society & Natural Resources 33 (2020)5. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 574 - 593.
    Increasing wolf populations are a concern for wildlife managers inthe Midwestern U.S. Understanding the psychological mechanismsthat contribute to public perceptions of risk will enable developmentof strategies that seek to mitigate these risks, and suggest where outreach efforts may facilitate acceptance of wolves. We examined the psychological factors that influence Illinois residents’ perceived risks from wolves. We hypothesized that individuals’ perceived risks from wolves were a function of their attitudes toward wolves, negative affect toward wolves, and basic beliefs about wildlife. Data were obtained from a survey of the Illinois public (n¼784). Negative affect and attitudes toward wolves were direct predictors of perceived risks. Basic beliefs predicted attitudes and negative affect toward wolves. Negative affect predicted attitudes. Basic beliefs had direct and indirect effects on perceived risks.
    Generating applicable urban design knowledge
    Cortesão, João ; Lenzholzer, Sanda ; Klok, Lisette ; Jacobs, Cor ; Kluck, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Journal of Urban Design 25 (2020)3. - ISSN 1357-4809 - p. 293 - 307.

    This article explores how the combination of research approaches in Research Through Design (RTD) can contribute to generating applicable urban design knowledge. The article is based on learnings from the ‘Really cooling water bodies in cities’ project, a pragmatist RTD combining post-positivist, constructivist and transformative/participatory approaches along six design iterations. The results indicate that the combination of research approaches in RTD can contribute to generating applicable urban design knowledge when the approaches are carefully chosen and combined as to provide feedback on each other, based on a coherent rationale driven by clear research questions and goals.

    Veehouderij en Gezondheid Omwonenden III: Longontsteking in de nabijheid van geitenhouderijen in Gelderland, Overijssel en Utrecht
    Smit, Lidwien ; Huss, Anke ; Jacobs, José ; Baliatsas, Christos ; Dückers, Michel ; Boender, Gert Jan ; McCarthy, Catharine ; Hagenaars, Thomas ; IJzermans, Joris ; Heederik, Dick - \ 2019
    Utrecht : Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Universiteit Utrecht - 39
    Drie wolven zijn al maandenlang spoorloos
    Jacobs, Maarten - \ 2019
    Trypanosome-host interaction revealed through the zebrafish looking glass
    Jacobs, S.H. ; Doro, E. ; Hammond, Ffion ; Brugman, S. ; Nguyen-Chi, Mai ; Wiegertjes, G. ; Forlenza, M. - \ 2019
    Fish and Shellfish Immunology 91 (2019). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 443 - 443.
    Trypanosoma carassii is an extracellular blood parasite of cyprinid fish phylogenetically closely related to Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of the sleeping sickness disease in humans and livestock. Motility is crucial for trypanosome pathogenicity, but real-time visualization of parasite movement in vivo, in the natural host environment, has not been reported thus far. In this study, we report the establishment of T. carassii infection in zebrafish (Danio rerio), which allowed us, for the first time in a vertebrate host, to characterize in details the movement of trypanosomes in vivo. By combining the transparency of zebrafish larvae with the availability of several transgenic lines marking macrophages, neutrophils, cytokine-expressing leukocytes and endothelial cells, we were able to study in real-time: 1) parasite movement in vivo; 2) the kinetics of innate immune responses; and 3) parasite interaction with host (immune) cells. Our results indicate that during T. carassii infection of young zebrafish a differential macrophages and neutrophils response is observed. Macrophages responded more prominently than neutrophils by proliferating, and were massively recruited to blood vessels. Macrophages also exhibited heterogeneous morphologies and a strong pro-inflammatory profile. In fact, they were strongly positive for Tnfα and Il-1β and had a morphology characteristic of foamy macrophages. Large foamy macrophages accumulated in the portal vein of highly infected individuals, and were strongly positive for lipid staining, which revealed the abundance of lipid bodies in their cytoplasm. Finally, with respect to parasite movement and interaction with the host, using high-speed videography, we were able to capture novel mechanisms of parasite-host cell interaction, and to follow the onset of anemia, vasodilation and extravasation typical of trypanosome infections. Altogether, this is the first report of an in vivo trypanosome infection model in a natural vertebrate host describing both, the pathogen behavior and the host response. Considering that trypanosomes can infect all vertebrates, including humans, livestock and fish, our infection model is a relevant complementary tool to gain more insights in the underlying mechanisms of trypanosome infections.
    To what extent do values and emotion guide risk perception?
    Jacobs, Maarten ; Zainal Abidin, Zulkhairi - \ 2019
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