Rethinking organic wastes bioconversion: Evaluating the potential of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.)) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) (BSF)
Surendra, K.C. ; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. ; Huis, Arnold van; Cammack, Jonathan A. ; Heckmann, Lars Henrik L. ; Khanal, Samir Kumar - \ 2020
Waste Management 117 (2020). - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 58 - 80.
Bioactive compounds - Biobased products - Bioconversion - Biodiesel - Biorefinery - Black soldier fly - Feed - Organic fertilizer - Organic wastes
Population growth and unprecedented economic growth and urbanization, especially in low- and middle-income countries, coupled with extreme weather patterns, the high-environmental footprint of agricultural practices, and disposal-oriented waste management practices, require significant changes in the ways we produce food, feed and fuel, and manage enormous amounts of organic wastes. Farming insects such as the black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) on diverse organic wastes provides an opportunity for producing nutrient-rich animal feed, fuel, organic fertilizer, and biobased products with concurrent valorization of wastes. Inclusion of BSF larvae/pupae in the diets of poultry, fish, and swine has shown promise as a potential substitute of conventional feed ingredients such as soybean meal and fish meal. Moreover, the bioactive compounds such as antimicrobial peptides, medium chain fatty acids, and chitin and its derivatives present in BSF larvae/pupae, could also add values to the animal diets. However, to realize the full potential of BSF-based biorefining, more research and development efforts are necessary for scaling up the production and processing of BSF biomass using more mechanized and automated systems. More studies are also needed to ensure the safety of the BSF biomass grown on various organic wastes for animal feed (also food) and legalizing the feed application of BSF biomass to wider categories of animals. This critical review presents the current status of the BSF technology, identifies the research gaps, highlights the challenges towards industrial scale production, and provides future perspectives.
Commercial channels vs free distribution and screening of agricultural learning videos : A case study from Benin and Mali
Zoundji, Gérard C. ; Okry, Florent ; Vodouhê, Simplice D. ; Bentley, Jeffery W. ; Witteveen, Loes - \ 2020
Experimental Agriculture 56 (2020)4. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 544 - 560.
Agricultural learning video - Development intervention programs - Food security
Farmers' access to reliable information is crucial to improving rural livelihoods, food security, and national economies in West Africa. This paper discusses the dynamics of accessing and using agricultural learning videos from commercial channels, vs project and non-project channels in Benin and Mali. Using combinations of different models to assess the effectiveness of agricultural extension programs, the findings showed that farmers were motivated to pay for videos and watch them by themselves, without facilitation. Farmers who watched the videos through project support have also continued to watch on their own if the videos are of interest to them. Nevertheless, farmers were less motivated in the learning process when they received the Digital Video Disc (DVD) free and without support to watch them. We also found that the distribution of learning videos through commercial channels reaches more serious users and increases farmers' self-determination for learning, and farmers are more motivated to provide feedback than viewers who receive DVDs for free or via project support, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), or farmer organizations. Although buying a DVD is an individual action, they like to watch the videos in groups. After buying the DVD, about 43% of respondent borrowed DVD players and one person in five bought a DVD player to watch the videos. Efforts to promote improved technologies need to expand beyond the conventional focus on research and extension services. Support to agricultural technology dissemination must go beyond assistance to smallholder farmers and NGOs (practical implication). As the private sector has a role to play, both in making technologies available and in teaching farmers how to use them, their contribution would create space for innovation (theoretical implication). Our findings suggest that successful development intervention programs can be sell audiovisual material to farmers, who will use it proactively.
Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.
The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.
Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria
Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.
|Resource conversion by black soldier fly larvae: towards standardisation of methods and reporting
Bosch, G. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Jordan, H.R. ; Zhang, J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. - \ 2019
In: Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP book of abstracts No. 25 ) - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 324 - 324.
|A cross-laboratory study on analytical variability of amino acid content in three insect species
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Bosch, G. ; Borght, M. Van Der; Smets, R. ; Gasco, L. ; Fascetti, A.J. ; Yu, Z. ; Johnson, V. ; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. ; Finke, M.D. - \ 2019
In: Book of Abstracts of the 70th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP book of abstracts No. 25 ) - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 327 - 327.
Standardisation of quantitative resource conversion studies with black soldier fly larvae
Bosch, G. ; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Jordan, H.R. ; Zhang, J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. - \ 2019
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 6 (2019)2. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 95 - 109.
Using larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens; BSF) to convert low-value residual organic resources into high-value products like protein-rich animal feed ingredients and biofuel while managing organic waste has developed into a global industry. Considering the associated exponential increase in publications dealing with diet conversion efficiency by BSF larvae, it is timely to suggest procedures to arrive at an improved harmonization and reproducibility among studies. This means establishing protocols for describing the basic experiment design, fly colony origin, rearing procedures, reference and experimental feeding substrates, and sampling preparations including microbiota and chemical analyses. Such standardised protocols are instrumental to allow conversion efficiencies to be calculated. Some of these parameters are relatively easy to describe such as giving the origin and rearing conditions, while others are more challenging (e.g. description of microbe community). In this article we discuss and propose such procedures with the aim to arrive at standardisation of how future resource conversion studies with BSF larvae are conducted and how results are communicated.
The FAIR Funder pilot programme to make it easy for funders to require and for grantees to produce FAIR Data
Wittenburg, Peter ; Sustkova, Hana Pergl ; Montesanti, Annalisa ; Bloemers, Margreet ; Waard, S.H. de; Musen, Mark A. ; Graybeal, John ; Hettne, Kristina M. ; Jacobsen, Annika ; Pergl, Robert ; Hooft, Rob W.W. ; Staiger, Christine ; Gelder, Celia W.G. van; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L. ; Arkel, A.C. van; Meerman, Bert ; Wilkinson, Mark D. ; Sansone, S.A. ; Rocca-Serra, Philippe ; McQuilton, Peter ; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra N. ; Aben, G.J.C. ; Henning, P. ; Menezes Alencar, Maria Simone de; Ribeiro, C. ; Silva, C.R.L. ; Sayao, Luis ; Sales, Luana ; Veiga, Viviane ; Lima, Jefferson ; Dib, Simone ; Xavier dos Santos, Paula dos; Murtinho, R. ; Tendel, Jakob ; Schaap, B.F. ; Brouwer, P.M. ; Gavai, A.K. ; Bouzembrak, Yamine ; Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Mons, Albert ; Kuhn, Tobias ; Gambardella, A.A. ; Miranda Azevedo, Ricardo de; Muhonen, Vesa ; Naald, Mira van der; Smit, N.W. ; Buys, M.J. ; Bruin, Taco F. de; Schoots, Fieke ; Goodson, H.J.E. ; Rzepa, Henry S. ; Jeffery, Keith G. ; Shanahan, Hugh P. ; Axton, M. ; Tkachenko, Veniamin ; Deslattes Maya, Anne ; Meyers, Natalie ; Conlon, Michael ; Haak, Laurel L. ; Schultes, Erik - \ 2019
arXiv - 13 p.
There is a growing acknowledgement in the scientific community of the importance of making experimental data machine findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR). Recognizing that high quality metadata are essential to make datasets FAIR, members of the GO FAIR Initiative and the Research Data Alliance (RDA) have initiated a series of workshops to encourage the creation of Metadata for Machines (M4M), enabling any self-identified stakeholder to define and promote the reuse of standardized, comprehensive machine-actionable metadata. The funders of scientific research recognize that they have an important role to play in ensuring that experimental results are FAIR, and that high quality metadata and careful planning for FAIR data stewardship are central to these goals. We describe the outcome of a recent M4M workshop that has led to a pilot programme involving two national science funders, the Health Research Board of Ireland (HRB) and the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMW). These funding organizations will explore new technologies to define at the time that a request for proposals is issued the minimal set of machine-actionable metadata that they would like investigators to use to annotate their datasets, to enable investigators to create such metadata to help make their data FAIR, and to develop data-stewardship plans that ensure that experimental data will be managed appropriately abiding by the FAIR principles. The FAIR Funders design envisions a data-management workflow having seven essential stages, where solution providers are openly invited to participate. The initial pilot programme will launch using existing computer-based tools of those who attended the M4M Workshop.
Disentangling the genetics of lean mass
Karasik, David ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Aghdassi, Ali ; Akesson, Kristina ; Amin, Najaf ; Barroso, Inês ; Bennett, David A. ; Bertram, Lars ; Bochud, Murielle ; Borecki, Ingrid B. ; Broer, Linda ; Buchman, Aron S. ; Byberg, Liisa ; Campbell, Harry ; Campos-Obando, Natalia ; Cauley, Jane A. ; Cawthon, Peggy M. ; Chambers, John C. ; Chen, Zhao ; Cho, Nam H. ; Choi, Hyung Jin ; Chou, Wen Chi ; Cummings, Steven R. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Jager, Phillip L. De; Demuth, Ilja ; Diatchenko, Luda ; Econs, Michael J. ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Enneman, Anke W. ; Eriksson, Joel ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Estrada, Karol ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Feitosa, Mary F. ; Fu, Mao ; Gieger, Christian ; Grallert, Harald ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Lenore, Launer J. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Hofman, Albert ; Homuth, Georg ; Huffman, Kim M. ; Husted, Lise B. ; Illig, Thomas ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Ittermann, Till ; Jansson, John Olov ; Johnson, Toby ; Biffar, Reiner ; Jordan, Joanne M. ; Jula, Antti ; Karlsson, Magnus ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. ; Klopp, Norman ; Kloth, Jacqueline S.L. ; Koller, Daniel L. ; Kooner, Jaspal S. ; Kraus, William E. ; Kritchevsky, Stephen ; Kutalik, Zoltán ; Kuulasmaa, Teemu ; Kuusisto, Johanna ; Laakso, Markku ; Lahti, Jari ; Lang, Thomas ; Langdahl, Bente L. ; Lerch, Markus M. ; Lewis, Joshua R. ; Lill, Christina ; Lind, Lars ; Lindgren, Cecilia ; Liu, Yongmei ; Livshits, Gregory ; Ljunggren, Östen ; Loos, Ruth J.F. ; Lorentzon, Mattias ; Luan, Jian An ; Luben, Robert N. ; Malkin, Ida ; McGuigan, Fiona E. ; Medina-Gomez, Carolina ; Meitinger, Thomas ; Melhus, Håkan ; Mellström, Dan ; Michaëlsson, Karl ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Morris, Andrew P. ; Mosekilde, Leif ; Nethander, Maria ; Newman, Anne B. ; Oconnell, Jeffery R. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Orwoll, Eric S. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Peacock, Munro ; Perola, Markus ; Peters, Annette ; Prince, Richard L. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Ralston, Stuart H. ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Robbins, John A. ; Rotter, Jerome I. ; Rudan, Igor ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Satterfield, Suzanne ; Schipf, Sabine ; Shin, Chan Soo ; Smith, Albert V. ; Smith, Shad B. ; Soranzo, Nicole ; Spector, Timothy D. ; StanÄ Áková, Alena ; Stefansson, Kari ; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth ; Stolk, Lisette ; Streeten, Elizabeth A. ; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur ; Swart, Karin M.A. ; Thompson, Patricia ; Thomson, Cynthia A. ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Tikkanen, Emmi ; Tranah, Gregory J. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Duijn, Cornelia M. Van; Schoor, Natasja M. Van; Vandenput, Liesbeth ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Völzke, Henry ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; Walker, Mark ; J Wareham, Nicholas ; Waterworth, Dawn ; Weedon, Michael N. ; Wichmann, H.E. ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Williams, Frances M.K. ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Nicole C. ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. ; Yu, Lei ; Zhang, Weihua ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Zhou, Yanhua ; Nielson, Carrie M. ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Demissie, Serkalem ; Kiel, Douglas P. ; Ohlsson, Claes - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 276 - 278.
body composition - body fat - meta-Analysis of genome-wide association studies - metabolic profile - skeletal muscle
Background Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age 2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.
Extending Near-Term Emissions Scenarios to Assess Warming Implications of Paris Agreement NDCs
Gutschow, J. ; Jeffery, Mairi L. ; Hare, Bill ; Schaeffer, M. - \ 2018
Earth's Future 6 (2018). - ISSN 2328-4277 - p. 1242 - 1259.
In the Paris Agreement countries have agreed to act together to hold global warming well below 2°C over preindustrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C. To assess if the world is on track to meet this long‐term temperature goal, countries' pledged emissions reductions (Nationally Determined Contributions, NDCs) need to be analyzed for their implied warming. Several research groups and nongovernmental organizations have estimated this warming and arrived at very different results but have invariably concluded that the current pledges are inadequate to hold warming below 2°C, let alone 1.5°C. In this paper we analyze different methods to estimate 2100 global mean temperature rise implied by countries' NDCs, which often only specify commitments until 2030. We present different methods to extend near‐term emissions pathways that have been developed by the authors or used by different research groups and nongovernmental organizations to estimate 21st century warming consequences of Paris Agreement commitments. The abilities of these methods to project both low and high warming scenarios in line with the scenario literature is assessed. We find that the simpler methods are not suitable for temperature projections while more complex methods can produce results consistent with the energy and economic scenario literature. We further find that some methods can have a strong high or low temperature bias depending on parameter choices. The choice of methods to evaluate the consistency of aggregated NDC commitments is very important for reviewing progress toward the Paris Agreement's long‐term temperature goal.
Understanding root, tuber, and banana seed systems and coordination breakdown : a multi-stakeholder framework
Bentley, Jeffery W. ; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge ; Demo, Paul ; Dzomeku, Beloved ; Jacobsen, Kim ; Kikulwe, Enoch ; Kromann, Peter ; Kumar, P.L. ; McEwan, Margaret ; Mudege, Netsayi ; Ogero, Kwame ; Okechukwu, Richardson ; Orrego, Ricardo ; Ospina, Bernardo ; Sperling, Louise ; Walsh, Stephen ; Thiele, Graham - \ 2018
Journal of Crop Improvement 32 (2018)5. - ISSN 1542-7528 - p. 599 - 621.
Bananas and plantains - root crops - seed security - seed systems - tuber crops - vegetatively propagated crops (VPC)
Vegetatively propagated crop (VPC) seed tends to remain true to varietal type but is bulky, often carries disease, and is slow to produce. So VPC seed needs to be handled differently than that of other crops, e.g., it tends to be sourced locally, often must be fresh, and it is less often sold on the market. Hence, a framework was adapted to describe and support interventions in such seed systems. The framework was used with 13 case studies to understand VPC seed systems for roots, tubers, and bananas, including differing roles and sometimes conflicting goals of stakeholders, and to identify potential coordination breakdowns when actors fail to develop a shared understanding and vision. In this article, we review those case studies. The framework is a critical tool to (a) document VPC seed systems and build evidence; (b) diagnose and treat coordination breakdown and (c) guide decision-makers and donors on the design of more sustainable seed system interventions for VPCs. The framework can be used to analyze past interventions and will be useful for planning future VPC seed programs.
Environmental Data Science
Gibert, Karina ; Horsburgh, Jeffery S. ; Athanasiadis, I.N. ; Holmes, Geoff - \ 2018
Environmental Modelling & Software 106 (2018). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 4 - 12.
Data Science - Data driven modelling - Environmental Sciences
Environmental data are growing in complexity, size, and resolution. Addressing the types of large, multidisciplinary problems faced by today's environmental scientists requires the ability to leverage available data and information to inform decision making. Successfully synthesizing heterogeneous data from multiple sources to support holistic analyses and extraction of new knowledge requires application of Data Science. In this paper, we present the origins and a brief history of Data Science. We revisit prior efforts to define Data Science and provide a more modern, working definition. We describe the new professional profile of a data scientist and new and emerging applications of Data Science within Environmental Sciences. We conclude with a discussion of current challenges for Environmental Data Science and suggest a path forward.
Preface to the thematic issue on Environmental Data Science. Applications to air quality and water cycle
Gibert, Karina ; Horsburgh, Jeffery S. ; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N. ; Holmes, Geoff - \ 2018
Environmental Modelling & Software 106 (2018). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 1 - 3.
Efficient co-conversion process of chicken manure into protein feed and organic fertilizer by Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera : Stratiomyidae) larvae and functional bacteria
Xiao, Xiaopeng ; Mazza, Lorenzo ; Yu, Yongqiang ; Cai, Minmin ; Zheng, Longyu ; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. ; Yu, Jeffrey ; Huis, Arnold van; Yu, Ziniu ; Fasulo, Salvatore ; Zhang, Jibin - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Management 217 (2018). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 668 - 676.
Chicken manure reduction rate - Feed stuff - Functional bacteria - Hermetia illucens L. larvae - Organic fertilizer - Waste management
A chicken manure management process was carried out through co-conversion of Hermetia illucens L. larvae (BSFL) with functional bacteria for producing larvae as feed stuff and organic fertilizer. Thirteen days co-conversion of 1000 kg of chicken manure inoculated with one million 6-day-old BSFL and 109 CFU Bacillus subtilis BSF-CL produced aging larvae, followed by eleven days of aerobic fermentation inoculated with the decomposing agent to maturity. 93.2 kg of fresh larvae were harvested from the B. subtilis BSF-CL-inoculated group, while the control group only harvested 80.4 kg of fresh larvae. Chicken manure reduction rate of the B. subtilis BSF-CL-inoculated group was 40.5%, while chicken manure reduction rate of the control group was 35.8%. The weight of BSFL increased by 15.9%, BSFL conversion rate increased by 12.7%, and chicken manure reduction rate increased by 13.4% compared to the control (no B. subtilis BSF-CL). The residue inoculated with decomposing agent had higher maturity (germination index >92%), compared with the no decomposing agent group (germination index ∼86%). The activity patterns of different enzymes further indicated that its production was more mature and stable than that of the no decomposing agent group. Physical and chemical production parameters showed that the residue inoculated with the decomposing agent was more suitable for organic fertilizer than the no decomposing agent group. Both, the co-conversion of chicken manure by BSFL with its synergistic bacteria and the aerobic fermentation with the decomposing agent required only 24 days. The results demonstrate that co-conversion process could shorten the processing time of chicken manure compared to traditional compost process. Gut bacteria could enhance manure conversion and manure reduction. We established efficient manure co-conversion process by black soldier fly and bacteria and harvest high value-added larvae mass and biofertilizer.
Publisher Correction : Enterotypes in the landscape of gut microbial community composition
Costea, Paul I. ; Hildebrand, Falk ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Bäckhed, Fredrik ; Blaser, Martin J. ; Bushman, Frederic D. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Ehrlich, S.D. ; Fraser, Claire M. ; Hattori, Masahira ; Huttenhower, Curtis ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Knights, Dan ; Lewis, James D. ; Ley, Ruth E. ; Ochman, Howard ; O’Toole, Paul W. ; Quince, Christopher ; Relman, David A. ; Shanahan, Fergus ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Wang, Jun ; Weinstock, George M. ; Wu, Gary D. ; Zeller, Georg ; Zhao, Liping ; Raes, Jeroen ; Knight, Rob ; Bork, Peer - \ 2018
Nature Microbiology 3 (2018). - ISSN 2058-5276
In the version of this Perspective originally published, the first and last name of co-author Manimozhiyan Arumugam were switched. This has now been corrected in all versions of the Perspective.
Enterotypes in the landscape of gut microbial community composition
Costea, Paul I. ; Hildebrand, Falk ; Manimozhiyan, Arumugam ; Bäckhed, Fredrik ; Blaser, Martin J. ; Bushman, Frederic D. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Ehrlich, S.D. ; Fraser, Claire M. ; Hattori, Masahira ; Huttenhower, Curtis ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Knights, Dan ; Lewis, James D. ; Ley, Ruth E. ; Ochman, Howard ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Quince, Christopher ; Relman, David A. ; Shanahan, Fergus ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Wang, Jun ; Weinstock, George M. ; Wu, Gary D. ; Zeller, Georg ; Zhao, Liping ; Raes, Jeroen ; Knight, Rob ; Bork, Peer - \ 2017
Nature Microbiology 3 (2017)1. - ISSN 2058-5276 - p. 8 - 16.
Population stratification is a useful approach for a better understanding of complex biological problems in human health and wellbeing. The proposal that such stratification applies to the human gut microbiome, in the form of distinct community composition types termed enterotypes, has been met with both excitement and controversy. In view of accumulated data and re-analyses since the original work, we revisit the concept of enterotypes, discuss different methods of dividing up the landscape of possible microbiome configurations, and put these concepts into functional, ecological and medical contexts. As enterotypes are of use in describing the gut microbial community landscape and may become relevant in clinical practice, we aim to reconcile differing views and encourage a balanced application of the concept.
Insects as food and feed: from production to consumption
Huis, Arnold van; Tomberlin, Jeffery K. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Press - ISBN 9789086862962 - 447
Alternative protein sources are urgently required as the available land area is not sufficient to satisfy the growing demand for meat. Insects have a high potential of becoming a new sector in the food and feed industry, mainly because of the many environmental benefits when compared to meat production. This will be outlined in the book, as well as the whole process from rearing to marketing. The rearing involves large scale and small scale production, facility design, the management of diseases , and how to assure that the insects will be of high quality (genetics). The nutrient content of insects will be discussed and how this is influenced by life stage, diet, the environment and processing. Technological processing requires decontamination, preservation, and ensuring microbial safety. The prevention of health risks (e.g. allergies) will be discussed as well as labelling, certification and legislative frameworks. Additional issues are: insect welfare, the creation of an enabling environment, how to deal with consumers, gastronomy and marketing strategies. Examples of production systems will be given both from the tropics and from temperate zones.
Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields
Jeffery, Simon ; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego ; Prodana, Marija ; Bastos, Ana Catarina ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Hungate, Bruce A. ; Verheijen, Frank - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)5. - ISSN 1748-9318
biochar - crop yield - meta-analysis - soil
Applying biochar to soil is thought to have multiple benefits, from helping mitigate climate change [1, 2], to managing waste  to conserving soil . Biochar is also widely assumed to boost crop yield [5, 6], but there is controversy regarding the extent and cause of any yield benefit . Here we use a global-scale meta-analysis to show that biochar has, on average, no effect on crop yield in temperate latitudes, yet elicits a 25% average increase in yield in the tropics. In the tropics, biochar increased yield through liming and fertilization, consistent with the low soil pH, low fertility, and low fertilizer inputs typical of arable tropical soils. We also found that, in tropical soils, high-nutrient biochar inputs stimulated yield substantially more than low-nutrient biochar, further supporting the role of nutrient fertilization in the observed yield stimulation. In contrast, arable soils in temperate regions are moderate in pH, higher in fertility, and generally receive higher fertilizer inputs, leaving little room for additional benefits from biochar. Our findings demonstrate that the yield-stimulating effects of biochar are not universal, but may especially benefit agriculture in low-nutrient, acidic soils in the tropics. Biochar management in temperate zones should focus on potential non-yield benefits such as lime and fertilizer cost savings, greenhouse gas emissions control, and other ecosystem services.
Initial biochar effects on plant productivity derive from N fertilization
Jeffery, S.L. ; Memelink, Ilse ; Hodgson, Edward ; Jones, S. ; Voorde, T.F.J. van de; Bezemer, T.M. ; Mommer, L. ; Groenigen, J.W. van - \ 2017
Plant and Soil 415 (2017)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 435 - 448.
Background and aim
Biochar application to soil is widely claimed to increase plant productivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not conclusively described. Here, we aim to elucidate these mechanisms using stable isotope probing.
We conducted two experiments with uniquely double-labelled (15N and 13C) biochar and its feedstock (residue), applied separately at 15 Mg ha−1. Both experiments contained three treatments: biochar amendment (Biochar), unpyrolysed residue amendment (Residue) and a no addition control (Control). Experiment I was a 119 day pot experiment seeded with Lolium perenne. Experiment II was a 71 day incubation experiment without plants in which CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured.
Both Biochar and Residue significantly increased aboveground productivity compared to Control (140% and 160%, respectively). Initial N immobilisation was stimulated in Residue, whereas not in Biochar. 13C–CO2 analysis confirmed that biochar was significantly more recalcitrant than residue. 15N analysis showed that 2% and 0.3% of grass N was derived from the amended material in Residue and Biochar, respectively.
Our results suggest that biochar-induced yield increases derive from a combination of reduced N immobilization and a moderate N fertilization effect. Although in the short term biochar might offer benefits compared to residue incorporation, it is unlikely that biochar yield gains will be sustainable for the decades to centuries that biochar C can be expected to reside in soil.
Corrigendum to "Biochar effects on methane emissions from soils: A meta-analysis" : [Soil Biol. Biochem. 101 (2016) 251-258]
Jeffery, Simon ; Verheijen, Frank G.A. ; Kammann, Claudia ; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego - \ 2017
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 105 (2017). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 253 - 253.