Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Harmonising, improving and using social and recreational data in National Forest Inventories across Europe
    Atkinson, Mark A. ; Edwards, David M. ; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der; Ditchburn, Ben R. ; Sievänen, Tuija ; Gasparini, Patrizia - \ 2020
    Annals of Forest Science 77 (2020)3. - ISSN 1286-4560
    Indicators - National Forest Inventory - Recreational use - Social data

    Key message: National Forest Inventories (NFIs) hold promise for monitoring and valuing of non-productive forest functions, including social and recreational services. European countries use a range of methods to collect social and recreational information within their NFI methodologies. Data collected frequently included general and recreation-specific infrastructure, but innovative approaches are also used to monitor recreational use and social abuse. Context: Social and recreational indicators are increasingly valued in efforts to measure the non-productive value of forests in Europe. National Forest Inventories (NFIs) can be used to estimate recreational and social usage of forest land at a national level and relate this use to other biophysical, spatial and topographical features. Nonetheless, there is little information concerning the extent. Aims: The study aims to identify the coverage of social and recreational data present in European NFIs including the types of data recorded as part of the NFI methodologies across European countries. It also aims to examine contrasting methods used to record social and recreational data and present recommendations for ways forward for countries to integrate these into NFI practice. Methods: A pan-European questionnaire was designed and distributed to 35 counties as part of the EU-funded project Distributed, Integrated and Harmonised Forest Information for Bioeconomy Outlooks (DIABOLO). The questionnaire probed countries on all social and recreational data that was included within NFIs. Qualitative response data was analysed and recoded to measure the extent of social and recreational data recoded in European NFIs both as a function of the number of variable categories per country and the number of countries recording particular variables. Results: Thirty-one countries reported at least one social or recreational variable over 12 categories of data. The most frequently recorded variables included ownership, general transport infrastructure and recreation-specific infrastructure. Countries collecting data over many different categories included Switzerland, Great Britain, Czech Republic, Luxemburg and Denmark. Conclusion: The study proposes a specific set of indicators, based upon countries with well-developed social and recreational data in their NFIs, which could be used by other countries, and report on the extent to which these are currently collected across Europe. It discusses results and makes a series of recommendations concerning priorities for the inclusion of social and recreational data in European NFIs.

    Detonating cord found in the stomach of a northern fulmar
    Guse, N. ; Jensen, Jens-Kjeld van; Turner, Daniel M. ; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa ; Kuhn, S. ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2020
    Sula : tijdschrift van de Nederlandse Zeevogelgroep 28 (2020). - ISSN 1876-9543 - 5 p.
    Gender integration in international agricultural research for development
    Burg, Margreet Van Der - \ 2020
    In: Routledge Handbook of Gender and Agriculture / Sachs, Carolyn E., Jensen, Leif, Castellanos, Paige, Sexsmith, Kathleen, Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9780367190019 - p. 69 - 84.
    Agri-food systems - Agricultural sciences - AR4D - CGIAR - Gender - Gender integration - SDGs

    “Science for impact” has been the implicit motto for the agricultural sciences since the late 19th Century. New insights into the natural sciences that could benefit agriculture inspired the establishment of agricultural sciences with an emphasis on biophysical components. Gradually, disciplines with a societal perspective started to provide guidance to improve effectivity and avoid harmful impacts. By acknowledging farmers as a diverse group of actors on various farm types, women in farming also came into the picture. Nevertheless, until the 1970s scientific investigation of the systemic interplay of all scales, aspects, and actors had been lacking and never became mainstream. Currently, agriculture and food-oriented scientific institutions explicitly frame their work as “science for impact” in support of the Sustainable Development Goals. In addition to the life sciences, social sciences are urged to contribute. This chapter highlights gender integration in international agricultural research for development (AR4D) in its capacity to interconnect social and life sciences. The chapter first distinguishes five research orientations and then stresses their interconnectedness by presenting recent research on gender in international AR4D. Lastly, current gender approaches are explicated to stimulate purposefully selecting approaches in advancing further gender integration.

    Influence of phosphate dosing on biofilms development on lead in chlorinated drinking water bioreactors
    Olmo, Gonzalo Del; Ahmad, Arslan ; Jensen, Henriette ; Karunakaran, Esther ; Rosales, Esther ; Calero Preciado, Carolina ; Gaskin, Paul ; Douterelo, Isabel - \ 2020
    npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 6 (2020). - ISSN 2055-5008

    Phosphate dosing is used by water utilities to prevent plumbosolvency in water supply networks. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding biofilm formation on lead and plastic materials when phosphate concentrations are modified in drinking water systems. In this study, biofilms were grown over lead coupons and PVC tubes in bioreactors supplied with local drinking water treated to provide different phosphate doses (below 1, 1 and 2 mg/L) over a period of 28 days. A range of commercial iron pellets (GEH104 and WARP) were tested aiming to maintain phosphate levels below the average 1 mg/L found in drinking water. Changes in biofilm community structure in response to three different phosphate treatments were characterised by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ITS2 gene for fungi. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualise physical differences in biofilm development in two types of materials, lead and PVC. The experimental results from the kinetics of phosphate absorption showed that the GEH104 pellets were the best option to, in the long term, reduce phosphate levels while preventing undesirable turbidity increases in drinking water. Phosphate-enrichment promoted a reduction of bacterial diversity but increased that of fungi in biofilms. Overall, higher phosphate levels selected for microorganisms with enhanced capabilities related to phosphorus metabolism and heavy metal resistance. This research brings new insights regarding the influence of different phosphate concentrations on mixed-species biofilms formation and drinking water quality, which are relevant to inform best management practices in drinking water treatment.

    IWMPRAISE - An EU horizon 2020 project providing integrated weed management solutions to European farmers
    Kudsk, P. ; Sønderskov, M. ; Bonin, L. ; Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L. ; Jensen, J.E. ; Melander, B. ; Moonen, C. ; Riemens, M.M. ; Sattin, M. ; Schaffner, U. ; Storkey, J. - \ 2020
    Outlooks on Pest Management 31 (2020)4. - ISSN 1743-1026 - p. 152 - 159.
    IWMPRAISE is the first EU Framework Research project focusing solely on weed management. Thirty-eight partners in eight European countries are working together on developing integrated weed management strategies for agricultural and horticultural crops. Per Kudsk, the coordinator of IWMPRAISE, and the work package leaders present the project, the on-going studies and some of the early outputs. Weeds are ubiquitous and cause substantial yield losses across all arable and horticultural systems. Currently, the reliance on herbicides is very high in conventional farming systems and in many European countries herbicides are the single most used group of pesticides (https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=aei_fm_salpest09&lang=en). There are several reasons for the high herbicide use, such as lack of threshold-based spraying decisions and lack of any single sufficiently effective, readily applicable, cost-effective non-chemical method. Nonetheless, two factors are driving an immediate need to change weed control practices in conventional farming: the rapidly increasing problem of herbicide resistance, exacerbated by the fact that no new herbicide sites of action have been marketed since the early 1980s, and the expectation that many of the currently used herbicides will be withdrawn from the EU market as they do not meet the human and environmental toxicity criteria set out in EU Regulation 1109/2009. In addition to these two immediate concerns, it has also been shown that herbicides have partly been responsible for recent declines in farmland biodiversity and hence a negative impact on the associated ecosystem services. The over-reliance on chemical control of weeds has highlighted the need for Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies that combine non-chemical management options that reduce either weed density or competition with the crop.
    Edible insects unlikely to contribute to transmission of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
    Dicke, M. ; Eilenberg, J. ; Falcao Salles, J. ; Jensen, A.B. ; Lecocq, A. ; Pijlman, G.P. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Oers, M.M. van - \ 2020
    Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 6 (2020)4. - ISSN 2352-4588 - p. 333 - 339.
    ACE2 - Coronavirus - Food safety - SARS-CoV-2 - Vector

    In the context of food safety, edible insects are evaluated for biological hazards such as microbial pathogens according to regulations currently in place. When the European Food Safety Authority evaluated the hazards of edible insects as a potential source of pathogenic viruses for humans and livestock, the novel zoonotic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 had not yet emerged but other pathogenic coronaviruses such as SARS (SARS-CoV) and MERS (MERS-CoV) were known. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, animal sources of protein for human consumption are being evaluated for the risks of being a transmission vector of coronaviruses, like SARS-CoV-2. Insects lack a receptor that can bind SARS-CoV-2, thus preventing the virus from replicating in insects, unlike some vertebrate livestock species and companion animals. Despite extensive monitoring, coronaviruses have never been recorded in insect microbiomes. Contamination of insects produced for food or feed may occur during the production process, resulting from rearing substrate or from insect farmers. However, the currently permitted rearing substrates do not include animal products and the farming process is highly automated, thus limiting interactions between farmers and insects. If contamination would still occur, the fact that the insects in production are not hosts to SARS-CoV-2 precludes virus replication and the further processing of the insects will destroy the contamination. We conclude that the hazard of edible insects being a transmission vector of SARS-CoV-2 is extremely low.

    Verticillium Wilt in Oilseed Rape—the Microbiome is Crucial for Disease Outbreaks as Well as for Efficient Suppression
    Rybakova, Daria ; Wikström, M. ; Birch-Jensen, Fia ; Postma, J. ; Ehlers, Ralf Uno ; Schuck, Maria ; Kollmann, René ; Köhl, J. ; Berg, Gabriele - \ 2020
    Plants 9 (2020)7. - ISSN 2223-7747
    Microbiome management is a promising way to suppress verticillium wilt, a severe disease in Brassica caused by Verticillium longisporum. In order to improve current biocontrol strategies, we compared bacterial Verticillium antagonists in different assays using a hierarchical selection and evaluation scheme, and we integrated outcomes of our previous studies. The result was strongly dependent on the assessment method chosen (in vitro, in vivo, in situ), on the growth conditions of the plants and their genotype. The most promising biocontrol candidate identified was a Brassica endophyte Serratia plymuthica F20. Positive results were confirmed in field trials and by microscopically visualizing the three-way interaction. Applying antagonists in seed treatment contributes to an exceptionally low ecological footprint, supporting efficient economic and ecological solutions to controlling verticillium wilt. Indigenous microbiome, especially soil and seed microbiome, has been identified as key to understanding disease outbreaks and suppression. We suggest that verticillium wilt is a microbiome-driven disease caused by a reduction in microbial diversity within seeds and in the soil surrounding them. We strongly recommend integrating microbiome data in the development of new biocontrol and breeding strategies and combining both strategies with the aim of designing healthy microbiomes, thus making plants more resilient toward soil-borne pathogens.
    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and reduced irrigation water use in rice production through water-saving irrigation scheduling, reduced tillage and fertiliser application strategies
    Islam, S.F. ; Sander, Bjoern Ole ; Quilty, James R. ; Neergaard, Andreas de; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Jensen, Lars Stoumann - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 739 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Alternate wetting and drying - Fertigation - Global warming potential - Liquid fertilisation - Methane - Nitrous oxide - Reduced tillage - Soil water potential scheduling - Yield

    Rice production systems are the largest anthropogenic wetlands on earth and feed more than half of the world's population. However, they are also a major source of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several agronomic strategies have been proposed to improve water-use efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of water-saving irrigation (alternate wetting and drying (AWD) vs. soil water potential (SWP)), contrasting land establishment (puddling vs. reduced tillage) and fertiliser application methods (broadcast vs. liquid fertilisation) on water-use efficiency, GHG emissions and rice yield. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with eight treatments (all combinations of the three factors) and four replicates. AWD combined with broadcasting fertilisation was superior to SWP in terms of maintaining yield. However, seasonal nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were significantly reduced by 64% and 66% in the Broadcast-SWP and Liquid fertiliser-SWP treatments, respectively, compared to corresponding treatments in AWD. The SWP also significantly reduced seasonal methane (CH4) emissions by 34 and 30% in the broadcast and liquid fertilisation treatments, respectively. Area-scaled GWPs were reduced by 48% and 54% in Broadcast-SWP and Liquid fertiliser-SWP treatments respectively compared to the corresponding treatments in AWD. Compared to AWD, the broadcast and liquid fertilisation in SWP irrigation treatments reduced yield-scaled GWPs by 46% and 37%, respectively. In terms of suitability, based on yield-scaled GWPs, the treatments can be ordered as follows: Broadcast-SWP < Broadcast-AWD = Liquid fertiliser-SWP < Liquid fertiliser-AWD. Growing-season water use was 15% lower in the SWP treatments compared with the water-saving AWD. Reduced tillage reduced additional water use during land preparation. The conclusions of this study are that improved water management and timely coordination of N fertiliser with crop demand can reduce water use, N loss via N2O emissions, and CH4 emissions.

    Transdisciplinary knowledge management : A key but underdeveloped skill in EBM decision-making
    Giebels, Diana ; Carus, Jana ; Paul, Maike ; Kleyer, Michael ; Siebenhüner, Bernd ; Arns, Arne ; Bartholomä, Alexander ; Carlow, Vanessa ; Jensen, Jürgen ; Tietjen, Britta ; Wehrmann, Achim ; Schröder, Boris - \ 2020
    Marine Policy 119 (2020). - ISSN 0308-597X

    The ecosystem-based management (EBM) philosophy draws upon the principle that holistic understanding of the system to be governed needs to guide the decision-making process. However, empirical evidence is growing that knowledge integration is still a main bottleneck for EBM decision-makers. This paper argues that transdisciplinary knowledge management (TKM) is a key competence in achieving knowledge integration, while simultaneously it represents an underdeveloped research area in EBM if understood as a process of human interaction. Based on a literature review, this article summarizes and reflects upon the most recent development in the field of TKM. The paper presents a detailed definition and in-depth description of TKM as a process of human interaction and a diversity of organizational structures that effectuate TKM. Theoretically discussed premises are furthermore illuminated and evaluated by a case study that exemplifies pro-active development and implementation of TKM. Deviating case observations are presented as novel contributions to the field. They suggest new ideas and inspiration for future EBM research and policy agendas.

    Review of insect pathogen risks for the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) and guidelines for reliable production
    Joosten, Lotte ; Lecocq, Antoine ; Jensen, Annette Bruun ; Haenen, Olga ; Schmitt, Eric ; Eilenberg, Jørgen - \ 2020
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 168 (2020)6-7. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 432 - 447.
    bacteria - biocontrol agents - black soldier fly - Diptera - entomopathogens - epidemiology - feed and food - fungi - guidelines - Hermetia illuscens - immune system - protozoa - Stratiomyidae - viruses

    Black soldier fly [BSF; Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)] larvae are very effective in transforming low-grade food waste into valuable high-end proteins and fat, in intensive production facilities. The production output of this species is growing quickly, but upscaling brings risks to the health status of the reared insects. Until now, not a single major case of disease outbreak caused by a pathogen in a BSF production unit has been reported. This contrasts with data on other species of mass-produced insects, which have experienced various disease outbreaks, indicating that BSFs are comparatively resistant to insect diseases. Further, there are no records of natural infections caused by entomopathogens in BSF. In this review, the known entomopathogens of Diptera, especially BSF, and their potential risks for causing disease in these insects are summarized.

    Mobility and Stratification
    Kloppenburg, S. - \ 2020
    In: Handbook of Urban Mobilities / Jensen, Ole B., Lassen, Claus, Kaufmann, Vincent, Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene, Gotzsche Lange, Ida Sofie, London : Routledge - ISBN 9781351058759 - 9 p.
    Built Environment - Geography - Reference & Information Science - Social Sciences - Urban Studies
    In urban areas, the potential of people to be mobile is a new form of capital. As such it represents a crucial factor in social stratification. At the same time, stratification is not simply a question of mobility for some and immobility for others. Approaching the relation between mobility and social stratification from the perspective of people’s everyday mobility practices shows how social exclusion is manifested in the differentiated ways in which people move through the city. A focus on urban mobility systems reveals how infrastructures and technologies can produce or deepen existing social inequalities in the city.
    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and grain arsenic and lead levels without compromising yield in organically produced rice
    Islam, Syed ; Neergaard, Andreas de; Sander, Bjoern Ole ; Jensen, Lars Stoumann ; Wassmann, Reiner ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van - \ 2020
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 295 (2020). - ISSN 0167-8809
    Carbon payment - Dissolved organic carbon - Heavy metals - Methane - Microbial biomass carbon - Nitrous oxide - Organic fertilisers - Please add Global warming potentials - Redox potential - Root biomass - Structural equation modelling

    Flooded rice production is crucial to global food security, but there are associated environmental concerns. In particular, it is a significant source of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and a large consumer of water resources, while arsenic levels in the grain are a serious health concern. There is also a tendency to use more organic fertilisers to close nutrient cycles, posing a threat of even higher GHG emissions and grain arsenic levels. It has been shown that alternate wetting and drying (AWD) water management reduces both water use and GHG emissions, but success at maintaining yields varies. This study tested the effect of early AWD (e-AWD) versus continuous flooding (CF) water management practices on grain yields, GHG emissions and grain arsenic levels in a split-plot field experiment with organic fertilisers under organic management. The treatments included: i) farmyard manure, ii) compost, and iii) biogas digestate, alone or in combination with mineral fertiliser. The e-AWD water regime showed no difference in yield for the organic treatments. Yields significantly increased by 5–16 % in the combination treatments. Root biomass and length increased in the e-AWD treatments up to 72 and 41 %, respectively. The e-AWD water regime reduced seasonal CH4 emissions by 71–85 % for organic treatments and by 51–76 % for combination treatments; this was linked to a 15–47 % reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), thereby reducing methanogenesis. N2O emissions increased by 23–305 % but accounted for <20 % of global warming potential (GWP). Area and yield-scaled GWPs were reduced by 67–83 %. The e–AWD regime altered soil redox potentials, resulting in a reduction in grain arsenic and lead concentrations of up to 66 % and 73 % respectively. Grain cadmium levels were also reduced up to 33 % in organic treatments. Structural equation modelling showed that DOC, redox, ammonium and root biomass were the key traits that regulated emissions and maintained yield. Despite the fact that the experiment was conducted in the dry-season when soil moisture conditions can be relatively well-controlled, our findings should be confirmed in multi-year studies in farmers’ fields. These results suggest that in flooded rice systems receiving organic amendments or organic management, the e-AWD water regime can achieve multiple environmental and food safety objectives without compromising yield.

    Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird
    Dominoni, Davide M. ; Kjellberg Jensen, Johan ; Jong, Maaike de; Visser, Marcel E. ; Spoelstra, Kamiel - \ 2020
    Ecological Applications 30 (2020)3. - ISSN 1051-0761
    artificial light at night - light pollution - Parus major - phenology - timing of reproduction - urbanization

    The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of avian breeding. Thus, we hypothesized that ALAN and temperature interact to regulate timing of reproduction in wild birds. Field studies have suggested that sources of ALAN rich in short wavelengths can lead to stronger advances in egg-laying date. We therefore tested this hypothesis in the Great Tit (Parus major), using a replicated experimental set-up where eight previously unlit forest transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as controls. We measured timing of egg laying for 619 breeding events spread over six consecutive years and obtained temperature data for all sites and years. We detected overall significantly earlier egg-laying dates in the white and green light vs. the dark treatment, and similar trends for red light. However, there was a strong interannual variability in mean egg-laying dates in all treatments, which was explained by spring temperature. We did not detect any fitness consequence of the changed timing of egg laying due to ALAN, which suggests that advancing reproduction in response to ALAN might be adaptive.

    Genetic analysis on body weight at different ages in broiler chicken raised in commercial environment
    Chu, Thinh Tuan ; Madsen, Per ; Norberg, Elise ; Wang, Lei ; Marois, Danye ; Henshall, John ; Jensen, Just - \ 2020
    Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 137 (2020)2. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 245 - 259.
    body weight - broiler chicken - genetic parameters - maternal effects

    A multivariate model was developed and used to estimate genetic parameters of body weight (BW) at 1–6 weeks of age of broilers raised in a commercial environment. The development of model was based on the predictive ability of breeding values evaluated from a cross-validation procedure that relied on half-sib correlation. The multivariate model accounted for heterogeneous variances between sexes through standardization applied to male and female BWs differently. It was found that the direct additive genetic, permanent environmental maternal and residual variances for BW increased drastically as broilers aged. The drastic increase in variances over weeks of age was mainly due to scaling effects. The ratio of the permanent environmental maternal variance to phenotypic variance decreased gradually with increasing age. Heritability of BW traits ranged from 0.28 to 0.33 at different weeks of age. The direct genetic effects on consecutive weekly BWs had high genetic correlations (0.85–0.99), but the genetic correlations between early and late BWs were low (0.32–0.57). The difference in variance components between sexes increased with increasing age. In conclusion, the permanent environmental maternal effect on broiler chicken BW decreased with increasing age from weeks 1 to 6. Potential bias of the model that considered identical variances for sexes could be reduced when heterogeneous variances between sexes are accounted for in the model.

    Exploring nitrogen indicators of farm performance among farm types across several European case studies
    Quemada, M. ; Lassaletta, L. ; Jensen, L.S. ; Godinot, O. ; Brentrup, F. ; Buckley, C. ; Foray, S. ; Hvid, S.K. ; Oenema, J. ; Richards, K.G. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 177 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Arable farms - Dairy farms - Externalisation - Monitoring - Nitrogen balance - Pig farms

    Nitrogen (N) indicators are key for characterizing farm performance, because of the role of N in food production and environmental sustainability. A systematic monitoring of N balance at the farm level could contribute to understanding differences in N management and impacts among farms and among regions. The objective of this study was to increase the understanding of differences in N indicators at the farm level across Europe, and to derive possible target values. Farm-level data were collected through surveys of 1240 farms from Atlantic, Continental and Mediterranean Europe, that were diverse rather tahn country representative. The data were analysed according to a common procedure, using three related indicators: N use efficiency (NUE, farm-gate ratio of N outputs to N inputs), N surplus and N output in agricultural products. Specific target values were derived for farm type (arable, dairy, pig and mixed farms) based on the statistical analysis of the data set. The effect of not accounting for N losses involved in the production of purchased feed and the end use of exported manure (externalisation) on the animal farm indicators was evaluated by recalculating inputs with adjusting factors. The results show a wide variation in NUE and N surplus, mainly related to differences in farming systems and management. Arable farms presented lower mean N input and surplus than livestock farms, and therefore had the highest median NUE. The modest targets (i.e. median of data) for arable farms were NUE 61% and N surplus 68 kg N ha−1, for dairy farms NUE 30% and N surplus 155 kg N ha−1, and for pig farms NUE 40% and N surplus 135 kg N ha−1. Externalisation had a large effect on animal farm indicators. After adjusting for externalisation, the modest target NUE for dairy farms was 19% and for pig farms 23%. Farms outside their agro-environmental optimum could approach their specific targets by increasing or reducing N inputs (intensification or extensification) or adopting additional strategies (sustainable intensification). In conclusion, N indicators were useful to compare farm performance among different farming systems and to define a characteristic operating space for a farm population, but caution should be taken when comparing livestock farms before externalisation adjustment, and consideration should be given to changes in soil N stocks. Farm system-specific targets for N indicators and linkages with the Common Agricultural Policy may create the necessary incentives to optimise NUE and reduce N losses to air and water.

    Future directions for the concept of salutogenesis: a position article
    Bauer, G.F. ; Roy, M. ; Bakibinga, P. ; Contu, P. ; Downe, S. ; Eriksson, M. ; Espnes, G.A. ; Jensen, B.B. ; Juvinya Canal, D. ; Lindström, B. ; Mana, A. ; Mittelmark, M.B. ; Morgan, A.R. ; Pelikan, J.M. ; Saboga-Nunes, L. ; Sagy, S. ; Shorey, S. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Vinje, H.F. - \ 2020
    Health Promotion International 35 (2020)2. - ISSN 0957-4824 - p. 187 - 195.
    Aaron Antonovsky advanced the concept of salutogenesis almost four decades ago (Antonovsky, Health, Stress and Coping. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1979; Unravelling the Mystery of Health. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1987). Salutogenesis posits that life experiences shape the sense of coherence (SOC) that helps to mobilize resources to cope with stressors and manage tension successfully (determining one’s movement on the health Ease/Dis-ease continuum). Antonovsky considered the three-dimensional SOC (i.e. comprehensibility, manageability, meaningfulness) as the key answer to his question about the origin of health. The field of health promotion has adopted the concept of salutogenesis as reflected in the international Handbook of Salutogenesis (Mittelmark et al., The Handbook of Salutogenesis. Springer, New York, 2016). However, health promotion mostly builds on the more vague, general salutogenic orientation that implies the need to foster resources and capacities to promote health and wellbeing. To strengthen the knowledge base of salutogenesis, the Global Working Group on Salutogenesis (GWG-Sal) of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education produced the Handbook of Salutogenesis. During the creation of the handbook and the regular meetings of the GWG-Sal, the working group identified four key conceptual issues to be advanced: (i) the overall salutogenic model of health; (ii) the SOC concept; (iii) the design of salutogenic interventions and change processes in complex systems; (iv) the application of salutogenesis beyond health sector. For each of these areas, we first highlight Antonovsky’s original contribution and then present suggestions for future development. These ideas will help guide GWG-Sal’s work to strengthen salutogenesis as a theory base for health promotion.
    Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration: Individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies
    Pennells, Lisa ; Kaptoge, Stephen ; Wood, Angela ; Sweeting, Mike ; Zhao, Xiaohui ; White, Ian ; Burgess, Stephen ; Willeit, Peter ; Bolton, Thomas ; Moons, Karel G.M. ; Schouw, Yvonne T. Van Der; Selmer, Randi ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Assmann, Gerd ; Amouyel, Philippe ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Kivimaki, Mika ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Blaha, Michael J. ; Kuller, Lewis H. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Gillum, Richard F. ; Meisinger, Christa ; Ford, Ian ; Knuiman, Matthew W. ; Rosengren, Annika ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Völzke, Henry ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Marín Ibañez, Alejandro ; Casiglia, Edoardo ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Cooper, Jackie A. ; Rodriguez, Beatriz ; Sundström, Johan ; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth ; Dankner, Rachel ; Nietert, Paul J. ; Davidson, Karina W. ; Wallace, Robert B. ; Blazer, Dan G. ; Björkelund, Cecilia ; Donfrancesco, Chiara ; Krumholz, Harlan M. ; Nissinen, Aulikki ; Davis, Barry R. ; Coady, Sean ; Whincup, Peter H. ; Jørgensen, Torben ; Ducimetiere, Pierre ; Trevisan, Maurizio ; Engström, Gunnar ; Crespo, Carlos J. ; Meade, Tom W. ; Visser, Marjolein ; Kromhout, Daan ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Daimon, Makoto ; Price, Jackie F. ; Gómez De La Cámara, Agustin ; Jukema, J.W. ; Lamarche, Benoît ; Onat, Altan ; Simons, Leon A. ; Kavousi, Maryam ; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav ; Gallacher, John ; Dekker, Jacqueline M. ; Arima, Hisatomi ; Shara, Nawar ; Tipping, Robert W. ; Roussel, Ronan ; Brunner, Eric J. ; Koenig, Wolfgang ; Sakurai, Masaru ; Pavlovic, Jelena ; Gansevoort, Ron T. ; Nagel, Dorothea ; Goldbourt, Uri ; Barr, Elizabeth L.M. ; Palmieri, Luigi ; Njølstad, Inger ; Sato, Shinichi ; Monique Verschuren, W.M. ; Varghese, Cherian V. ; Graham, Ian ; Onuma, Oyere ; Greenland, Philip ; Woodward, Mark ; Ezzati, Majid ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Sattar, Naveed ; Jackson, Rod ; Ridker, Paul M. ; Cook, Nancy R. ; Agostino, Ralph B. D'; Thompson, Simon G. ; Danesh, John ; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Simpson, Lara M. ; Pressel, Sara L. ; Couper, David J. ; Nambi, Vijay ; Matsushita, Kunihiro ; Folsom, Aaron R. ; Shaw, Jonathan E. ; Magliano, Dianna J. ; Zimmet, Paul Z. ; Wannamethee, S.G. ; Willeit, Johann ; Santer, Peter ; Egger, Georg ; Casas, Juan Pablo ; Amuzu, Antointtte ; Tikhonoff, Valérie ; Sutherland, Susan E. ; Cushman, Mary ; Søgaard, Anne Johanne ; Håheim, Lise Lund ; Ariansen, Inger ; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne ; Jensen, Gorm B. ; Schnohr, Peter ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Vanuzzo, Diego ; Panico, Salvatore ; Balkau, Beverley ; Bonnet, Fabrice ; Marre, Michel ; La Cámara, Agustin Gómez De; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Angel ; Friedlander, Yechiel ; McCallum, John ; McLachlan, Stela ; Guralnik, Jack ; Phillips, Caroline L. ; Wareham, Nick ; Schöttker, Ben ; Saum, Kai Uwe ; Holleczek, Bernd ; Tolonen, Hanna ; Vartiainen, Erkki ; Jousilahti, Pekka ; Harald, Kennet ; Massaro, Joseph M. ; Pencina, Michael ; Vasan, Ramachandran ; Kayama, Takamasa ; Kato, Takeo ; Oizumi, Toshihide ; Jespersen, Jørgen ; Møller, Lars ; Bladbjerg, Else Marie ; Chetrit, A. ; Wilhelmsen, Lars ; Lissner, Lauren ; Dennison, Elaine ; Kiyohara, Yutaka ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Doi, Yasufumi ; Nijpels, Giel ; Stehouwer, Coen D.A. ; Kazumasa, Yamagishi ; Iso, Hiroyasu ; Kurl, Sudhir ; Tuomainen, Tomi Pekka ; Salonen, Jukka T. ; Deeg, Dorly J.H. ; Nilsson, Peter M. ; Bo, Hedblad ; Melander, Olle ; Boer, Ian H. De; DeFilippis, Andrew Paul ; Watt, Graham ; Tverdal, Aage ; Kirkland, Susan ; Shimbo, Daichi ; Shaffer, Jonathan ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Harst, Pim Van Der; Hillege, Hans L. ; Dallongeville, Jean ; Schulte, Helmut ; Trompet, Stella ; Smit, Roelof A.J. ; Stott, David J. ; Després, Jean Pierre ; Cantin, Bernard ; Dagenais, Gilles R. ; Laughlin, Gail ; Wingard, Deborah ; Aspelund, Thor ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Gudmundsson, Elias Freyr ; Ikram, Arfan ; Rooij, Frank J.A. Van; Franco, Oscar H. ; Rueda-Ochoa, Oscar L. ; Muka, Taulant ; Glisic, Marija ; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh ; Howard, Barbara V. ; Ying, Zhang ; Jolly, Stacey ; Davey-Smith, George ; Can, Günay ; Yüksel, Hüsniye ; Nakagawa, Hideaki ; Morikawa, Yuko ; Miura, Katsuyuki ; Ingelsson, Martin ; Giedraitis, Vilmantas ; Gaziano, J.M. ; Shipley, Martin ; Arndt, Volker ; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2019
    European Heart Journal 40 (2019)7. - ISSN 0195-668X - p. 621 - 631.
    Calibration - Cardiovascular disease - Discrimination - Risk algorithms - Risk prediction

    Aims There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after 'recalibration', a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied. Methods and results Using individual-participant data on 360 737 participants without CVD at baseline in 86 prospective studies from 22 countries, we compared the Framingham risk score (FRS), Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), pooled cohort equations (PCE), and Reynolds risk score (RRS). We calculated measures of risk discrimination and calibration, and modelled clinical implications of initiating statin therapy in people judged to be at 'high' 10 year CVD risk. Original risk algorithms were recalibrated using the risk factor profile and CVD incidence of target populations. The four algorithms had similar risk discrimination. Before recalibration, FRS, SCORE, and PCE over-predicted CVD risk on average by 10%, 52%, and 41%, respectively, whereas RRS under-predicted by 10%. Original versions of algorithms classified 29-39% of individuals aged ≥40 years as high risk. By contrast, recalibration reduced this proportion to 22-24% for every algorithm. We estimated that to prevent one CVD event, it would be necessary to initiate statin therapy in 44-51 such individuals using original algorithms, in contrast to 37-39 individuals with recalibrated algorithms. Conclusion Before recalibration, the clinical performance of four widely used CVD risk algorithms varied substantially. By contrast, simple recalibration nearly equalized their performance and improved modelled targeting of preventive action to clinical need.

    Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird
    Dominoni, Davide M. ; Kjellberg Jensen, Johan ; Jong, Maaike de; Visser, Marcel E. ; Spoelstra, Kamiel - \ 2019
    Dryad
    light pollution - Timing of reproduction - urbanization - phenology - Parus major - great tit - ALAN
    The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of avian breeding. Thus, we hypothesized that ALAN and temperature interact to regulate timing of reproduction in wild birds. Field studies have suggested that sources of ALAN rich in short wavelengths can lead to stronger advances in egg-laying date. We therefore tested this hypothesis in the great tit (Parus major), using a replicated experimental setup where eight previously unlit forest transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as controls. We measured timing of egg-laying for 619 breeding events spread over six consecutive years and obtained temperature data for all sites and years. We detected overall significantly earlier egg-laying dates in the white and green light versus the dark treatment, and similar trends for red light. However, there was a strong inter-annual variability in mean egg-laying dates in all treatments, which was explained by spring temperature. We did not detect any fitness consequence of the changed timing of egg-laying due to ALAN, which suggests that advancing reproduction in response to ALAN might be adaptive.
    Mutation dynamics of CpG dinucleotides during a recent event of vertebrate diversification
    Pértille, Fábio ; Silva, Vinicius da; Johansson, Anna M. ; Lindström, Tom ; Wright, Dominic ; Luiz da Costa Coutinho, Heitor da; Jensen, Per ; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos - \ 2019
    Linköping University
    PRJEB29249 - ERP111539 - genetic variation - DNA methylation - CpG - single nucleotide polymorphisms - copy number variations - germ line - Gallus gallus
    Designing intercrops for high yield, yield stability and efficient use of resources: Are there principles?
    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Dordas, Christos ; Baranger, Alain ; Rijk, Joshua de; Dong, Bei ; Evers, Jochem ; Gu, Chunfeng ; Li, Long ; Simon, Johan ; Jensen, Erik Steen ; Wang, Qi ; Wang, Yuyun ; Wang, Zishen ; Xu, Huasen ; Zhang, Chaochun ; Zhang, Lizhen ; Zhang, Wei Ping ; Bedoussac, Laurent ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2019
    In: Advances in Agronomy Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Agronomy ) - p. 1 - 50.
    Biotic stresses - Cropping system design - Light - Nutrients - Product quality - Resource use efficiency - Water

    Intercropping is the simultaneous cultivation of plant species in the same field for a considerable proportion of their growing periods. Interest in intercropping for sustainable agriculture is on the rise and the number of scientific studies on intercropping is strongly increasing. Here we assess the current status of knowledge on factors that determine yield, yield stability and resource use efficiency of intercropping as compared to sole cropping. Distinguishing resource use into acquisition and conversion shows that intercrops are mainly improving acquisition rather than conversion efficiency. We also make an attempt to quantify the importance of reduced biotic stresses through pests, diseases, and weeds. We particularly focus on blank spots in the knowledge and possible bias in existing literature and ask which research approaches are needed to advance the field and pave the way for a wider usage of intercropping in modern sustainable agriculture.

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