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Challenges to Quantify Total Vitamin Activity: How to Combine the Contribution of Diverse Vitamers?
Jakobsen, Jette ; Melse-Boonstra, Alida ; Rychlik, Michael - \ 2019
Current Developments in Nutrition 3 (2019)10. - ISSN 2475-2991
folate - foods - total vitamin activity - vitamer - Vitamin A - Vitamin D
This state-of-the-art review aims to highlight the challenges in quantifying vitamin activity in foods that contain several vitamers of a group, using as examples the fat-soluble vitamins A and D as well as the water-soluble folate. The absorption, metabolism, and physiology of these examples are described along with the current analytical methodology, with an emphasis on approaches to standardization. Moreover, the major food sources for the vitamins are numerated. The article focuses particularly on outlining the so-called SLAMENGHI factors influencing a vitamer's' ability to act as a vitamin, that is, molecular species, linkage, amount, matrix, effectors of absorption, nutrition status, genetics, host-related factors, and the interaction of these. After summarizing the current approaches to estimating the total content of each vitamin group, the review concludes by outlining the research gaps and future perspectives in vitamin analysis. There are no standardized methods for the quantification of the vitamers of vitamin A, vitamin D, and folate in foods. For folate and β-carotene, a difference in vitamer activity between foods and supplements has been confirmed, whereas no difference has been observed for vitamin D. For differences in vitamer activity between provitamin A carotenoids and retinol, and between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D, international consensus is lacking. The challenges facing each of the specific vitamin communities are the gaps in knowledge about bioaccessibility and bioavailability for each of the various vitamers. The differences between the vitamins make it difficult to formulate a common strategy for assessing the quantitative differences between the vitamers. In the future, optimized stationary digestive models and the more advanced dynamic digestive models combined with in vitro models for bioavailability could more closely resemble in vivo results. New knowledge will enable us to transfer nutrient recommendations into improved dietary advice to increase public health throughout the human life cycle.
Exploring plants as support-systems for the space missions of tomorrow
Marcelis, Leo - \ 2018
As we set for long-term space missions far from our own planet, we need to be capable of regenerating resources essential to human life. Øyvind Mejdell Jakobsen and Ann-Iren Kittang Jost tell us about the TIME SCALE project’s work in developing technologies and know-how to support the space exploration missions of the future.
Uniformity in birth weight is heritable in Norwegian White Sheep
Sae-Lim, Panya ; Jakobsen, Jette H. ; Mulder, H.A. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. - WCGALP - 6 p.
Sheep - Birth weight - Uniformity - Maternal genetic effect - DHGLM
Birth weight is an optimum trait where very high and very low birth weights are undesirable as they may cause issues, such as dystocia, stillbirths and diminished lamb vigor. Due to economic and welfare concerns, selection for more uniform birth weight is therefore desirable at all litter sizes. If uniformity in birth weight is heritable, selection against very high and very low birth weights can be conducted. The aim of the current study was to investigate if direct and maternal genetic variances in uniformity in birth weight exist in Norwegian White Sheep (NWS). Data composed birth weights of 136,992 NWS lambs born between 2000 and 2017 and corresponding sire-maternal grand sire pedigree. The double hierarchical generalized linear mixed model (DHGLM) was fitted. The direct and maternal heritability for uniformity of birth weight were 0.08 and 0.11, respectively, and larger than for many other uniformity traits in livestock. Furthermore, the direct (57.8%) and maternal (69.4%) genetic coefficients of variation for uniformity were substantial, revealing large potential for selection for more uniform birth weight in NWS lambs. Genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects on birth weight and uniformity were 0.39 and 0.12, respectively, indicating that that selection for more uniform birth weight may reduce the average birth weight genetically.
The distribution of blue whiting west of the British Isles and Ireland
Gastauer, Sven ; Fassler, Sascha ; O'Donnell, Ciaran ; Høines, Åge ; Jakobsen, Jan Arge ; Krysov, Alexander I. ; Smith, Leon ; Tangen, Øyvind ; Anthonypillai, Valantine ; Mortensen, Ebba ; Armstrong, Eric ; Schaber, Matthias ; Scoulding, Ben - \ 2016
Fisheries Research 183 (2016). - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 32 - 43.
Acoustic survey - Blue whiting - Geostatistics - Spatial indices
Northern blue whiting is a small abundant pelagic gadoid that is widely distributed in the northeast Atlantic and one of the most commercially valuable species west of the British Isles and Ireland. Over the last two decades the northeast Atlantic stock has undergone dramatic changes in abundance. The stock size decreased dramatically from 2007 to 2011, but has since shown signs of recovery. Changes in recruitment levels have occurred almost simultaneously with unusual changes in the north Atlantic ecosystem and oceanography. These links may suggest a causal linkage and the possibility of improving our understanding of the recruitment and spawning stock distribution. Here we use a set of geostatistical indices to describe the temporal and spatial patterns of the northeast Atlantic blue whiting stock in spring of 2006-2014. Geostatistical indices were computed to investigate changes in the spatial distribution, dynamics and variability of the stock in terms of density and location. Indices revealed 3 different distribution patterns over the time series. Main concentrations were either found around Rockall (first years), west of the Hebrides (2008-2013) or in the southern survey area (2014). The distribution was found to be age structured, with young blue whiting mainly concentrated in shallower areas (1000 m). A general additive mixed model (GAMM) was used to model the distribution of blue whiting according to environmental conditions and location.
Does Milk Consumption Contribute to Cardiometabolic Health and Overall Diet Quality?
Lamarche, Benoît ; Givens, D.I. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita ; Krauss, Ronald M. ; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre ; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A. ; Pan, An ; Després, Jean Pierre - \ 2016
Canadian Journal of Cardiology 32 (2016)8. - ISSN 0828-282X - p. 1026 - 1032.
Although milk consumption is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of debate in the scientific community as well as in the public domain. This article summarizes the discussion among experts in the field on the place of milk in a balanced healthy diet. The evidence to date suggests at least a neutral effect of milk intake on health outcomes. The possibility that milk intake is simply a marker of diets higher in nutritional quality cannot be ruled out. This review also identifies a number of key research gaps pertaining to the impact of milk consumption on health. These need to be addressed to better inform future dietary guidelines.
Association between FTO variant and change in body weight and its interaction with dietary factors; the DiOGenes study
Vimaleswaran, K.S. ; Angquist, L. ; Hansen, R.D. ; A, D.L. van der; Bouatia-Naji, N. ; Holst, C. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Meidtner, K. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; Saris, W.H.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Wareham, N.J. ; Sorensen, T.I.A. ; Loos, R.J.F. - \ 2012
Obesity 20 (2012)8. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. 1669 - 1674.
genome-wide association - mass index - physical-activity - common variants - fat distribution - glycemic index - adult obesity - gene variants - mc4r - risk
Although FTO is an established obesity-susceptibility locus, it remains unknown whether it influences weight change in adult life and whether diet attenuates this association. Therefore, we investigated the association of FTO-rs9939609 with changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) during 6.8 years follow-up in a large-scale prospective study and examined whether these associations were modified by dietary energy percentage from fat, protein, carbohydrate, or glycemic index (GI). This study comprised data from five countries of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and was designed as a case-cohort study for weight gain. Analyses included 11,091 individuals, of whom 5,584 were cases (age (SD), 47.6 (7.5) years), defined as those with the greatest unexplained annual weight gain during follow-up and 5,507 were noncases (48.0 (7.3) years), who were compared in our case-noncase (CNC) analyses. Furthermore, 6,566 individuals (47.9 (7.3) years) selected from the total sample (all noncases and 1,059 cases) formed the random subcohort (RSC), used for continuous trait analyses. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in the models. In the RSC-analyses, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with BMI (ß (SE), 0.17 (0.08) kg·m-2/allele; P = 0.034) and WC (0.47 (0.21) cm/allele; P = 0.026) at baseline, but not with weight change (5.55 (12.5) g·year–1/allele; P = 0.66) during follow up. In the CNC-analysis, FTO-rs9939609 was associated with increased risk of being a weight-gainer (OR: 1.1; P = 0.045). We observed no interaction between FTO-rs9939609 and dietary fat, protein and carbohydrate, and GI on BMI and WC at baseline or on change in weight and WC. FTO-rs9939609 is associated with BMI and WC at baseline, but association with weight gain is weak and only observed for extreme gain. Dietary factors did not influence the associations.
Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men
Jakobsen, M.U. ; Due, K.M. ; Dethlefsen, C. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Holst, C. ; Forouhi, N.G. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; A, D. van der; Wareham, N.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Sorensen, T.I.A. ; Overvad, K. - \ 2012
The British journal of nutrition 108 (2012)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 924 - 931.
polyunsaturated fatty-acids - dietary-intake - epic project - cancer - obesity - participants - calibration - predictors - rationale - accuracy
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5·5 years. Mixed-effect linear regression was used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Among all participants, the average annual change in waist circumference was - 0·01 cm/10 g higher total fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·01, 0·00) and - 0·01 cm/10 g higher fatty fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·02, - 0·01), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lean fish consumption was not associated with change in waist circumference. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption measurements did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became slightly wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by sex, age or waist circumference at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference
Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project
Halkjaer, J. ; Olsen, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Palli, D. ; Tognon, G. ; Du, H. ; A, D.L. van der; Forouhi, N.G. ; Wareham, N.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Sorensen, T.I.A. ; Tjonneland, A. - \ 2011
International Journal of Obesity 35 (2011)8. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1104 - 1113.
physical-activity - dietary-intake - nutrition - cancer - metaanalysis - obesity - gain - fat - epidemiology - association
Background: As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary protein, and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). Methods: 89 432 men and women from five countries participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a mean of 6.5 years. Associations between the intake of protein or subgroups of protein (from animal and plant sources) and changes in weight (g per year) or WC (cm per year) were investigated using gender and centre-specific multiple regression analyses. Adjustments were made for other baseline dietary factors, baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors and follow-up time. We used random effect meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates across centres. Results: Higher intake of total protein, and protein from animal sources was associated with subsequent weight gain for both genders, strongest among women, and the association was mainly attributable to protein from red and processed meat and poultry rather than from fish and dairy sources. There was no overall association between intake of plant protein and subsequent changes in weight. No clear overall associations between intakes of total protein or any of the subgroups and changes in WC were present. The associations showed some heterogeneity between centres, but pooling of estimates was still considered justified. Conclusion: A high intake of protein was not found associated with lower weight or waist gain in this observational study. In contrast, protein from food items of animal origin, especially meat and poultry, seemed to be positively associated with long-term weight gain. There were no clear associations for waist changes. International Journal of Obesity (2011) 35, 1104-1113; doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.254; published online 7 December 2010
Genetic polymorphisms in the hypothalamic pathway in relation to subsequent weight change - the DIOGenes Study
Huaidong, D.U. ; Vimaleswaran, K.S. ; Angquist, L. ; Hansen, R.D. ; A, D.L. van der; Holst, C. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Uhre Jakobsen, M. ; Boeing, H. ; Meidtner, K. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; Bouatia-Naji, N. ; Saris, W.H.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Wareham, N.J. ; Sorensen, T.I.A. ; Loos, R.J.F. - \ 2011
PLoS ONE 6 (2011)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
dietary glycemic index - neuromedin-b gene - body-weight - food-intake - energy homeostasis - adipose-tissue - obesity gene - mc4r gene - fat mass - protein
Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the components involved in the hypothalamic pathway may influence weight gain and dietary factors may modify their effects. \ Aim: We conducted a case-cohort study to investigate the associations of SNPs in candidate genes with weight change during an average of 6.8 years of follow-up and to examine the potential effect modification by glycemic index (GI) and protein intake. Methods and Findings: Participants, aged 20-60 years at baseline, came from five European countries. Cases ('weight gainers') were selected from the total eligible cohort (n = 50,293) as those with the greatest unexplained annual weight gain (n = 5,584). A random subcohort (n = 6,566) was drawn with the intention to obtain an equal number of cases and noncases (n = 5,507). We genotyped 134 SNPs that captured all common genetic variation across the 15 candidate genes; 123 met the quality control criteria. Each SNP was tested for association with the risk of being a 'weight gainer' (logistic regression models) in the case-noncase data and with weight gain (linear regression models) in the random subcohort data. After accounting for multiple testing, none of the SNPs was significantly associated with weight change. Furthermore, we observed no significant effect modification by dietary factors, except for SNP rs7180849 in the neuromedin beta gene (NMB). Carriers of the minor allele had a more pronounced weight gain at a higher GI (P = 2x10(-7)). Conclusions: We found no evidence of association between SNPs in the studied hypothalamic genes with weight change. The interaction between GI and NMB SNP rs7180849 needs further confirmation.
Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index
Romaguera, D. ; Angquist, L. ; Du, H. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Forouhi, N.G. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; A, D. van der; Masala, G. ; Steffen, A. ; Palli, D. ; Wareham, N.J. ; Overvad, K. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Boeing, H. ; Riboli, E. ; Sorensen, T.I. - \ 2011
PLoS ONE 6 (2011)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
middle-aged men - subsequent changes - blood-pressure - european men - clinical-trial - calcium intake - visceral fat - eating plan - weight-loss - women
Background: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI)), a proxy for abdominal adiposity. Design: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI) was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI) (Delta WC(BMI), cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and Delta WC(BMI) was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Results: Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI) whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with Delta WC(BMI). When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score - indicating a more favourable dietary pattern - showed a Delta WC(BMI) of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14) cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusion: A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.
The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?
Astrup, A. ; Dyerberg, J. ; Elwood, P. ; Hermansen, K. ; Hu, F.B. ; Uhre Jakobsen, M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Krauss, R.M. ; Lecerf, J.M. ; Legrand, P. ; Nestel, P. ; Riserus, U. ; Sanders, T. ; Sinclair, A. ; Stender, S. ; Tholstrup, T. ; Willett, W. - \ 2011
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93 (2011)4. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 684 - 688.
coronary-heart-disease - randomized controlled-trials - dietary-fat - nonfasting triglycerides - myocardial-infarction - prospective cohort - risk-factors - women - metaanalysis - carbohydrate
Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of =2–3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical endpoints could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives
Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity
Romaguera, D. ; Angquist, L. ; Huaidong, D.U. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Forouhi, N.G. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; A, D.L. van der; Masala, G. ; Steffen, A. ; Palli, D. ; Wareham, N. ; Overvad, K. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Boeing, H. ; Riboli, E. ; Sorensen, T. - \ 2010
PLoS ONE 5 (2010)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 7 p.
epic-oxford participants - middle-aged men - glycemic index - abdominal adiposity - subsequent changes - european men - physical-activity - alcohol-consumption - insulin-resistance - energy density
Background Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype “waist circumference for a given body mass index (WCBMI)”, a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WCBMI. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WCBMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WCBMI (¿WCBMI, cm/y) was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED), macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), fibre and ¿WCBMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WCBMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a ¿WCBMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13) in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21) in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a ¿WCBMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12) in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10) in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher ¿WCBMI. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WCBMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.
Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women
Du, H. ; A, A.D. van der; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Forouchi, N.G. ; Wareham, N. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Masala, G. ; Palli, D. ; Sorensen, T. ; Saris, W.H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2010
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (2010)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 329 - 336.
cardiovascular-disease - energy density - risk-factors - whole-grain - cancer - cereal - obesity - gain - overweight - nutrition
Background: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention. Until now, the role that fiber from different sources plays in weight change had rarely been studied. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and fruit and vegetable fiber with changes in weight and waist circumference. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 89,432 European participants, aged 20–78 y, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline and who were followed for an average of 6.5 y. Dietary information was collected by using validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed in each center studied, and estimates were combined by using random-effect meta-analyses. Adjustments were made for follow-up duration, other dietary variables, and baseline anthropometric, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Results: Total fiber was inversely associated with subsequent weight and waist circumference change. For a 10-g/d higher total fiber intake, the pooled estimate was –39 g/y (95% CI: –71, –7 g/y) for weight change and –0.08 cm/y (95% CI: –0.11, –0.05 cm/y) for waist circumference change. A 10-g/d higher fiber intake from cereals was associated with –77 g/y (95% CI: –127, –26 g/y) weight change and –0.10 cm/y (95% CI: –0.18, –0.02 cm/y) waist circumference change. Fruit and vegetable fiber was not associated with weight change but had a similar association with waist circumference change when compared with intake of total dietary fiber and cereal fiber. Conclusion: Our finding may support a beneficial role of higher intake of dietary fiber, especially cereal fiber, in prevention of body-weight and waist circumference gain.
Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohorts
Forouchi, N.G. ; Sharp, S. ; Du, H. ; A, A.D. van der; Halkjaer, J. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Boeing, H. ; Buijsse, B. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Sorensen, T. ; Wareham, N. - \ 2009
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1632 - 1641.
physical-activity questionnaire - energy-intake - obesity - women - metaanalysis - trial - gain - calibration - prevention - validity
Background: It is unclear from the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence whether dietary fat intake is associated with future weight change. Objective: The objective was to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change (follow-up weight minus baseline weight divided by duration of follow-up). Design: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake (amount and type of total, saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats) and annual weight change by using the residual, nutrient density, and energy-partition methods. We used random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates across centers. Results: Mean total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake ranged between 31.5% and 36.5% across the 6 cohorts (58% women; mean ± SD age: 53.2 ± 8.6 y). The mean (±SD) annual weight change was 109 ± 817 g/y in men and 119 ± 823 g/y in women. In pooled analyses adjusted for anthropometric, dietary, and lifestyle factors and follow-up period, no significant association was observed between fat intake (amount or type) and weight change. The difference in mean annual weight change was 0.90 g/y (95% CI: –0.54, 2.34 g/y) for men and –1.30 g/y (95% CI: –3.70, 1.11 g/y) for women per 1 g/d energy-adjusted fat intake (residual method). Conclusions: We found no significant association between the amount or type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change in this large prospective study. These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain.
Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women
Du, H. ; A, A.D. van der; Bakel, M. van; Slimani, N. ; Forouchi, N.G. ; Wareham, N. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Overvad, K. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Buijsse, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; Sorensen, T. ; Saris, W.H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2009
International Journal of Obesity 33 (2009). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1280 - 1288.
food frequency questionnaire - randomized controlled-trial - cardiovascular risk-factors - resting energy-expenditure - low-fat diets - body-weight - relative validity - epic project - low-carbohydrate - abdominal obesity
Objectives: To investigate whether dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) were associated with subsequent weight and waist circumference change. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: Five European countries, which are Denmark, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Participants: A total of 89¿432 participants, aged 20–78 years (mean =53 years) at baseline and followed for 1.9–12.5 years (mean=6.5 years). All participants were free of self-reported cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at baseline. Methods: Glycaemic index and GL were calculated on the basis of dietary intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires and by using a GI table developed for this study with published GI values as the main sources. Anthropometric data were collected both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted in each centre and random-effect meta-analyses were used to combine the effects. Adjustment was made for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and other dietary factors. Results: Mean GI and GL were 57 and 134, respectively. Associations of GI and GL with subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference were heterogeneous across centres. Overall, with every 10-unit higher in GI, weight increased by 34¿g per year (95% confidence interval (CI): -47, 115) and waist circumference increased by 0.19¿cm per year (95% CI: 0.11, 0.27). With every 50-unit higher in GL, weight increased by 10¿g per year (95% CI: -65, 85) and waist circumference increased by 0.06¿cm per year (95% CI: -0.01, 0.13). Conclusions: Our findings do not support an effect of GI or GL on weight change. The positively significant association between GI, not GL, and subsequent gain in waist circumference may imply a beneficial role of lower GI diets in the prevention of abdominal obesity. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding given the small effect observed in this study.
Dietary Energy Density in Relation to Subsequent Changes of Weight and Waist Circumference in European Men and Women
Du, H. ; Ginder, V. ; Jebb, S.A. ; Forouchi, N.G. ; Wareham, N. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Buijsse, B. ; Steffen, A. ; Palli, D. ; Masala, G. ; Saris, W.H. ; Sorensen, T. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2009
PLoS ONE 4 (2009)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
Background - Experimental studies show that a reduction in dietary energy density (ED) is associated with reduced energy intake and body weight. However, few observational studies have investigated the role of ED on long-term weight and waist circumference change. Methods and Principal Findings - This population-based prospective cohort study included 89,432 participants from five European countries with mean age 53 years (range: 20–78 years) at baseline and were followed for an average of 6.5 years (range: 1.9–12.5 years). Participants were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at baseline. ED was calculated as the energy intake (kcal) from foods divided by the weight (g) of foods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations of ED with annual weight and waist circumference change. Mean ED was 1.7 kcal/g and differed across study centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g/year [95% confidence interval (CI): -112, 28] and annual waist circumference change was 0.09 cm/year [95% CI: 0.01, 0.18]. In participants with baseline BMI
Fruit and vegetable intakes and subsequent changes in body weight in European populations: results from the project on Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes)
Buijsse, B. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Forouchi, N.G. ; Wareham, N. ; Sharp, S. ; Palli, D. ; Tognon, G. ; Halkjaer, J. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Jakobsen, M.U. ; Overvad, K. ; A, A.D. van der; Du, H. ; Sorensen, T. ; Boeing, H. - \ 2009
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (2009)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 202 - 209.
food-intake patterns - epic-potsdam cohort - mass index - waist circumference - smoking cessation - blood-pressure - high-fiber - women - nutrition - cancer
Background: High fruit and vegetable intakes may limit weight gain, particularly in susceptible persons, such as those who stop smoking. Objective: The objective was to assess the association of fruit and vegetable intake with subsequent weight change in a large-scale prospective study. Design: The data used were from 89,432 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The association between fruit and vegetable intake and weight change after a mean follow-up of 6.5 y was assessed by linear regression. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate whether fruit and vegetable intake relates to weight gain, weight loss, or both. Results: Per 100-g intake of fruit and vegetables, weight change was –14 g/y (95% CI: –19, –9 g/y). In those who stopped smoking during follow-up, this value was –37 g/y (95% CI: –58, –15 g/y; P for interaction <0.0001). When weight gain and loss were analyzed separately per 100-g intake of fruit and vegetables in a combined model, the odds ratios (95% CIs) were 0.97 (0.95, 0.98) for weight gain 0.5 and
|Circadian rhythms in heat production and physical activity of group-housed sows fed dietary fermentable carbohydrates
Rijnen, M.M.J.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Haaksma, J. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2001
In: idem / Chwalibog, A., Jakobsen, K., Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - p. 109 - 112.
|Effect of floor type and ambient temperature on heat production in young calves in relation to posture
Schrama, J.W. ; Goldewijk, W. ; Kemp, B. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. - \ 2001
In: Energy Metabolism of Animals : A. Chwalibog and K. Jakobsen. - Wageningen : Wageningen Pers, 2001. (EAAP publication ; No. 103) - p. 109 - 112.
|Circadian rhythms in heat production and physical activity of group-housed sows fed dietary fermentable carbohydrates
Rijnen, M.M.J.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Haaksma, J. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2001
In: Proceedings of the 15th symposium on energy metabolism in animals, EAAP Publication, Snekkersten, Denmark : Wageningen Pers, 2000 / Chwalibog, A. and Jakobsen, K. (editors). - Wageningen, the Netherlands : Wageningen Pers, 2001 - p. 109 - 112.