Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Nature-based innovation systems
Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der; Raven, Rob ; Dorst, Hade ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2019
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (2019). - ISSN 2210-4224
Environmental governance - Geography of transitions - Nature-based solutions - Sustainability transitions - Technological innovation systems - Urban development

Transitions literature regards technologies as critical components in shifting systems towards sustainability, which has informed the development of the technology-oriented Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework. The emerging discourse on nature-based solutions (NBS) – multifunctional nature-integrated spatial planning and design innovations – raises the question to what extent TIS can account for the development and diffusion of NBS. Following a literature review, we present the Nature-Based Innovation System (NBIS) framework delineating critical factors for urban nature-based innovation. We find both commonalities and differences between TIS and NBIS, suggesting that the roles of place-based dynamics, agency and governance structure are more central to nature-based innovation, and market formation is more central to technological innovation. This has implications for the study of sustainability transitions, which has likely underplayed the potential of innovations at the nexus of socio-technical and socio-ecological systems. Future research is needed to refine the NBIS framework, for example by studying evolutionary developmental trajectories.

Shellfish bed restoration pilots Voordelta, Netherlands : Annual report 2018
Didderen, K. ; Have, Tom van der; Bergsma, J.H. ; Jagt, H. van der; Lengkeek, Wouter ; Kamermans, P. ; Brink, A.M. van den; Maathuis, Margot ; Sas, Hein - \ 2019
Wageningen Marine Research - 68 p.
Urban greening through nature-based solutions – Key characteristics of an emerging concept
Dorst, Hade ; Jagt, Alexander van der; Raven, Rob ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2019
Sustainable Cities and Society 49 (2019). - ISSN 2210-6707
Ecosystem-based adaptation - Environmental governance - Green infrastructure - Multifunctionality - Performance-based planning - Sustainable cities

As a result of urbanisation and climate change, many cities experience the necessity of efficient and sustainable land use. Nature-Based Solutions (NBS)are interventions that address social, economic and environmental sustainability issues simultaneously, thereby presenting a multifunctional, solution-oriented approach to increasing urban sustainability. As elements of the emerging NBS concept resemble related, existing approaches to urban greening, this review assesses the implications of this concept for discourse and practice in urban greening. The paper identifies key NBS principles and compares them with those of Ecosystem-Based Adaptation (EBA)and Green Infrastructure (GI). Key differences emerge: the NBS concept incorporates a broader array of interventions and a broader range of perspectives on what qualifies as ‘nature-based’, and it is most explicitly oriented towards providing solutions to complex challenges. NBS implementation could therefore benefit from a more performance-based planning approach; a flexible approach to urban planning which accommodates the integration of multiple land uses and considers urban complexity. We conclude that the NBS concept has potential to unite currently segregated bodies of knowledge generated as part of related approaches to urban greening, and can enable researchers and policymakers to more explicitly discuss the role of nature in addressing a broad range of sustainability challenges.

Urban green infrastructure – connecting people and nature for sustainable cities
Pauleit, Stephan ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Jagt, Sander Van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 1 - 3.
Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe : Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project
Pauleit, Stephan ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kronenberg, Jakub ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Rall, Emily ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 4 - 16.
Green governance and planning - Green infrastructure - GREEN SURGE - Sustainable urbanisation - Urban learning labs

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human–nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

Mosaic governance for urban green infrastructure: Upscaling active citizenship from a local government perspective
Buijs, Arjen ; Hansen, Rieke ; Jagt, Sander Van Der; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Elands, Birgit ; Lorance Rall, Emily ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Pauleit, Stephan ; Runhaar, Hens ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Steen Møller, Maja - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 53 - 62.
Compact urban development, social demands and austerity measures are increasing pressures on urban greenspace. Meanwhile, active citizens, defined as voluntary individuals or groups who self-organize to contribute to urban green space development, provide ecological and social benefits to urban societies. This has inspired local governments to seek collaborations with non-state actors, including active citizens. However, the diverging aims, place-specific focus, and varying expertise of active citizenship may inhibit its contribution to ecological connectivity and upscaling beyond the local scale.
In this paper, we investigate how “mosaic governance” has potential as a framework for understanding active citizenship, its potential for upscaling and its relationship to strategic UGI planning. Using the policy arrangements approach, we analyse the role of discourse, resources, actors and rules of the game in the upscaling of active citizenship. Based on eight empirical cases from seven European cities, we analyse the diversity of collaborations between local governments and active citizens in greenspace development.
The cases show how active citizens can significantly contribute to UGI planning and implementation, for example by developing large parks with volunteers or designing a network of green corridors. The cases reveal multiple ways citizens and local governments benefit from collaborations, as well as different pathways for upscaling innovative discourses and practices from local communities to formal policy or to other cities. To enable upscaling, UGI planning needs to combine long-term, more formalized and higher-scale strategic approaches with more incremental approaches that correspond with localized, fragmented and informal efforts of local communities. While collaborations between municipalities and active citizenship is not without its difficulties, the examples of upscaling in our cases demonstrate the transformative power active citizens may have towards a more green, just and democratic city.
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for cattle stature identifies common genes that regulate body size in mammals
Bouwman, Aniek C. ; Daetwyler, Hans D. ; Chamberlain, Amanda J. ; Ponce, Carla Hurtado ; Sargolzaei, Mehdi ; Schenkel, Flavio S. ; Sahana, Goutam ; Govignon-Gion, Armelle ; Boitard, Simon ; Dolezal, Marlies ; Pausch, Hubert ; Brøndum, Rasmus F. ; Bowman, Phil J. ; Thomsen, Bo ; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt ; Lund, Mogens S. ; Servin, Bertrand ; Garrick, Dorian J. ; Reecy, James ; Vilkki, Johanna ; Bagnato, Alessandro ; Wang, Min ; Hoff, Jesse L. ; Schnabel, Robert D. ; Taylor, Jeremy F. ; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E. ; Panitz, Frank ; Bendixen, Christian ; Holm, Lars Erik ; Gredler, Birgit ; Hozé, Chris ; Boussaha, Mekki ; Sanchez, Marie Pierre ; Rocha, Dominique ; Capitan, Aurelien ; Tribout, Thierry ; Barbat, Anne ; Croiseau, Pascal ; Drögemüller, Cord ; Jagannathan, Vidhya ; Vander Jagt, Christy ; Crowley, John J. ; Bieber, Anna ; Purfield, Deirdre C. ; Berry, Donagh P. ; Emmerling, Reiner ; Götz, Kay Uwe ; Frischknecht, Mirjam ; Russ, Ingolf ; Sölkner, Johann ; Tassell, Curtis P. van; Fries, Ruedi ; Stothard, Paul ; Veerkamp, Roel F. ; Boichard, Didier ; Goddard, Mike E. ; Hayes, Ben J. - \ 2018
Nature Genetics 50 (2018). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 362 - 367.
Stature is affected by many polymorphisms of small effect in humans1. In contrast, variation in dogs, even within breeds, has been suggested to be largely due to variants in a small number of genes2,3. Here we use data from cattle to compare the genetic architecture of stature to those in humans and dogs. We conducted a meta-analysis for stature using 58,265 cattle from 17 populations with 25.4 million imputed whole-genome sequence variants. Results showed that the genetic architecture of stature in cattle is similar to that in humans, as the lead variants in 163 significantly associated genomic regions (P < 5 × 10−8) explained at most 13.8% of the phenotypic variance. Most of these variants were noncoding, including variants that were also expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and in ChIP–seq peaks. There was significant overlap in loci for stature with humans and dogs, suggesting that a set of common genes regulates body size in mammals.
Cultivating nature-based solutions : The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union
Jagt, Alexander van der; Száraz, Luca ; Delshammar, Tim ; Cvejić, R. ; Santos, Artur ; Goodness, Julie ; Buijs, A.E. - \ 2017
Environmental Research 159 (2017). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 264 - 275.
In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a nature-based solution (NbS). However, the mechanisms by which institutional actors can best support and facilitate CUG are understudied, which could create a gap between aspiration and reality. The aim of this study is therefore to identify what governance arrangements contribute to CUG delivering social resilience. Through the EU GREEN SURGE project, we studied six CUG initiatives from five EU-countries, representing different planning regimes and traditions. We selected cases taking a locally unique or innovative approach to dealing with urban challenges. A variety of actors associated with each of the cases were interviewed to achieve as complete a picture as possible regarding important governance arrangements. A cross-case comparison revealed a range of success factors, varying from
clearly formulated objectives and regulations, municipal support, financial resources and social capital through to the availability of local food champions and facilitators engaging in community building. Municipalities can support CUG initiatives by moving beyond a rigid focus on top-down control, while involved citizens can increase the impact of CUG by pursuing political, in addition to hands-on, activities. We conclude that CUG has clear potential to act as a nature-based solution if managed with sensitivity to local dynamics and context.
The long-term prospects of citizens managing urban green space : From place making to place-keeping?
Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der; Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Erlwein, S. ; Lafortezza, R. - \ 2017
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 26 (2017). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 78 - 84.
This paper discusses the long-term management or ‘place-keeping’ of urban green space by citizens and highlights enabling and constraining factors that play a crucial role in this continuity. While authorities have historically been in charge of managing public green spaces, there is an increased involvement of citizens in green space management. It is therefore relevant to study how citizens can contribute towards place-keeping and realize a continuity in managing and conserving the qualities of urban green spaces. We contribute to these debates by looking at three European cases characterized by long-term involvement of citizens in place-keeping. We conducted document analysis and interviewing of key informants to study green space management over time. Our analysis highlights what factors have contributed towards the continuity of
this management, but also shows challenges and difficulties which citizens have experienced. Based on our fieldwork, we identify three factors of particular relevance for the continuity of place-keeping involving citizens. We found that long-term continuity is supported by a degree of formalization: established rules and procedures within groups provide stability to citizens. We also highlight the importance of adaptive capacity: citizens need to be able to adapt to contextual changes in order to cope with external political, socio-economic and cultural developments over time. The supporting role of authorities was also key in legitimizing and supporting placekeeping by citizens. Authorities can support place-keeping by citizens by providing security via stable policies,
formally protecting the involved spaces, allowing long-term management contracts and contributing resources.
Considering the ways biocultural diversity helps enforce the urban green infrastructure in times of urban transformation
Vierikko, Kati ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Niemela, J. ; Andersson, Erik ; Buijs, A.E. ; Fischer, Leonie Katharina ; Haase, Dagmar ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kabisch, Nadja ; Luz, Ana Catarina ; Stahl, Anton Olafsson ; Száraz, Luca ; Jagt, Alexander van der; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil - \ 2017
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 22 (2017). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 7 - 12.
Traditionally, biocultural diversity (BCD) has been researched in non-western and indigenous societies. Recently, it has also been applied in urbanized and industrialized societies, in particular for the planning and management of urban green infrastructure (UGI). Diversity in human and biological systems is considered to support cities’ adaptation capacity. However, diversity might also increase the risk of conflicts. In this paper, we discuss not only how the BCD approach could strengthen studies on human–nature interactions in an urban context, but also the potential pitfalls of applying BCD. By means of two examples of BCD research, that is people in-places and people-making UGI in cities, we argue that BCD as a reflexive concept can strengthen UGI planning and management.
Active citizenship for urban green infrastructure : fostering the diversity and dynamics of citizen contributions through mosaic governance
Buijs, Arjen E. ; Mattijssen, Thomas J.M. ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Elands, Birgit H.M. ; Steen Møller, Maja - \ 2016
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 22 (2016). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 6.

Active citizens may contribute to the environmental, social, and institutional resilience of cities. This review discusses how citizen initiatives protect biodiversity hotspots, contribute to social cohesion, institutional innovation, and diversity in urban green space management. Challenges related to social inclusiveness, ecological connectivity and continuity suggest government involvement is pertinent, but needs to be refocused. To maximise environmental outcomes of active citizenship, governments may adopt an enabling and stimulating governance style that harnesses the transformative potential of active citizenship. This paper argues for mosaic governance to work with the heterogeneous array of people, institutions, and spatial practices associated with active citizenship. Mosaic governance aims for a context-sensitive way of urban green infrastructure planning, enhancing relationships between the diversity of landscapes and communities across cities.

Participatory governance of urban green spaces: Trends and practices in the EU
Jagt, Alexander van der; Elands, B.H.M. ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Gerőházi, E. ; Steen Moller, Maja ; Buizer, I.M. - \ 2016
Nordic Journal of Architectural Research 28 (2016)3. - ISSN 1893-5281 - p. 11 - 40.
Green spaces provide a variety of benefits that contribute to more
healthy and attractive cities. This paper, building upon results of the EU
FP7 GREEN SURGE project, aims to identify, describe and categorize innovative
participatory governance practices characterized by non-governmental
actor involvement in the maintenance, decision-making or management
of urban green spaces. A total of 20 cities in 14 EU-countries were
studied and for each of these, information on participatory governance
arrangements was acquired using a multi-method approach. This was a
combination of: a) semi-structured interviews with green space planning
city officials, b) desk studies, and c) analysis of planning documents with
relevance to urban green space. We identified four broad trends influencing
participatory governance policies and practices in the EU, and we
categorized participatory governance practices relating to urban green
spaces into seven clusters. To capture and compare between different
cities and countries the different ways in which non-governmental actors
are involved in urban green space governance, we introduced a participatory
governance matrix. The matrix has two dimensions: “mode of
governance” (ranging from government regulation to self-governance)
and “means of participation” (ranging from more structural institutional
influence to influence through hands-on activities). By considering participatory
governance practices along with trends at a European level,
practitioners are provided with an improved understanding of how to
harness the potential of civil society in urban green space management,
now and into the future.
Advances urban green infrastructure planning and implementation : innovative approaches and strategies from European cities
Hansen, R. ; Rolf, W. ; Rall, E. ; Pauleit, S. ; Erlwein, S. ; Fohlmeister, S. ; Santos, A. ; Luz, A.C. ; Branquinho, C. ; Santos-Reis, M. ; Gerőházi, E. ; Száraz, L. ; Tosics, I. ; Davies, C. ; DeBellis, Y. ; Lafortezza, R. ; Vierikko, K. ; Jagt, A. van der; Cvejić, R. ; Zeleznikar, S. ; Nastran, M. ; Pintar, M. ; Hjorth Caspersen, O. ; Olafsson, A.S. ; Gentin, S. ; Kronenberg, J. ; Delshammar, T. ; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Otten, R. - \ 2016
University of Copenhagen (Greensurge ) - 204 p.
Innovative Governance of Urban Green Spaces : Learning from 18 innovative examples across Europe
Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Havik, Gilles ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Gerőházi, Eva ; Jagt, Alesander van der; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Steen Møller, Maja ; Vierikko, Kati - \ 2016
University of Copenhagen (Project Green Surge ENV.2013.6.2-5-603567; 2013-2017) - 177 p.
Assessment framework for urban green space governance arrangment milestone 40. : Innovative governance of urban green spaces and biocutural diversity
Buijs, A.E. ; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Jagt, Alesander van der; Delshammar, Tim ; Santos, Arthur ; Fors, Hanna ; Gerohazi, Eva ; Tosic, Ivan ; Vierikko, Kati ; Hansen, Rieke ; Nastran, Mojca - \ 2015
EU (Project Green Surge MS40 EU FP7) - 38 p.
Quantification of infectious bronchitis coronavirus by titration in vitro and in ovo
Kint, Joeri ; Maier, Helena Jane ; Jagt, Erik - \ 2015
In: Coronaviruses: Methods and Protocols Springer New York LLC - ISBN 9781493924387 - p. 89 - 98.
EID - Plaque-forming units - TCID - Titration

Quantification of the number of infectious viruses in a sample is a basic virological technique. In this chapter we provide a detailed description of three techniques to estimate the number of viable infectious avian coronaviruses in a sample. All three techniques are serial dilution assays, better known as titrations.

Waardestellend onderzoek Renkumse landgoederen : themanummer over kennisco-creatie in wetenschapswinkelprojecten
During, R. ; Jagt, P.D. van der; Kruit, J. - \ 2015
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 135 - 141.
landgoederen - buitenplaatsen - participatie - waarden - conflict - kennisvalorisatie - samenwerking - estates - country estates - participation - values - knowledge exploitation - cooperation
Een deel van de Nederlandse landschappen is ontworpen door landschapsarchitecten. Landschapsvorming is echter niet de enige functie van het ontwerp, betogen we in dit artikel. In een participatief ontwerpproces voor het Europaplein in Renkum bestudeerden we de verschillende functies van ontwerpen. Ondanks het feit dat die kunnen conflicteren, blijken ze op verschillende wijze een zeer productieve bijdrage te leveren aan het verloop van het proces.
Tijdelijk gebruik als antwoord op braakligging
Kruit, J. ; Jagt, P.D. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 310) - ISBN 9789461738813 - 48
stedelijke terreinen - braak - tijdigheid - buurtactie - stedelijke samenleving - urban sites - fallow - timeliness - community action - urban society
Een tijdelijke vrije ruimte midden in de wijk is een schatkamer voor een buurt. Met dit beeld voor ogen gingen actieve buurtbewoners en ouders van een aangrenzende school in 2012 aan de slag met plannen en ideeën om iets te doen met een tijdelijk braakliggend terrein. Doel van dit rapport: achterhalen hoe de buurt het tijdelijk gebruik heeft ervaren, met als achterliggend idee anderen onderbouwd te kunnen ondersteunen ook zoiets te doen. Een aanvullende vraag is wat tijdelijk gebruik nu interessant maakt en voor wie.
Renkumse landgoederen en buitenplaatsen : vista's participatie
During, R. ; Jagt, P.D. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 320) - ISBN 9789462573857 - 86
landgoederen - buitenplaatsen - erfgoed - landschapsbeheer - veluwe - estates - country estates - heritage areas - landscape management
De Veluwezoom is rijk aan landgoederen en buitenplaatsen. Alleen al binnen de gemeente Renkum is er een dertigtal aanwezig. Dit maakt de zuidelijke Veluwezoom en de gemeente Renkum in het bijzonder tot een bijzonder fraai gebied, dat vanouds veel bezoekers trekt. Het jaar 2012 stond in het teken van de buitenplaatsen en landgoederen en dit heeft geleid tot een groot aantal initiatieven om de bekendheid bij het publiek te vergroten en om herstelwerkzaamheden op de agenda te zetten. Eén van de initiatieven behelsde het samenstellen van een Atlas van het buitenplaatsenlandschap van dit Gelders Arcadië. Deze atlas maakt in één oogopslag duidelijk hoe omvangrijk het cultuurbezit is en dat er goed beleid nodig is om dit duurzaam te beheren. De gemeente Renkum heeft de follow up van het Jaar van de Historische Buitenplaatsen vormgegeven met een visievormend project. Echter werd de stap van de atlas met daarin nog slechts de inventarisatie van buitenplaatsen en landgoederen en de visie op het benutten, behouden en beheren, door een aantal bezorgde burgers van Oosterbeek te groot geacht. Deze hebben zich verenigd in de Initiatiefgroep Visie voor Landgoederen. Ze hebben een sterk pleidooi gehouden om eerst een waardestellend onderzoek te laten plaatsvinden voordat er gewerkt kan worden aan visievorming. Dit wetenschapswinkelrapport geeft een invulling aan deze wens en is grotendeels gebaseerd op het onderzoek van studenten van de WUR en van de TUDelft.
The governance of urban green spaces in selected EU-cities : Policies, Practices, Actors, Topics
Buizer, I.M. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Jagt, A.P.N. ; Ambrose, B. ; Geroházi, E. ; Santos, E. - \ 2015
EU (Project GREEN SURGE D6.1 EU FP7) - 97
groenbeheer - stadsomgeving - governance - participatie - groene infrastructuur - openbaar groen - management of urban green areas - urban environment - participation - green infrastructure - public green areas
In a time of continuing urbanization, there is an increasing focus on developing attractive and healthy urban environments. Green spaces, ranging from woodlands and parks to allotment gardens and green roofs, provide a range of ecosystem services that contribute to better cities (Lovell and Taylor, 2013). The Green Infrastructure and Urban Biodiversity for Sustainable Urban Development and the Green Economy project (GREEN SURGE in brief), funded under the EU’s 7th Framework Programme for research, will identify, develop and test ways of linking green spaces, biodiversity, people and the green economy in order to meet the major urban challenges related to land use conflicts, climate change adaptation, demographic changes and human health and well being. The contents of this report are based on work conducted in Work Package 6, one of the eight Work Packages of GREEN SURGE. Work Package 6 focuses on governance arrangements for urban green spaces. In this report, we discuss the findings of the GREEN SURGE Work Package 6 Tier 1 research on identifying and conceptualising innovative participatory governance arrangements in regards to the management of urban green infrastructure.
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