A generic framework to assess the representation and protection of benthic ecosystems in European marine protected areas
Greathead, Clare ; Magni, Paolo ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Buhl‐Mortensen, Lene ; Janas, Urszula ; Blomqvist, Mats ; Craeymeersch, Johan A. ; Dannheim, Jennifer ; Darr, Alexander ; Degraer, Steven ; Desroy, Nicolas ; Donnay, Annick ; Griffiths, Yessica ; Guala, Ivan ; Guerin, Laurent ; Hinchen, Hayley ; Labrune, Celine ; Reiss, Henning ; Hoey, Gert Van; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. - \ 2020
Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems 30 (2020)7. - ISSN 1052-7613 - p. 1253 - 1275.
There is concern across the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) region that a consideration of vulnerable components and the wider support mechanisms underpinning benthic marine ecosystems may be lacking from the process of marine protected area (MPA) designation, management and monitoring. In this study, MPAs across six European ecoregions were assessed from a benthic ecology perspective. The study included 102 MPAs, designated by 10 countries, and focused on three aspects regarding the role of the benthos in: (i) the designation of MPAs; (ii) the management measures used in MPAs; and (iii) the monitoring and assessment of MPAs. Qualitative entries to a questionnaire based on an existing framework (EU project ‘Monitoring Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas’, (MESMA) were collected by 19 benthic experts of the ICES Benthic Ecology Working Group. A pedigree matrix was used to apply a numerical scale (score) to these entries. The results showed clear differences in scores between ecoregions and between criteria. The designation‐phase criteria generally achieved higher scores than the implementation‐phase criteria. Poor designation‐phase scores were generally reiterated in the implementation‐phase scores, such as scores for assessment and monitoring. Over 70% of the MPA case studies were found to consider the benthos to some extent during selection and designation; however, this was not followed up with appropriate management measures and good practice during the implementation phase.
Poor spatial and temporal coverage of monitoring and ineffective indicators is unlikely to pick up changes caused by management measures in the MPA. There is concern that without adequate monitoring and adaptive management frameworks, the MPAs will be compromised. Also, there could be an increased likelihood that, with regard to the benthos, they will fail to meet their conservation objectives. This assessment was successful in highlighting issues related to the representation and protection of the benthos in MPAs and where changes need to be made, such as expanding the characterization and monitoring of benthic species or habitats of interest. These issues could be attributable to an ongoing process and/or an indication that some MPAs only have ‘paper protection’.
Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research
Dannheim, Jennifer ; Bergström, Lena ; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. ; Brzana, Radosław ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Mesel, Ilse De; Derweduwen, Jozefien ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Hutchison, Zoë L. ; Jackson, Angus C. ; Janas, Urszula ; Martin, Georg ; Raoux, Aurore ; Reubens, Jan ; Rostin, Liis ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Wilding, Thomas A. ; Wilhelmsson, Dan ; Degraer, Steven ; Norkko, Joanna - \ 2020
ICES Journal of Marine Science 77 (2020)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1092 - 1108.
benthos - environmental impact - knowlegde gaps - marine ecology - offshore wind farms - renewable energy
As the EU's commitment to renewable energy is projected to grow to 20% of energy generation by 2020, the use of marine renewable energy from wind, wave and tidal resources is increasing. This literature review (233 studies) (i) summarizes knowledge on how marine renewable energy devices affect benthic environments, (ii) explains how these effects could alter ecosystem processes that support major ecosystem services and (iii) provides an approach to determine urgent research needs. Conceptual diagrams were set up to structure hypothesized cause-effect relationships (i.e. paths). Paths were scored for (i) temporal and spatial scale of the effect, (ii) benthic sensitivity to these effects, (iii) the effect consistency and iv) scoring confidence, and consecutively ranked. This approach identified prominent knowledge gaps and research needs about (a) hydrodynamic changes possibly resulting in altered primary production with potential consequences for filter feeders, (b) the introduction and range expansion of non-native species (through stepping stone effects) and, (c) noise and vibration effects on benthic organisms. Our results further provide evidence that benthic sensitivity to offshore renewable effects is higher than previously indicated. Knowledge on changes of ecological functioning through cascading effects is limited and requires distinct hypothesis-driven research combined with integrative ecological modelling.
Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) : 6-9 March 2018, Galway, Ireland
Dannheim, Jennifer ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Boon, Arjen ; Brzana, Radoslaw ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Degraer, Steven ; Jackson, Angus ; Janas, Urszula ; Mesel, I.G. de; O'Beirn, Francis ; Pezy, Jean-Philippe ; Raoux, Aurore ; Sheehan, Emma ; Vanaverbeke, Jan - \ 2018
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES WGMBRED Report 2018/HAPISG:02) - 68 p.
A systematic review of methods to assess intake of sugar-sweetened beverages among healthy European adults and children : a DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) study
Riordan, Fiona ; Ryan, Kathleen ; Perry, Ivan J. ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Andersen, Lene Frost ; Geelen, Anouk ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Eussen, Simone ; Dongen, Martien van; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole ; Harrington, Janas M. - \ 2017
Public Health Nutrition 20 (2017)4. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 578 - 597.
Research indicates that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may be associated with negative health consequences. However, differences between assessment methods can affect the comparability of intake data across studies. The current review aimed to identify methods used to assess SSB intake among children and adults in pan-European studies and to inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods suitable for use in future European studies.
A literature search was conducted using three electronic databases and by hand-searching reference lists. English-language studies of any design which assessed SSB consumption were included in the review.
Studies involving two or more European countries were included in the review.
Healthy, free-living children and adults.
The review identified twenty-three pan-European studies which assessed intake of SSB. The FFQ was the most commonly used (n 24), followed by the 24 h recall (n 6) and diet records (n 1). There were several differences between the identified FFQ, including the definition of SSB used. In total, seven instruments that were tested for validity were selected as potentially suitable to assess SSB intake among adults (n 1), adolescents (n 3) and children (n 3).
The current review highlights the need for instruments to use an agreed definition of SSB. Methods that were tested for validity and used in pan-European populations encompassing a range of countries were identified. These methods should be considered for use by future studies focused on evaluating consumption of SSB.
A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children : a DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) study
Riordan, Fiona ; Ryan, Kathleen ; Perry, Ivan J. ; Schulze, Matthias B. ; Andersen, Lene Frost ; Geelen, Anouk ; van’t Veer, Pieter ; Eussen, Simone ; Dagnelie, Pieter ; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole ; Harrington, Janas M. - \ 2017
Public Health Nutrition 20 (2017)3. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 417 - 448.
DEDIPAC - Dietary assessment - Europe - Fruits and vegetables
Objective: Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children and adults in pan-European studies and inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods suitable for use in future European studies. Design: A literature search was conducted using three electronic databases and by hand-searching reference lists. English-language studies of any design which assessed F&V intake were included in the review. Setting: Studies involving two or more European countries were included in the review. Subjects: Healthy, free-living children or adults. Results: The review identified fifty-one pan-European studies which assessed F&V intake. The FFQ was the most commonly used (n 42), followed by 24 h recall (n 11) and diet records/diet history (n 7). Differences existed between the identified methods; for example, the number of F&V items on the FFQ and whether potatoes/legumes were classified as vegetables. In total, eight validated instruments were identified which assessed F&V intake among adults, adolescents or children. Conclusions: The current review indicates that an agreed classification of F&V is needed in order to standardise intake data more effectively between European countries. Validated methods used in pan-European populations encompassing a range of European regions were identified. These methods should be considered for use by future studies focused on evaluating intake of F&V.