Modelling the effect of fertiliser, mowing, disturbance and width on the biodiversity of plant communities of field boundaries
Schippers, P. ; Joenje, W. - \ 2002
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93 (2002)1-3. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 351 - 365.
plantenecologie - vegetatie - ecosystemen - biodiversiteit - kanaaloevers - plant ecology - vegetation - ecosystems - biodiversity - canal banks
To evaluate the effects of nitrogen, disturbance, mowing and boundary width on the composition of plant communities of field boundaries a spatial plant competition model was developed that incorporates competition for nitrogen and light as well as mineralisation and population dynamical processes. The model was parameterised for four grassland species: Poa annua, Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum and Festuca ovina. To test the model, simulation results were compared with data from a pot and a field experiment. In addition, several long-term simulations were performed to analyse the effect of the various factors on field boundary composition. The results of the simulations were generally in agreement with experimental results. The simulation study indicated that perennial diversity was maximal when nutrient input and degree of disturbance were low, cuttings removed and the boundary wide. The simulations and experimental results indicated that to enhance diversity of the field boundary vegetation the following measures should be taken: (1) preventing nutrient input from the arable field; (2) mowing and removing of the mown material; (3) restricting annual disturbance to less than 20 f the area; (4) keeping the boundary as wide as possible but at least wider than the maximum fertiliser misplacement.
Field boundary habitats for wildlife, crop and environmental protection
Marshall, E.J.P. ; Baudry, J. ; Burel, F. ; Joenje, W. ; Gerowitt, B. ; Paoletti, M. ; Thomas, C.F.G. ; Kleijn, D. ; Coeur, D. Le; Moonen, A.C. - \ 2002
In: Landscape Ecology in Agroecosystems Management / Ryszkowski, L., Boca Raton : CRC Press - p. 219 - 247.
Steps towards food web management on farms
Smeding, F.W. - \ 2001
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.A. Goewie; A.H.C. van Bruggen; W. Joenje. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084149 - 137
ecologie - landschapsecologie - landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - biodiversiteit - predator prooi verhoudingen - biologische landbouw - ecologisch evenwicht - plantenecologische groepen - plagenbehandeling - agro-ecologie - ecology - landscape ecology - farms - farming systems - biodiversity - predator prey relationships - organic farming - ecological balance - plant ecological groups - pest management - agroecology
This paper is the report of four years of research on the functional group composition of the animal community in relation to farm and ecological infrastructure (E.I.) management on organic arable farms. The results are mainly based on abundance data of ground dwelling arthropods obtained by pitfall trapping, density data of vegetation dwelling arthropods by vacuum sampling and density data of insectivorous birds by territory mapping. Arthropods were collected in wheat crops (representing the crop area) and on the adjacent canal bank (representing the E.I.); the bird, farm and E.I. variables were measured at the farm level. Study areas included in total 18 farms with varying extents of organic duration, crop rotation intensity, and quantity and quality of E.I.
The hypothesis of the research was that the food web structure of an organic arable farm with long organic duration as well as with an improved E.I. ( i.e. enlarged, late mown), would show a higher abundance of meso- and macrofauna of both herbivorous and detritivorous functional groups. These enhanced primary groups were expected to carry a high predator abundance at both secondary ( i.e. invertebrates) as well as tertiary ( i.e. birds) levels. With regard to the crop areas it was found, in contradiction to the hypothesis, that herbivores were most abundant in crop areas of recently converted farms and of organic farms with intensive crop rotation; this herbivore abundance was associated with invertebrate predator abundance and species diversity. In accordance with the hypothesis, some evidence was found for increased detritivore and related epigeic predator abundance related to extensive crop management on the farms of long organic duration. Whilst studying the E.I., an increased abundance of vegetation dwelling predators and also detritivores was found in improved E.I. However K-herbivore numbers did not increase in the improved E.I. when they were compared to the traditionally managed E.I. The summer abundance of epigeic predators was also not related to an improved E.I. Field studies provided some evidence for the dispersal of functional groups, abundant in the E.I., towards the crop area. However, the effects of crop conditions on the arthropod abundance in the crop area were observed to offset the influence of the E.I. Bird studies at the farm level revealed positive correlation between bird functional groups and a combination of crop area and E.I. characteristics. Bird density was found to be positively associated with high arthropod abundance in the E.I. vegetation canopy. Observations also suggested positive correlation to an increased herbivory in the crop area of the long duration organic farms that had an intensive crop rotation.
A proposal for a descriptive or topological farm food web is drawn from field observations as well as from references in literature. Predictions are made for four different farm food web structures that express four extremes of two environmental gradients, which correspond to the length of organic duration and the amount/quality of the E.I. With reference to field observations important themes in the food web theory are discussed, including the indirect effects of subsidised detrital food chains on herbivore abundance and consequently on bird abundance, as well as the possible effects of intra guild predation on arthropod functional group composition.
The implications of the study are that organic duration and the amount/quality of the E.I. may contribute to improving ecosystem services and to aims based on nature conservation. However an optimisation of the farm food web with regard to ecosystem services may not necessarily improve nature conservation values. It is argued that increased understanding of the farm food web and its management is likely to support the development of multi-species agroecosystems that integrate improved ecosystem services and nature conservation goals.
|Tropical Forest Functions and the Socially Optimal Forest Stock: Is There To Much or To Little Forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica?
Bulte, E. ; Joenje, M. ; Jansen, H.G.P. - \ 2000
Canadian Journal of Forest Research (2000). - ISSN 0045-5067
Dynamics of plant communities in field boundaries : restoration of biodiversity
Schippers, P. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.J. Kropff; F. Berendse; W.J. Joenje. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082602 - 176
vegetatie - ecosystemen - plantenecologische groepen - concurrentie tussen planten - planteninteractie - soortendiversiteit - synecologie - graslanden - systeemanalyse - simulatiemodellen - zaadverspreiding - zaden - biodiversiteit - vegetation - ecosystems - plant ecological groups - plant competition - plant interaction - species diversity - synecology - grasslands - systems analysis - simulation models - seed dispersal - seeds - biodiversity
The field boundary, the strip of semi-natural vegetation bordering arable fields, can be considered as an important area for plant species survival in landscapes dominated by agriculture. In the last decennia, the natural plant species diversity has been reduced in many agricultural landscapes. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to analyse factors determining biodiversity in field boundaries such as nutrient deposition from the arable field, mowing regime, level of disturbance and boundary dimensions. For this purpose a simulation model was constructed that comprises the processes and factors that determine the dynamics of the field boundary vegetation.
This model is the result of the integration of three new models: a plant competition model based on eco-physiological principles, a spatially explicit population dynamical model and a seed dispersal model. The models were parameterized and evaluated with experimental data that were largely obtained from experiments described this thesis. Experimental research, therefore, was focussed on plant characteristics determining competition, succession and dispersal. Simulations and experimental results indicated that to enhance the diversity of the field boundary vegetation the following measures should be taken:
Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica
Bulte, E.H. ; Joenje, M. ; Jansen, H.P.G. - \ 2000
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30 (2000). - ISSN 0045-5067 - p. 495 - 506.
Deforestation rates in developing countries are often regarded as excessive, despite the lack of a satisfactory economic benchmark to evaluate this claim. This paper provides such a benchmark for a particular region in Costa Rica. The monetary value of the various functions performed by tropical rainforests is estimated and used in a conventional optimal control model to compute the globally optimal natural forest stock in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The results indicate that the current forest stock is suboptimally large, suggesting that promoting further forest conversion can increase economic welfare. The current stock would be near optimal only when (i) the annual benefits of carbon fixation are extremely high and (ii) the government of Costa Rica would be fully compensated for this positive externality.
Farm-nature plan : landscape ecology based farm planning
Smeding, F.W. ; Joenje, W. - \ 1999
Landscape and Urban Planning 46 (1999). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 109 - 115.
|Measuring plant diversity in crop-edges
Joenje, W. - \ 1999
In: Abstract in: 11th Symposium, European Weed Research Society, Basel, 28 June - 1 July, 1999 - p. 43 - 43.
Similarities in vegetation development of newly established herbaceous strips along contrasting European field boundaries.
Kleijn, D. ; Joenje, W. ; Coeur, D. le; Marshall, E.J.P. - \ 1998
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 68 (1998). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 13 - 26.
|The nematode fauna of the reclaimed area Lauwerszeepolder, The Netherlands.
Brinkman, H. ; Joenje, W. ; Kuiper, K. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 1998
In: Nematode communities of northern temperate grassland ecosystems / de Goede, R.G.M., Bongers, T., Giessen, Germany : Focus Verlag - p. 33 - 45.
|Promotie-onderzoek aan een pan-Afrikaans onkruidprobleem: Striga, een wortelparasiet op granen en grassen.
Joenje, W. - \ 1998
Nieuwsbrief Nederlandse Vereninging voor Afrika Studies 1 (1998)4.
|Aan de zomen van de akkers.
Joenje, W. - \ 1998
Inzicht in natuur 10 (1998). - ISSN 0924-2066 - p. 25 - 25.
|Akkerranden-beheer met verbrede doelen.
Joenje, W. - \ 1998
Gewasbescherming 29 (1998). - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 42 - 46.
|The Polder-model for evolutionary biology.
Joenje, W. ; Kik, C. - \ 1998
In: 7th Int. Symposium of the Intern. Organization of Plant Biosystematists: Plant evolution in man-made habitats, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - p. 55 - 55.
|Nature, agriculture and guiding ecological principles in landscape planning of Dutch polders.
Joenje, W. ; Smeding, F.W. - \ 1998
In: WLO-25 Congress: landscape ecology: things to do: proactives thoughts for the 21st century, Amsterdam, The Netherlands / van Dorp, D., - p. 38 - 38.
|Patterns in species composition of arable field boundary vegetation.
Kleijn, D. ; Joenje, W. ; Kropff, M.J. - \ 1997
Acta botanica neerlandica 46 (1997). - ISSN 0044-5983 - p. 2 - 192.
Species richness and weed abundance in the vegetation of arable field boundaries
Kleijn, D. - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.J. Kropff; F. Berendse; W. Joenje. - S.l. : Kleijn - ISBN 9789054857723 - 176
soortendiversiteit - onkruiden - plantengemeenschappen - bouwland - velden - dijken - kanaaloevers - vegetatie - kanaaloeverbeplantingen - flora - bescherming - conservering - Elymus repens - species diversity - weeds - plant communities - arable land - fields - dykes - canal banks - vegetation - canal plantations - flora - protection - conservation - Elymus repens
In the modem arable landscape, the vegetation of perennial field boundaries have important ecological functions such as providing a habitat for farmland wildlife, providing overwintering sites for predatory insects, providing movement corridors, reducing soil erosion and acting as an agrochemical buffer. In recent decades, plant diversity in these linear landscape structures has declined severely. The present study aims at identifying the most important factors that control botanical species richness in herbaceous arable field boundaries. The field boundary vegetation is usually managed by farmers who consider the boundary to be a source of weeds. Therefore, research concentrated on factors that simultaneously increase species richness and reduce weed abundance in the boundary vegetation.
Species richness was primarily affected by an accumulation of nutrients in the field boundary. Nutrients may reach the boundary in two ways: (i) by misplacement of fertilizer and (ii) by capture of arable nutrient resources (through root growth into the field) by plants in field boundaries. The high nutrient levels in the boundary resulted in an increased productivity of the vegetation and a dominance of tall, competitive species. Subsequently, low statured species disappeared from the habitat and species richness declined. The most common type of boundary management practiced by farmers did not include removal of the cut material after mowing which strengthens the eutrophication of arable field boundaries. Herbicide drift had adverse effects on species richness but the effects were less severe and consistent compared to the effects of nutrients.
The main factor promoting weed growth (in the study area primarily the clonal weeds Cirsium arvense and Elymus repens) was the presence of bare soil in the boundary. Bare soil may be created by cultivation activities of the farmer or by the smothering effects of cut material left lying in the boundary after mowing. Bare soil generally promotes the establishment of annual weed species. Furthermore, the perennial weed Elymus repens was found to be able to concentrate its biomass selectiveley in bare patches within the perennial vegetation. Additionally, bare soil was found to favour the establishment of tall competitive (early successional) species compared to later successional species which are indicative of more species rich plant communities.
The results of this study suggest that boundaries that are not regularly disturbed and low to moderately productive combine species richness with low weed abundance. This may be achieved by a regular and consistent mowing regime of the boundary vegetation that includes removal of the cuttings. A boundary management approach is suggested which may be combined easily with other farming activities.
|The Economics of Improved Pasture and Silvipastoral Technologies in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica.
Jansen, J.G.P. ; Muhammed, A. ; Ibrahim, M. ; Nieuwenhuyse, A. ; Mannetje, L. 't; Joenje, M. ; Abarca, S. - \ 1997
Tropical Grasslands 32 (1997)1. - ISSN 0049-4763 - p. 34 - 44.
|Aspectos Económicos de la Technología de Pasturas Mejoradas y Sistemas Silvopastoriles en la Zona Atlántica de Costa Rica [Econ. aspects of the technol. of improved pastures and agrosilvopastoral systems in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica]. Poster Abstract 10th Congr. Nacional Agronómico y de Recursos Nacionales.
Jansen, H.G.P. ; Nieuwenhuyse, A. ; Abarca, S. ; Ibrahim, M.A. ; Joenje, M. ; Mannetje, L. 't - \ 1996
In: In: F. Bertsch et al. (eds.) Agronomía y recursos naturales: puede ser agricultura competitiva?, San José, Costa Rica - p. 390 - 390.
Architectuur van agro-ecosystemen; consequenties voor plagen, ziekten, antagonisten en onkruiden
Booij, C.J.H. ; Werf, W. van der; Joenje, W. ; Theunissen, J. - \ 1995
In: Hoe ecologisch kan de landbouw worden? / Haverkort, A.J., van der Werff, P.A., - p. 81 - 94.