Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The effects of teflubenzuron on mortality, physiology and accumulation in Capitella sp.
    Fang, Jinghui ; Samuelsen, Ole B. ; Strand, Øivind ; Hansen, Pia Kupka ; Jansen, Henrice - \ 2020
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 203 (2020). - ISSN 0147-6513
    Aquaculture - Growth - Mortality - Polychaete - Salmon lice - Teflubenzuron

    The chitin synthesis inhibitor teflubenzuron (TFB) is a feed antiparasitic agents used to impede molting of the salmon lice, an ecto-parasite that severely affects the salmon industry. Low absorption of oral administered TFB may cause elevated concentrations in the feces discharged from the salmon into the benthic environment. The polychaete Capitella sp. are often dominant in such habitats and consume organic waste deposited on the sediment. In the present study, Capitella sp. were exposed to doses of TFB in salmon feed of 1, 2 and 4 g TFB kg−1 (0 g TFB kg−1 in control group) over an experimental period of 32 days. Cumulative mortality was 12%–15% in both treatment groups with 1 and 2 g TFB kg−1 and reached 27% in the group with 4 g TFB kg−1. Only the highest dose (4 g TFB kg−1) negatively affected feed intake, growth and respiration of the polychaetes while food conversion efficiency was not affected. At the end of the experiment, the concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. were high, in the range of 9.24–10.32 μg g−1 for the three treatment groups. It was suggested that a maximum level of absorption rate was reached, also for the lowest dose. High concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. might pose a risk to crustaceans that forage for polychaetes in the vicinity of fish farms. We conclude that the effects of TFB on Capitella sp. may therefore primarily be to the predators rather than the Capitella sp.

    Stoichiometric variation within and between a terrestrial herbivorous and a semi-aquatic carnivorous mammal
    Wenting, Elke ; Siepel, Henk ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 62 (2020). - ISSN 0946-672X
    Ecological stoichiometry - Ionomics - Macro nutrients - Minerals - Trace elements

    Background: The elemental composition of the mammalian body is widely believed to be more or less constant within and among species, yet reliable comparisons of elemental content are lacking. Here, we examine the elemental composition of two mammal species with different diet and provenance: terrestrial herbivorous Fallow deer (Dama dama) - collected from a single area - and semi-aquatic carnivorous Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) - collected from different areas. Methods: We compared twelve elemental contents for twelve different body tissues and organs, for four tissue samples per species. Homogeneous samples were tested for twelve elemental contents using ICP-OES. Results: We found evidence for differences in elemental composition between species, between tissues, and between individuals. Herbivorous Fallow deer seemed more variable in its elemental composition compared to carnivorous Eurasian otter. The absolute concentration of some elements, e.g. Mn and Cu, showed differences between the species as well. Conclusion: Since we found stoichiometric variation among the species, these findings question the widely held assumption that mammals are under relative tight stoichiometrically homeostatic control.

    Development of offshore seaweed farming: ecology & cultivation : Synthesis report 2019
    Bernard, M.S. ; Jansen, H. ; Werf, A. van der; Meer, I. van der; Tonk, Linda - \ 2020
    Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C054/20) - 31
    The upscaling of offshore wind farms in the North Sea creates opportunities for seaweed aquaculture that has the potential to meet part of future resource needs, provided that it is done sustainably. Here a follow-up study of the MIP project in 2018 “Development of Offshore Seaweed Cultivation: food safety, cultivation, ecology and economy” with a focus on ecology and cultivation is presented. In order to ensure a sustainable development of seaweed farming in Dutch offshore and coastal regions in the future, it is essential to collect empirical data on the interaction of seaweed cultivation with marine ecosystems for realistic impact assessments. In subproject 1 “Ecology – Fauna associated with seaweed aquaculture in the North Sea Farm” ecosystem services and impacts of seaweed farming in the North Sea were investigated on the basis of biodiversity, a key parameter for the functioning of ecosystems. Therefore in 2019 the associated fauna on growing seaweed biomass (Saccharina latissima) and cultivation ropes was assessed at the North Sea Farm. A high number of individuals was detected on the seaweeds and cultivation ropes in general (up to 7679 individuals per rope), but species richness was low. Abundance in fauna increased from May to June and all detected species are also known from other hard substrates in the North Sea. Compared to previous assessments of biodiversity with eDNA metabarcoding at the same site, the biodiversity detected in 2019 was very low. However, biodiversity levels may differ from year to year. Moreover, the samples were not taken at the same time points and are therefore not directly comparable and the methodology only included organisms that could be collected by hand (visible to the eye) with a focus on fauna attached to the rope and kelp. It is advised to combine classical morphological biodiversity assessment and eDNA metabarcoding in future assessments to compare results in order to determine the best-suited methodology for biodiversity assessments. Biodiversity in the seaweed farm should be assessed repeatedly every 5 years to check for temporal alterations in fauna composition, especially when cultivation structures, such as anchors, are deployed throughout several years. In subproject 2 “Cultivation” seasonal variation in biomass productivity and chemical composition of kelp was evaluated in order to determine the optimal time point for harvesting in relation to the desired end product. Biomass production at the test-farm was very low in 2019, compared to previous years and a seaweed farm test location near Helgoland in the North Sea. Below 4m environmental conditions for growth were unfavourable (mainly light limitation) for Saccharina latissima. Both in 2018 and 2019 large differences in standing crops over time and depth were observed. Contrary, true protein levels varied only slightly over time. If protein is the target product, final biomass yield of S. latissima will determine the profitability of the mariculture. A combination of economic analyses and growth experiments may assist in determining the optimal cultivation technique. The 2018 experiments performed at the North Sea Farm showed large seasonal variability in the chemical composition of seaweed tissue, and high amounts of nitrogen-containing compounds besides proteins variations. Therefore in 2019, nitrogen, starch and nitrate content in the seaweed tissue were analysed. Nitrate content in S. latissima varied throughout the season and could not fully explain the difference between N measured by Dumas and true protein content in the 2019 samples. Therefore, other seaweed components containing nitrogen must explain this variation, e.g. its accumulation in cellular nitrate pools. As a final note, in order to improve the understanding of environmental conditions in the farm it is recommended that nitrate and phosphate concentrations, two essential macronutrients for growth in seaweeds, should be assessed in the water column at different depths and time points.
    Influence of glacial sediments on the chemical quality of surface water in the Ulta valley, Cordillera Blanca, Peru
    Magnússon, Rúna ; Cammeraat, Erik ; Lucke, Andreas ; Jansen, Boris - \ 2020
    Journal of Hydrology (2020)587. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 1 - 16.
    The Río Santa (Ancash, Peru) and its tributaries are an essential source of drinking and irrigation water. Its discharge relies on glacial meltwater, which is diminishing due to the rapid decrease in glacial extent. As a secondary effect, water quality can be compromised (e.g. pH < 3 and high concentrations of SO42− and trace metals). Although this has previously been attributed to pyrite rich Chicama bedrock exposed by glacial retreat, little is known about the occurrence of Chicama fragments in Quaternary glacial sediments and its influence on water quality. This research aims at elucidating this effect by relating observed changes in water quality in streams to presence and chemical composition of morainic ridges in the Quebrada Ulta in the Río Santa basin. Changes in water quality before and after contact with a morainic ridge were assessed using carbonate alkalinity titration, ion analysis and elemental analysis. Moreover, relative contributions of glacial meltwater and precipitation were assessed qualitatively using stable water isotope analysis. We used a novel method to explain the provenance of contaminated glacial sediments using a reconstruction of their source area. The mineralogical composition of a morainic ridge was strongly related to the geology of the source area indicating that mineralogical composition of tills may be predicted using this technique. Effects of glacial sediments in morainic ridges on water quality were minimal but depended on their mineralogical composition. Morainic ridges with a high content of Chicama shales tended to increase solute loads of Mg and SO42−. Additionally, isotope signatures suggest that during the dry season, moraines may act as reservoirs for precipitation-derived shallow groundwater. Clear trends in water quality were observed along the whole flow path of the Río Buín, which could potentially be explained by increased groundwater contribution downstream and shifts in dominant weathering mechanisms. Future research should focus on disentangling these various drivers of water quality in glacial catchments.
    Marktwaarde van dieren bij dierziektebestrijding
    Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Puister-Jansen, L. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2020-038) - 17
    Insight is lacking into the market value of a number of animal species that require compensation in the case of compulsory culling in the context of animal disease control. For the major farm animal species, the valuation of most animals can be based on value tables. However, additional insight is needed for animals that do not fall under the value tables. In addition to insight into the most common value (mode), this publication provides the value of very valuable animals (both for farm animals as well as for a number of additional species). The market value of the following species is addressed: farm animals, horses, dogs and carrier pigeons and a number of special animal species (ornamental birds, cloven-hoofed zoo animals).
    Differential immunomodulation of porcine bone marrow derived dendritic cells by E. coli Nissle 1917 and β-glucans
    Geervliet, Mirelle ; Lute, Laura C.P. ; Jansen, Christine A. ; Rutten, Victor P.M.G. ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Tijhaar, Edwin - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)6. - ISSN 1932-6203 - p. e0233773 - e0233773.

    In early life and around weaning, pigs are at risk of developing infectious diseases which compromise animal welfare and have major economic consequences for the pig industry. A promising strategy to enhance resistance against infectious diseases is immunomodulation by feed additives. To assess the immune stimulating potential of feed additives in vitro, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were used. These cells play a central role in the innate and adaptive immune system and are the first cells encountered by antigens that pass the epithelial barrier. Two different feed additives were tested on dendritic cells cultured from fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow cells; a widely used commercial feed additive based on yeast-derived β-glucans and the gram-negative probiotic strain E. coli Nissle 1917. E. coli Nissle 1917, but not β-glucans, induced a dose-dependent upregulation of the cell maturation marker CD80/86, whereas both feed additives induced a dose-dependent production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10. Furthermore, E. coli Nissle 1917 consistently induced higher levels of cytokine production than β-glucans. These immunomodulatory responses could be assessed by fresh as well as cryopreserved in vitro cultured porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both β-glucans and E. coli Nissle 1917 are able to enhance dendritic cell maturation, but in a differential manner. A more mature dendritic cell phenotype could contribute to a more efficient response to infections. Moreover, both fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can be used as in vitro pre-screening tools which enable an evidence based prediction of the potential immune stimulating effects of different feed additives.

    Population dynamics of Hippophae rhamnoides shrub in response of sea-level rise and insect outbreaks
    Decuyper, Mathieu ; Dool, Robbert van den; Slim, Pieter ; Kuiters, Loek ; Jansen, Jeroen ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute - \ 2020
    Correction to: Rewiring of glucose metabolism defines trained immunity induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein
    Keating, Samuel T. ; Groh, Laszlo ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Bekkering, Siroon ; Li, Yang ; Matzaraki, Vasiliki ; Heijden, Charlotte D.C.C. van der; Puffelen, Jelmer H. van; Lachmandas, Ekta ; Jansen, Trees ; Oosting, Marije ; Bree, L.C.J. de; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Moorlag, Simone J.C.F.M. ; Mourits, Vera P. ; Diepen, Janna van; Stienstra, Rinke ; Novakovic, Boris ; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G. ; Crevel, Reinout van; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Riksen, Niels P. - \ 2020
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 98 (2020). - ISSN 0946-2716

    The correct name of the 17th Author is presented in this paper. In the paragraph “Metabolic analysis” of the Method section “an XFp Analyzer” should be changed to “an XFe96 Analyzer”.

    Rewiring of glucose metabolism defines trained immunity induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein
    Keating, Samuel T. ; Groh, Laszlo ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Bekkering, Siroon ; Li, Yang ; Matzaraki, Vasiliki ; Heijden, Charlotte D.C.C. van der; Puffelen, Jelmer H. van; Lachmandas, Ekta ; Jansen, Trees ; Oosting, Marije ; Bree, L.C.J. de; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Moorlag, Simone J.C.F.M. ; Mourits, Vera P. ; Diepen, Janna van; Stienstra, Rinke ; Novakovic, Boris ; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G. ; Crevel, Reinout van; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Riksen, Niels P. - \ 2020
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 98 (2020). - ISSN 0946-2716 - p. 819 - 831.
    Atherosclerosis - Cardiovascular disease - Diabetes complications - Glycolysis - Immunometabolism - Inflammation - Trained immunity

    Abstract: Stimulation of monocytes with microbial and non-microbial products, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), induces a protracted pro-inflammatory, atherogenic phenotype sustained by metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming via a process called trained immunity. We investigated the intracellular metabolic mechanisms driving oxLDL-induced trained immunity in human primary monocytes and observed concomitant upregulation of glycolytic activity and oxygen consumption. In two separate cohorts of healthy volunteers, we assessed the impact of genetic variation in glycolytic genes on the training capacity of monocytes and found that variants mapped to glycolytic enzymes PFKFB3 and PFKP influenced trained immunity by oxLDL. Subsequent functional validation with inhibitors of glycolytic metabolism revealed dose-dependent inhibition of trained immunity in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the glucose metabolism modulator metformin abrogated the ability for human monocytes to mount a trained response to oxLDL. These findings underscore the importance of cellular metabolism for oxLDL-induced trained immunity and highlight potential immunomodulatory strategies for clinical management of atherosclerosis. Key messages: Brief stimulation of monocytes to oxLDL induces a prolonged inflammatory phenotype.This is due to upregulation of glycolytic metabolism.Genetic variation in glycolytic genes modulates oxLDL-induced trained immunity.Pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis prevents trained immunity.

    Klimaatlat: Snelle mestafvoer noodzaak
    Mollenhorst, Erwin - \ 2020
    Above- and Below-ground Cascading Effects of Wild Ungulates in Temperate Forests
    Ramirez, Ignacio ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Ouden, Jan den; Moktan, Laxmi ; Herdoiza, Natalie ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2020
    Ecosystems (2020). - ISSN 1432-9840
    decomposition - invertebrate - litter - mineralization - regeneration - rodent - soil quality - temperate forest - Ungulate

    Ungulates have become abundant in many temperate forests, shifting tree species composition by browsing and altering soil physical conditions by trampling. Whether these effects cascade down to other trophic levels and ecosystem processes is poorly understood. Here, we assess the paths through which ungulates have cascading effects on other trophic levels (regeneration, litter, invertebrates, rodents and organic matter decomposition). We compared ungulate effects by comparing 15 response variables related to different trophic levels between paired fenced and unfenced plots in twelve temperate forest sites across the Netherlands, and used pathway analysis model to identify the (in)direct pathways through which ungulates have influenced these variables. We found that plots with ungulates (that is, unfenced) compared to plots without (that is, fenced) had lower litter depth, sapling diversity, sapling density, rodent activity, macro-invertebrate biomass, decomposition rate of tea bags, pine and birch litter and higher soil compaction. These findings were used in a path analysis to establish potential causal relationships, which showed that ungulate presence: decreased sapling density, which indirectly decreased rodent activity; decreased litter depth, which indirectly reduced invertebrate diversity; increased soil compaction, which also decreased invertebrate diversity. Soil pH decreased invertebrate biomass, which also increased nitrogen mineralization. Yet, we did not find cascading effects of ungulates on decomposition rates. Importantly, an increase in ungulate abundance strengthens the cascading effects in this system. Our results suggest that ungulates can trigger cascading effects on lower trophic levels, yet decomposition and mineralization rates are resilient to ungulate browsing and trampling. Therefore, temperate forests conservation could benefit by limiting ungulate abundance.

    Population dynamics of Hippophae rhamnoides shrub in response of sea-level rise and insect outbreaks
    Decuyper, Mathieu ; Dool, Robbert Van Den; Slim, Pieter A. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Jansen, Jeroen M. ; Sass-Klaassen, Ute - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)5. - ISSN 1932-6203
    The coastal vegetation of islands is expected to be affected by future sea-level rise and other anthropogenic impacts. The biodiverse coastal vegetation on the eastern part of the Dutch Wadden Island of Ameland has experienced land subsidence caused by gas extraction since 1986. This subsidence mimics future sea-level rising through increased flooding and raising groundwater levels. We studied the effects of this relative sea-level rise and other environmental factors (i.e. insect outbreaks, temperature and precipitation) on the population dynamics (i.e. cover and age structure and annual growth) of the shrub sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in young (formed after 1950) and old (formed before 1950) dune areas over a period of 56 years (1959–2015). We found an increase in sea-buckthorn cover in the young dune areas since 1959, while over time the population in the old dunes decreased due to successional replacement by other species. With the increasing age of the young dunes, we found also a decrease in sea-buckthorn after 2009. However the sharp decrease indicated that other environmental factors were also involved. The most important determinant of annual shrub growth appeared to be five outbreaks of the brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.), in the last decade. Relative sea-level rise caused more frequent flooding and reduced growth at lower elevations due to inundation or soil water saturation. This study clearly indicates that sea-buckthorn is affected by relative sea-level rise, but that other ecological events better explain its variation in growth. Although shrub distribution and growth can be monitored with robust methods, future predictions of vegetation dynamics are complicated by unpredictable extreme events caused by (a)biotic stressors such as insect outbreaks.
    Data from: Differential immunomodulation of porcine bone marrow derived dendritic cells by E. coli Nissle 1917 and β-glucans
    Geervliet, Mirelle ; Lute, Carolien ; Jansen, Christine A. ; Rutten, Victor ; Savelkoul, Huub ; Tijhaar, Edwin - \ 2020
    Wageningen University and Research
    Dendritic cells - E. coli Nissle 1917 - Immunomodulation - Porcine - β-glucans
    This in vitro study assessed the immunomodulatory properties of yeast-derived β-glucans (MacroGard®) and the Gram-negative probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) using fresh and cryopreserved porcine BMDCs.
    An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design : How many, how long and when?
    Kays, Roland ; Arbogast, Brian S. ; Baker-Whatton, Megan ; Beirne, Chris ; Boone, Hailey M. ; Bowler, Mark ; Burneo, Santiago F. ; Cove, Michael V. ; Ding, Ping ; Espinosa, Santiago ; Gonçalves, André Luis Sousa ; Hansen, Christopher P. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Kolowski, Joseph M. ; Knowles, Travis W. ; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira ; Millspaugh, Joshua ; McShea, William J. ; Pacifici, Krishna ; Parsons, Arielle W. ; Pease, Brent S. ; Rovero, Francesco ; Santos, Fernanda ; Schuttler, Stephanie G. ; Sheil, Douglas ; Si, Xingfeng ; Snider, Matt ; Spironello, Wilson R. - \ 2020
    Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11 (2020)6. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 700 - 713.
    camera traps - community ecology - detectability - mammals - relative abundance - species richness - study design - wildlife surveys

    Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2,225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness, occupancy and detection rate) for mammals. We found that 25–35 camera sites were needed for precise estimates of species richness, depending on scale of the study. The precision of species-level estimates of occupancy (ψ) was highly sensitive to occupancy level, with <20 camera sites needed for precise estimates of common (ψ > 0.75) species, but more than 150 camera sites likely needed for rare (ψ < 0.25) species. Species detection rates were more difficult to estimate precisely at the grid level due to spatial heterogeneity, presumably driven by unaccounted habitat variability factors within the study area. Running a camera at a site for 2 weeks was most efficient for detecting new species, but 3–4 weeks were needed for precise estimates of local detection rate, with no gains in precision observed after 1 month. Metrics for all mammal communities were sensitive to seasonality, with 37%–50% of the species at the sites we examined fluctuating significantly in their occupancy or detection rates over the year. This effect was more pronounced in temperate sites, where seasonally sensitive species varied in relative abundance by an average factor of 4–5, and some species were completely absent in one season due to hibernation or migration. We recommend the following guidelines to efficiently obtain precise estimates of species richness, occupancy and detection rates with camera trap arrays: run each camera for 3–5 weeks across 40–60 sites per array. We recommend comparisons of detection rates be model based and include local covariates to help account for small-scale variation. Furthermore, comparisons across study areas or times must account for seasonality, which could have strong impacts on mammal communities in both tropical and temperate sites.

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics for simultaneous monitoring of cell concentration, chlorophyll and fatty acids in Nannochloropsis oceanica
    Sá, Marta ; Bertinetto, Carlo G. ; Ferrer-Ledo, Narcís ; Jansen, Jeroen J. ; Wijffels, Rene ; Crespo, João G. ; Barbosa, Maria ; Galinha, Claudia F. - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322 - 10 p.

    Online monitoring of algal biotechnological processes still requires development to support economic sustainability. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with chemometric modelling is studied to monitor simultaneously several compounds of interest, such as chlorophyll and fatty acids, but also the biomass as a whole (cell concentration). Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) were acquired in experiments where different environmental growing parameters were tested, namely light regime, temperature and nitrogen (replete or deplete medium). The prediction models developed have a high R2 for the validation data set for all five parameters monitored, specifically cell concentration (0.66), chlorophyll (0.78), and fatty acid as total (0.78), saturated (0.81) and unsaturated (0.74). Regression coefficient maps of the models show the importance of the pigment region for all outputs studied, and the protein-like fluorescence region for the cell concentration. These results demonstrate for the first time the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo and real-time monitoring of these key performance parameters during Nannochloropsis oceanica cultivation.

    Increased terrestriality in a Neotropical primate living on islands with reduced predation risk
    Monteza-Moreno, Claudio M. ; Crofoot, Margaret C. ; Grote, Mark N. ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2020
    Journal of human evolution 143 (2020). - ISSN 0047-2484
    Cebus capucinus imitator - Ocelot - Predation risk - Terrestrial locomotion - White-faced capuchin

    An arboreal lifestyle is thought to be central to primate origins, and most extant primate species still live in the trees. Nonetheless, terrestrial locomotion is a widespread adaptation that has arisen repeatedly within the primate lineage. The absence of terrestriality among the New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) is thus notable and raises questions about the ecological pressures that constrain the expansion of platyrrhines into terrestrial niches. Here, we report the results of a natural experiment, comparing patterns of terrestrial behavior in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator) living on two islands off the Pacific coast of Panama that lack mammalian predators (island sites) with the behavior of capuchins at three sites in central Panama with more intact predator communities (mainland sites). Surveys with camera traps revealed increased terrestriality in island vs. mainland sites. Capuchin detection rates were higher, the range of party sizes observed was larger, and individuals engaged in a wider range of terrestrial behaviors on the islands lacking mammalian predators. Furthermore, females carrying infants were frequently photographed on the ground at the island sites, but never at the mainland sites. These findings support the long-standing hypothesis that predators constrain the exploitation of terrestrial niches by primates. These results are also consistent with the hypothesis that arboreal locomotion imposes costs that primates will avoid by walking on the ground when predation risk is low.

    The influence of a front-of-pack nutrition label on product reformulation : A ten-year evaluation of the Dutch Choices programme
    Bend, Daphne L.M. van der; Jansen, Léon ; Velde, Gerben van der; Blok, Vincent - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry: X 6 (2020). - ISSN 2590-1575
    Dutch Choices Logo - Front-of-Pack nutrition labelling - Product nutrient composition - Product reformulation

    Front-of-pack (FoP) labels are regarded as helpful tools to stimulate healthier product reformulation as they are based on nutrient criteria that products should comply with in order to obtain the label. Some FoP labelling programs revise criteria periodically. This is the first study investigating the impact of criteria revisions on product compositions over time. Nutrient contents of 4,343 products, including 27 basic and non-basic product (sub) categories with the Dutch Choices Logo were analysed between 2006 and 2016. The number of labelled products increased over time. Sodium and trans-fat contents reduced significantly in 10 and 11 product categories, respectively. Energy, saturated fat and added sugar decreased significantly whilst fibre increased in 4–6 product categories. Overall, labelled products had healthier compositions and more favourable trends in nutrient content compared with products generally on the Dutch market. The results of this study suggest an important role for FoP labels in product reformulation.

    Coronavirus gives wildlife experiment a boost
    Jansen, Patrick - \ 2020
    Carbon footprint pig production : DATA-FAIR report on exchange of sustainability information in the pork supply chain
    Bondt, N. ; Ponsioen, T. ; Puister-Jansen, L. ; Vellinga, T. ; Urdu, D. ; Robbemond, R.M. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2020-011) - 51
    The exchange of sustainability information in the supply chain is becoming increasingly important. Relevant attributes are animal welfare, the environment and other issues that are important for the consumer and the buyer. Wageningen Economic Research contributed to the measurement and exchange of sustainability information through the pork chain, in collaboration with HAS Den Bosch, ZLTO and the Vion Food Group. In this trial, this was concretely elaborated for the carbon footprint of pork. The project was carried out in the framework of a Public-Private Partnership project called DATA-FAIR, which investigates and innovates methods for data exchange in food chains.
    Classification of the European marsh vegetation (Phragmito-Magnocaricetea) to the association level
    Landucci, Flavia ; Šumberová, Kateřina ; Tichý, Lubomír ; Hennekens, Stephan ; Aunina, Liene ; Biță-Nicolae, Claudia ; Borsukevych, Lyubov ; Bobrov, Alexander ; Čarni, Andraž ; Bie, Els De ; Golub, Valentin ; Hrivnák, Richard ; Iemelianova, Svitlana ; Jandt, Ute ; Jansen, Florian ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Lájer, Konrád ; Papastergiadou, Eva ; Šilc, Urban ; Sinkevičienė, Zofija ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Stepanovič, Jazep ; Teteryuk, Boris ; Tzonev, Rossen ; Venanzoni, Roberto ; Zelnik, Igor ; Chytrý, Milan - \ 2020
    Applied Vegetation Science 23 (2020)2. - ISSN 1402-2001 - p. 297 - 316.
    Association - cocktail method - consistency - discriminating species groups - functional species group - physiognomy - sociological species group - vegetation classification - vegetation database - wetland vegetation

    Aims: To create a comprehensive, consistent and unequivocal phytosociological classification of European marsh vegetation of the class Phragmito-Magnocaricetea. Location: Europe. Methods: We applied the Cocktail method to a European data set of 249,800 vegetation plots. We identified the main purposes and attributes on which to base the classification, defined assignment rules for vegetation plots, and prepared formal definitions for all the associations, alliances and orders of the class Phragmito-Magnocaricetea using formal logic. Each formula consists of the combination of “functional species groups”, cover values of individual species, and in the case of high-rank syntaxa also of “discriminating species groups” created using the Group Improvement (GRIMP) method. Results: The European Phragmito-Magnocaricetea vegetation was classified into 92 associations grouped in 11 alliances and six orders. New syntaxa (previously invalidly published according to the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature) were introduced: Bolboschoeno maritimi-Schoenoplection tabernaemontani, Glycerio maximae-Sietum latifolii, Glycerio notatae-Veronicetum beccabungae, Schoenoplectetum corymbosi and Thelypterido palustris-Caricetum elongatae. Based on a critical revision, some other syntaxa were rejected or excluded from the class Phragmito-Magnocaricetea. Conclusions: This work provides the first consistent classification of the class Phragmito-Magnocaricetea at the European scale, which is an important tool for nature conservation. Our classification largely respects previously existing concepts of syntaxa, but it also proposes modifications to the recently published EuroVegChecklist. This work also provides a protocol that can be used for extending the current classification to new syntaxa and geographical regions.

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