Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Food capture, transport and swallowing in white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)
    Meer, N.M.M.E. van; Weller, H.I. ; Manafzadeh, A.R. ; Kaczmarek, E.B. ; Scott, B. ; Gussekloo, S.W.S. ; Wilga, C.D. ; Brainerd, E.L. ; Camp, A.L. - \ 2019
    In: SCIB 2019 Annual Meeting Abstracts. - Tampa : Society for Experimental Biology - p. 414 - 414.
    Intra-oropharyngeal food transport and swallowing in white-spotted bamboo sharks
    Meer, Noraly M.M.E. van; Weller, Hannah I. ; Manafzadeh, Armita R. ; Kaczmarek, Elska B. ; Scott, Bradley ; Gussekloo, Sander W.S. ; Wilga, Cheryl D. ; Brainerd, Elizabeth L. ; Camp, Ariel L. - \ 2019
    Journal of Experimental Biology 2019 (2019)222. - ISSN 0022-0949 - 9 p.

    Despite the importance of intraoral food transport and swallowing, relatively few studies have examined the biomechanics of these behaviors in non-tetrapods, which lack a muscular tongue. Studies show that elasmobranch and teleost fishes generate water currents as a ‘hydrodynamic tongue’ that presumably transports food towards and into the esophagus. However, it remains largely unknown how specific musculoskeletal motions during transport correspond to food motion. Previous studies of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) hypothesized that motions of the hyoid, branchial arches and pectoral girdle, generate caudal motion of the food through the long oropharynx of modern sharks. To test these hypotheses, we measured food and cartilage motion with XROMM during intra-oropharyngeal transport and swallowing (N=3 individuals, 2–3 trials per individual). After entering the mouth, food does not move smoothly toward the esophagus, but rather moves in distinct steps with relatively little retrograde motion. Caudal food motion coincides with hyoid elevation and a closed mouth, supporting earlier studies showing that hyoid motion contributes to intra-oropharyngeal food transport by creating caudally directed water currents. Little correspondence between pectoral girdle and food motion was found, indicating minimal contribution of pectoral girdle motion. Transport speed was fast as food entered the mouth, slower and step-wise through the pharyngeal region and then fast again as it entered the esophagus. The food's static periods in the step-wise motion and its high velocity during swallowing could not be explained by hyoid or girdle motion, suggesting these sharks may also use the branchial arches for intra-oropharyngeal transport and swallowing
    Presence/absence, differential expression and sequence polymorphisms between PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like in Phytophthora infestans determine virulence on R2 plants
    Gilroy, E.M. ; Breen, S. ; Whisson, S.C. ; Squires, J. ; Hein, I. ; Kaczmarek, M. ; Turnbull, D. ; Boevink, P.C. ; Lokossou, A.A. ; Cano, L.M. ; Morales, J. ; Avrova, A.O. ; Pritchard, L. ; Randall, E. ; Lees, A. ; Govers, F. ; West, P. van; Kamoun, S. ; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. ; Cooke, D.E.L. ; Birch, P.R.J. - \ 2011
    New Phytologist 191 (2011)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 763 - 776.
    rxlr effectors - pathogen phytophthora - disease resistance - oomycete effectors - avirulence genes - downy mildew - potato - locus - avr3a - protein
    # A detailed molecular understanding of how oomycete plant pathogens evade disease resistance is essential to inform the deployment of durable resistance (R) genes. # • Map-based cloning, transient expression in planta, pathogen transformation and DNA sequence variation across diverse isolates were used to identify and characterize PiAVR2 from potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. # • PiAVR2 is an RXLR-EER effector that is up-regulated during infection, accumulates at the site of haustoria formation, and is recognized inside host cells by potato protein R2. Expression of PiAVR2 in a virulent P. infestans isolate conveys a gain-of-avirulence phenotype, indicating that this is a dominant gene triggering R2-dependent disease resistance. PiAVR2 presence/absence polymorphisms and differential transcription explain virulence on R2 plants. Isolates infecting R2 plants express PiAVR2-like, which evades recognition by R2. PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like differ in 13 amino acids, eight of which are in the C-terminal effector domain; one or more of these determines recognition by R2. Nevertheless, few polymorphisms were observed within each gene in pathogen isolates, suggesting limited selection pressure for change within PiAVR2 and PiAVR2-like. # • Our results direct a search for R genes recognizing PiAVR2-like, which, deployed with R2, may exert strong selection pressure against the P. infestans population.
    Presence/absence polymorphism and differential expression of two diverged forms of PiAVR2 in Phytophthora infestans determine virulence on R2 plants
    Gilroy, E.M. ; Breen, S. ; Whisson, S.C. ; Squires, J. ; Hein, I. ; Lokossou, A.A. ; Boevink, P.C. ; Morales, J. ; Avrova, A.O. ; Pritchard, L. ; Turnbull, D. ; Kaczmarek, M. ; Cano, L. ; Randall, E. ; Govers, F. ; West, P. van; Kamoun, S. ; Vleeshouwers, V. ; Cooke, D.E.L. ; Birch, P.R.J. - \ 2011
    In: Book of Abstracts Oomycete Molecular Genetics Network Meeting, Asilomar, Pacific Grove, California, USA, 13-15 March 2011. - - p. 14 - 14.
    A detailed molecular understanding of how oomycete plant pathogens evade disease resistance is essential to inform the deployment of resistance (R) genes that will be durable. Map-based cloning, transient expression in planta, pathogen transformation and DNA sequence diversity across diverse isolates were used to identify and characterize PiAVR2 from the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. PiA VR2 is an RXLR-EER effector that is up-regulated during biotrophy, accumulates at the site of haustoria formation, and is recognized inside host cells by the potato R2 protein during infection. Transformation of a virulent P. infestans isolate to express PiAVR2 conveys a gain-of-avirulence phenotype, indicating this is a dominant gene triggering R2-dependent disease resistance. Both presence/absence polymorphism and transcriptional differences explain virulence on R2 plants. Isolates that infect R2 plants express Piavr2, which evades recognition by R2. PiAVR2 and Piavr2 encode proteins that differ in 13 amino acids, 8 of which reside in the C-terminal effector domain; one or more of these specifies recognition by R2. Nevertheless, few polymorphisms were observed within each gene in pathogen isolates, perhaps indicating that PiAVR2 and Piavr2 are fixed within the population. Our results direct a search for R genes that recognize Piavr2 which, deployed in combination with R2, may exert a strong selection pressure against the P. infestans population
    Threshold models for visually observed characters in DUS testing.
    Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Jansen, J. - \ 1997
    In: Advances in Biometrical Genetics, Proceedings X-th meeting of the Eucarpia Section Biometrics in Plant Breeding, Eds. P. Krajewski and Z. Kaczmarek. IGR-pan, Poznan - p. 291 - 298.
    Choosing locations for variety trials.
    Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Piepho, H.P. ; Denis, J.B. - \ 1997
    In: Advances in Biometrical Genetics, Proceedings X-th meeting of the Eucarpia Section Biometrics in Plant Breeding, Eds. P. Krajewski and Z. Kaczmarek. IGR-pan, Poznan - p. 299 - 304.
    Constructing a reference set of varieties for testing distinctness.
    Keizer, L.C.P. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van - \ 1997
    In: Advances in Biometrical Genetics, Proceedings X-th meeting of the Eucarpia Section Biometrics in Plant Breeding, Eds. P. Krajewski and Z. Kaczmarek. IGR-pan, Poznan - p. 169 - 174.
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