|Co- evolutionary planning theory: Evolutionary Governance Theory and its relatives
Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. ; Duineveld, M. - \ 2018
In: The Routledge Handbook of Planning Theory / Gunder, Michael, Madanipour, Ali, Watson, Vanessa, New York : Routledge - ISBN 9781138905016 - p. 221 - 233.
In a changing and often unpredictable globalized world, planning theory is core to understanding how planning and its practices both function and evolve. As illustrated in The Routledge Hand-book of Planning Theory, planning and its many roles have changed profoundly over the recent decades; so have the theories, both critical and explanatory, about its practices, values and knowledges. The handbook presents key contemporary themes in planning theory through the views of some of the most innovative thinkers in planning.
The Routledge Handbook of Planning Theory includes a chapter on Evolutionary Governance Theory. The chapters analyses the presence, the origins and the potential of co- evolutionary perspectives in planning theory. It pay particular attention to Evolutionary Governance Theory, as a comprehensive perspective on co- evolution in spatial planning and governance. The co- evolutionary approach to planning presents a middle ground between (social) engineering ap-proaches on the one hand and theories completely disqualifying planning and steering on the other. Both ends of the spectrum have often been criticized for respectively overestimating the steering possibilities of governments and the organizing capacities of markets. Planning theory embedded in governance theory can help to analyse and understand a particular governance context, to delineate the possibilities and limits of planning in that context, and to determine which planning efforts are most likely to have a positive impact. In a co-evolutionary perspec-tive, context as such, and governance context in particular, are never fixed, never stable: all elements and structures are continuously influencing each other.
The co-evolutionary perspective as developed in EGT opens up planning theory for a series of relevant concepts from different disciplines, relevant for the analysis of current and potential forms of planning in a community, while conversely giving theories and practices of planning a firm place within governance. The chapters shows how a co-evolutionary perspective is a very useful lens for both analysis and change, for the development of new planning perspectives or for the deliberate circumvention of a current planning system
Witchcraft, oracle, and magic in the kingdom of planning : A reflection on planning theory and practice inspired by Ernest Alexander
Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. ; Duineveld, M. - \ 2017
Planning Theory 16 (2017)2. - ISSN 1473-0952 - p. 223 - 226.
Re-conceptualising political landscapes after the material turn : A typology of material events
Duineveld, M. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. - \ 2017
Landscape Research 42 (2017)4. - ISSN 0142-6397 - p. 375 - 384.
This paper conceptualises and categorises the various relationships between materiality, discursive construction of landscapes and collective action. Building on both post-structuralist and non-representational geography, and incorporating insights from social systems theory and from evolutionary governance theory, we present a perspective on materiality as shaping landscapes, communities and cultures through different pathways. These pathways might involve the construction of landscape concepts and can potentially affect collective choice in political landscapes of actors and institutions. Five types of material events are distinguished: silent, whispering, vigorous, fading and deadly events. These events constitute the spectrum in which materiality and changes in materiality affect communication and action. Such conceptualisation and categorisations help to avoid setting up a harsh distinction between matter and discourse, or a simple choice for one over the other as ontologically prior.
Citizens, Leaders and the Common Good in a world of Necessity and Scarcity: Machiavelli’s Lessons for Community-Based Natural Resource Management.
Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. ; Duineveld, M. - \ 2016
Ethics, Policy & Environment 19 (2016)1. - ISSN 2155-0085 - p. 19 - 36.
In this article we investigate the value and utility of Machiavelli’s work for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). We made a selection of five topics derived from literature on NRM and CBNRM: (1) Law and Policy, (2) Justice, (3) Participation, (4) Transparency, and (5) Leadership and management. We use Machiavelli’s work to analyze these topics and embed the results in a narrative intended to lead into the final conclusions, where the overarching theme of natural resource management for the common good is considered. Machiavelli’s focus on practical realities produces new, sometimes unsettling, insights. We conclude that this focus helps to understand the development and performance of management regimes and their consequences and that institutional design should be seen as an ongoing process, which requires a constant adaptation of these institutions.
Place as layered and segmentary commodity: place branding, smart growth and the creation of product and value
Beunen, R. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Chien Lo, Ming - \ 2016
International Planning Studies 21 (2016)2. - ISSN 1356-3475 - p. 164 - 175.
Smart growth is a comprehensive version of spatial planning that can guide sustainable development and tackle negative social and environmental consequences of urbanization. In this paper we explore how an integration of spatial planning and place branding strategies can further the concept of smart growth and improve its chance at implementation. A review of the parallel evolutions of place branding and smart growth shows their shared interest in comprehensive visions, sensitivity for narratives of place and self, and the proposed embedding in participatory governance. The concept of layered and segmenatary commodification offers a novel perspective on value creation in smart growth and helps to develop new forms of smart growth, that combine and integrate elements of spatial planning and place branding.
Evolutionary Governance Theory and the Adaptive Capacity of the Dutch Planning System
Beunen, R. ; Duineveld, M. ; Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2016
In: Spatial planning in a complex unpredictable world of change / Boelens, Luuk, de Roo, Gert, Groningen : InPlanning - ISBN 9789491937279 - p. 98 - 116.
Productieve functies van het landschapsontwerp : themanummer over kennisco-creatie in wetenschapswinkelprojecten
Duineveld, M. ; Cate, B. ten; Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2015
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 142 - 149.
participatie - landschapsarchitectuur - landschapsplanning - landschapsbeheer - ontwerp - nuttig gebruik - samenwerking - participation - landscape architecture - landscape planning - landscape management - design - utilization - cooperation
Een deel van de Nederlandse landschappen is ontworpen door landschapsarchitecten. Landschapsvorming is echter niet de enige functie van het ontwerp, betogen we in dit artikel. In een participatief ontwerpproces voor het Europaplein in Renkum bestudeerden we de verschillende functies van ontwerpen. Ondanks het feit dat die kunnen conflicteren, blijken ze op verschillende wijze een zeer productieve bijdrage te leveren aan het verloop van het proces.
Kloek, M.E. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Boersema, J. ; Schouten, M.G.C. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)117. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 3 - 5.
recreatie - openbaar groen - etnische groepen - immigranten - natuur - natuurbeheer - diversiteit - recreation - public green areas - ethnic groups - immigrants - nature - nature management - diversity
Natuurorganisaties vermoeden dat allochtone Nederlanders minder in de natuur komen dan autochtone Nederlanders. Er waren tot nu toe echter weinig harde cijfers over het natuurbezoek van allochtonen. Is een wandeling in de natuur inderdaad een ‘witte’ aangelegenheid, en hoe kunnen natuurorganisaties ervoor zorgen dat hun vrijwilligersbestand meer kleur krijgt? In het onderzoek ‘Colourful green’ van Marjolein Kloek, waarop zij op 28 augustus promoveerde aan Wageningen Universiteit (vakgroep Natuurbeheer en Plantecologie), laat zij zien dat het belangrijk is om allochtonen niet over één kam te scheren.
A sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in patients
Goh, L.Y.H. ; Kam, Y.W. ; Metz, S.W.H. ; Hobson-Peters, J. ; Prow, N.A. ; McCarthy, S. ; Smith, D.W. ; Pijlman, G.P. ; Ng, L.F.P. ; Hall, R.A. - \ 2015
Journal of Virological Methods 222 (2015). - ISSN 0166-0934 - p. 55 - 61.
west-nile-virus - linked-immunosorbent-assay - valley encephalitis-virus - monoclonal-antibodies - diagnostic-accuracy - universal detection - reunion island - insect cells - ns1 protein - pcr assay
Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has re-emerged as an arboviral disease that mimics clinical symptoms of other diseases such as dengue, malaria, as well as other alphavirus-related illnesses leading to problems with definitive diagnosis of the infection. Herein we describe the development and evaluation of a sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA (EB-ELISA) capable of specifically detecting anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) antibodies in clinical samples. The assay uses a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds an epitope on the E2 protein of CHIKV and does not exhibit cross-reactivity to other related alphaviruses. We also demonstrated the use of recombinant CHIK virus-like particles (VLPs) as a safe alternative antigen to infectious virions in the assay. Based on testing of 60 serum samples from patients in the acute or convalescent phase of CHIKV infection, the EB-ELISA provided us with 100% sensitivity, and exhibited 98.5% specificity when Ross River virus (RRV)- or Barmah Forest virus (BFV)-immune serum samples were included. This assay meets the public health demands of a rapid, robust, sensitive and specific, yet simple assay for specifically diagnosing CHIK-infections in humans.
Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food
Veen, E.J. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Andries Visser; Bettina Bock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573383 - 265
publieke tuinen - tuinieren - stedelijke gebieden - bewonersparticipatie - buurtactie - stadslandbouw - alternatieve landbouw - volkstuinen - voedingsmiddelen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - sociologie - public gardens - gardening - urban areas - community participation - community action - urban agriculture - alternative farming - allotment gardens - foods - organic foods - sociology
The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to food growing per se, and the extent to which participants perceive community gardens as an alternative to the industrial food system.
I define community gardens as a plot of land in an urban area, cultivated either communally or individually by people from the direct neighbourhood or the wider city, or in which urbanites are involved in other ways than gardening, and to which there is a collective element. Over the last years, community gardens have sprung up in several Dutch cities. Although there are various reasons for an increasing interest in community gardens, there are two that I focus on in this thesis in particular. The first is the assumption made that community gardens stimulate social cohesion in inner-city neighbourhoods, to be seen in the light of the ‘participatory society’. The second is community gardens’ contribution to the availability of locally produced food, in the context of an increased interest in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs).
The Dutch government aims to transform the Dutch welfare state into a participatory society in which citizens take more responsibility for their social and physical environment. This way the government not only hopes to limit public spending, but also wishes to increase social bonding and the self-organisational capacity of society. Community gardens fit the rhetoric around the participatory society, as they are examples of organised residents taking responsibility for their living environment. Moreover, the literature suggests that gardens are physical interventions that may decrease isolation by acting as meeting places. However, both the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion and under what conditions they may do so are unclear, especially as gardens come in various designs, shapes and sizes.
The popularity of community gardens also seems to be related to an overall increasing societal interest in food, and can be discussed in relation to Alternative Food Networks. AFNs are food systems that are different in some way from the mainstream, and are seen as a reaction to consumer concerns about the conventional food system. They are often considered to be dictated by political motivations and injected with a ‘deeper morality’. The category ‘AFN’ is however a heterogeneous category, as is the conventional food system; neither can be easily defined. The degree to which community gardens can be seen as AFNs is therefore unclear. While they do improve the availability of local food and operate outside of the market economy, we do not know how much and how often people eat from their gardens, nor do we know to what extent they are involved in the gardens in order to provide an alternative to the industrial food system. Hence, there is a lack of knowledge about the sense in which community gardens are alternative alternatives.
The overall research question of this thesis is:
What is the significance of community gardening in terms of its intention to promote social cohesion as well as its representation as an alternative food system?
This broad question is instructed by the following sub-questions:Why do people get involved in community gardens? What are their motivations?How, to what extent, and under which conditions does community gardening promote the development of social relations between participants? How do participants value these social effects? To what extent do the diets of community garden participants originate from the gardens in which they are involved? What is the importance of food in community gardens?What is the importance of growing or getting access to alternative food for participants of community gardens? Methodology
An important theoretical lens in this research is the theory of practice. Practices are defined as concrete human activity and include things, bodily doings and sayings. By performing practices people not only draw upon but also feed into structure. Routinisation – of practices, but also of daily life – therefore plays a central role in practice theory. Practice theory allows for an emphasis on practical reality as well as a study of motivations. This focus on how people manage everyday life, and how gardening fits within that, makes it particularly useful for this thesis.
I define social cohesion as the way in which people in a society feel and are connected to each other (De Kam and Needham 2003) and operationalised it by focusing on ‘social contacts, social networks, and social capital’, one of the elements into which social cohesion is often broken up. This element was operationalised as 1) contacts (the width of social cohesion) and 2) mutual help (the depth of social cohesion).
This research has a case study design; I studied four Dutch community gardens over a two-year period of time, and later supplemented these with an additional three cases. As practices consist of both doings and sayings, analysis must be concerned with both practical activity and its representation. I used participant observations to study practical activities, and interviews, questionnaires and document study to examine the representation of these activities.
Chapters 3 to 7 form the main part of this thesis. They are papers/book chapters that have been submitted to or are published by scientific journals or books. All of them are based on the field work.
In chapter 3 we compare two of the case studies and determine to what extent they can be seen as ‘alternative’. We argue that although reflexive motivations are present, most participants are unwilling to frame their involvement as political, and mundane motivations play an important role in people’s involvement as well. By using the concept of ‘food provisioning practices’ we show that participants of community gardens are often required to be actively involved in the production of their food. This means that participants are both producers and consumers: the gardens show a ‘sliding scale of producership’. This chapter also shows that political statements are not a perfect predictor of actual involvement in community gardening. This finding was one of the main reasons for starting to use the theory of practice, which is the main topic of the next chapter.
In chapter 4 we compare one of my case studies with an urban food growing initiative in New York City. By comparing the internal dynamics of these two cases and their relations with other social practices, we investigate whether different urban food growing initiatives can be seen as variations of one single practice. We also study the question of whether the practice can be seen as emerging. In particular, we take the elements of meaning, competences and material (Shove et al. 2012) into account. We found both similarities and differences between the two cases, with the main difference relating to the meanings practitioners attach to the practice. We conclude, therefore, that it is not fully convincing to see these cases as examples of the same social practice. We also argue that urban food growing may be considered an emerging practice, because it combines various practices, both new and established, under one single heading.
In chapter 5 we use the theory of practice to explore how urban food growing is interwoven with everyday life. We compare four community gardens - two allotments and two cases which we define as AFNs. We found that participants of the allotments are involved in the practice of gardening, while members of the AFNs are involved in the practice of shopping. The gardening practice requires structural engagement, turning it into a routine. The produce is a result of that routine and is easily integrated into daily meals. As AFNs are associated with the practice of shopping, they remain in competition with more convenient food acquisition venues. Eating from these gardens is therefore less easily integrated in daily life; every visit to the garden requires a conscious decision. Hence, whether members are primarily involved in shopping or in growing has an impact on the degree to which they eat urban-grown food. This shows that motivations are embedded in the context and routine of everyday life, and ‘only go so far’.
Chapter 6 concerns the organisational differences between the seven case studies in this thesis and the extent to which these influence the enhancement of social cohesion. We study people’s motivations for being involved in the gardens and compare these with the three main organisational differences. This comparison reveals that the gardens can be divided into place-based and interest-based gardens. Place-based gardens are those in which people participate for social reasons – aiming to create social bonds in the neighbourhood. Interest-based gardens are those in which people participate because they enjoy growing vegetables. Nevertheless, all of these gardens contribute to the development of social cohesion. Moreover, while participants who are motivated by the social aspects of gardening show a higher level of appreciation for them, these social aspects also bring added value for those participants who are motivated primarily by growing vegetables.
In chapter 7 we present a garden that exemplifies that gardens may encompass not only one, but indeed several communities, and that rapprochement and separation take place simultaneously. While this garden is an important meeting place, thereby contributing to social cohesion, it harbours two distinct communities. These communities assign others to categories (‘us’ and ‘them’) on the basis of place of residence, thereby strengthening their own social identities. Ownership over the garden is both an outcome and a tool in that struggle. We define the relationship between these two communities as instrumental-rational – referring to roles rather than individuals - which explains why they do not form a larger unity. Nevertheless, the two communities show the potential to develop into a larger imagined garden-community.
This thesis shows that the different organisational set-ups of community gardens reflect gardeners’ different motivations for being involved in these gardens. The gardens studied in this thesis can be defined as either place-based or interest-based; gardens in the first category are focused on the social benefits of gardening, whereas gardens in the second category are focused on gardening and vegetables. Nevertheless, social effects occur in both types of gardens; in all of the gardens studied, participants meet and get to know others and value these contacts. Based on this finding, I conclude that community gardens do indeed enhance social cohesion.
Place-based community gardens specifically have the potential to become important meeting places; they offer the opportunity to work communally towards a common goal, and once established, can develop into neighbourhood spaces to be used for various other shared activities. Most interest-based gardens lack opportunities to develop the social contacts that originated at the garden beyond the borders of the garden. These gardens are often maintained by people who do not live close to the garden or to each other, and those who garden are generally less motivated by social motivations per se. Important to note is that community gardens do not necessarily foster a more inclusive society; they often attract people with relatively similar socio-economic backgrounds and may support not one, but several communities.Most participants from place-based gardens eat from their gardens only occasionally; others never do so. This type of community garden can therefore hardly be seen as a reaction to the industrialised food system, let alone an attempt to create an alternative food system. Nevertheless, certain aspects of these gardens are in line with the alternative rhetoric. By contrast, most gardeners at interest-based gardens eat a substantial amount of food from their gardens, and to some of them the choice to consume this locally-grown food relates to a lifestyle in which environmental considerations play a role. However, this reflexivity is not expressed in political terms and participants do not see themselves as part of a food movement. Participants who buy rather than grow produce showed the greatest tendency to explain their involvement in political terms, but many of them have difficulty including the produce in their diets on a regular basis. I therefore conclude that community gardens cannot be seen as conscious, ‘alternative’ alternatives to the industrial food system. Nonetheless, the role of food in these gardens is essential, as it is what brings participants together – either because they enjoy gardening or because the activities which are organised there centre around food.
In this thesis I used and aimed to contribute to the theory of practice. Using participant observations to study what people do in reality was particularly useful. It turned research into an embodied activity, enabling me to truly ‘live the practice’, and therefore to understand it from the inside.
Deconstructing the practice of food provisioning into activities such as buying, growing and cooking was helpful in gaining an understanding of how people manage everyday life, and how food acquisitioning fits into their everyday rhythms. It sheds light on how and to what extent people experience the practice of community gardening as a food acquisitioning practice, and to what degree they relate it to other elements of food provisioning such as cooking and eating. The focus on the separate elements of food provisioning practices helped me realise that acquiring food from community gardens represents a different practice to different people; some are engaged in the practice of growing food, others in the practice of shopping for food.
This thesis showed that motivations delineate how the practice ‘works out in practice’; the way in which a practice such as community gardening is given shape attracts people with certain motivations, who, by reproducing that practice, increase the attractiveness of the practice for others with similar motivations. This implies that while community gardening appears to be one practice, it should in fact be interpreted as several distinct practices, such as the practice of food growing or the practice of social gathering. Motivations therefore influence a garden’s benefits and outcomes. This thesis thus highlights that motivations should not be overlooked when studying practices.
Apprehending the motivations of community gardeners is also an important contribution to the literature around AFNs, since it helps us to understand the extent to which urban food production is truly alternative. By studying motivations, this thesis reveals that AFNs do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, or that not all food growing initiatives in the city can be defined as alternative. However, participants of community gardens are often both producers and consumers (there is a ‘sliding scale of producership’); the gardens are thus largely independent from the conventional food system. Moreover, for participants who buy produce, the meaning of the gardens often goes beyond an economic logic (there is a ‘sliding scale of marketness’). Hence, while the gardens studied in this thesis are no alternative alternatives, most of them can be qualified as ‘actually existing alternatives’ (after Jehlicka and Smith 2011).
This thesis showed that even those gardens in which the commodification of food is being challenged do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, which is contrary to what is argued by Watts et al. (2005). This implies that understanding whether or not initiatives resist incorporation into the food system is insufficient to be able to determine whether or not they can be defined as alternative food networks. However, determining whether or not deeper moral reflection is present is not a satisfactory way of defining food networks as alternative either, as this neglects the fact that motivations do not always overlap with practical reality. This suggests that establishing whether a food network can be regarded as alternative requires studying both motivations and practical reality. The thesis also raises the question to what extent the label AFN is still useful. Since it is unclear what ‘alternative’ means exactly, it is also unclear whether a given initiative can be considered alternative. Moreover, the world of food seems too complex to be represented by a dichotomy between alternative and conventional food systems; the gardens presented in this thesis are diverse and carry characteristics of both systems. I therefore suggest considering replacing the term AFN with that of civic food networks, as Renting et al. (2012) advocate.
Rural development : knowledge and expertise in governance
Assche, K.A.M. van; Hornidge, A.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862566 - 396
plattelandsontwikkeling - kennis - governance - rural development - knowledge - governance
This book offers a perspective on rural development, by discussing the most influential perspectives and rendering their risks and benefits visible. The authors do not present a silver bullet. Rather, they give students, researchers, community leaders, politicians, concerned citizens and development organizations the conceptual tools to understand how things are organized now, which development path has already been taken, and how things could possibly move in a different direction. The authors pay special attention to the different roles of knowledge in rural development, both expert knowledge in various guises and local knowledge. Crafting development strategies requires understanding how new knowledge can fit in and work out in governance. Drawing on experiences in five continents, the authors develop a theoretical framework which elucidates how modes of governance and rural development are inextricably tied. A community is much better placed to choose direction, when it understands these ties.
Rural development and the entwining of dependencies: Transition as evolving governance in Khorezm, Uzbekistan
Assche, K.A.M. van; Djanibekov, N. ; Hornidge, A.K. ; Shtaltovna, A. ; Verschraegen, G. - \ 2014
Futures 63 (2014). - ISSN 0016-3287 - p. 75 - 85.
planning systems - transformation - resilience - management - economies - networks - politics - delta - water
We develop an analytical framework that allows to grasp the evolving patterns of rules and roles in rural transitions, and the concomitant changes in the functions of expertise. Institutional change is understood as governed by a combination of path dependence, interdependence and goal dependence. We illustrate and develop the framework by means of an in-depth analysis of rural transition in the Khorezm province, Uzbekistan. In Khorezm, the Soviet actors were tightly coupled in order to contribute to shared goals first of all cotton and grain production. After independence, dissolution of collective farms, a diminished interest in planning and policy coordination, and locally different styles of political steering, led to a much less coordinated rural governance, to a scattering of expertise and to opacity regarding its supply and demand. We reflect on the implications of our findings for the analysis of rural transitions more broadly, and especially the impact of policies and plans aiming at a rural transition in a specific direction. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ernest Oberholtzer and the art of boundary crossing: writing, life and the narratives of conservation and planning
Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2014
Planning Perspectives 29 (2014)1. - ISSN 0266-5433 - p. 45 - 65.
Through an analysis of the various roles of narrative in the life and work of famed conservationist Ernest C. Oberholtzer (1884-1977), we explore the relations between life (as evolving autobiographical narrative), place identity, and environmental planning, and the place of literary and artistic discourses in the processes of mutual articulation one can observe there. We investigate the role of writing in his work and life, and the functions of narratives in a broader sense, and argue that Oberholtzer's remarkable identification with a self-created place narrative, and his exceptional narrative fluidity, both in autobiographical sense and in other communicative situations, made him not only an exquisite wilderness advocate but also a rich source of insights into the narrative nature of environmental planning.
Gouden driehoek? : discoursanalyse van het topsectorenbeleid
Haas, W. de; Assche, K.A.M. van; Pleijte, M. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2581) - 75
economisch beleid - discoursanalyse - tuinbouw - energiebeleid - informatietechnologie - innovaties - economic policy - discourse analysis - horticulture - energy policy - information technology - innovations
In 2011 is de Nederlandse overheid gestart met het Topsectorenbeleid voor de Nederlandse economie. In deze studie is geanalyseerd hoe dit beleid zich de eerste jaren heeft gevormd. Het topsectorenbeleid kan worden opgevat als een coalitie tussen drie discoursen. In trefwoorden weergegeven zijn deze drie: Ruimte voor ondernemers, Gouden Driehoek en ‘Backing winners’. Voor de topsectoren Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmaterialen en Energie is beschreven hoe het samenspel tussen deze drie discoursen is verlopen. Daarnaast is een vergelijking gemaakt tussen het topsectorenbeleid en ervaringen met innovatiebeleid in de USA en Vlaanderen. De analyses wijzen alle op het belang van open netwerken, die verder gaan dan het vestigen van een institutioneel verband tussen ondernemers, overheden en kennisinstellingen. Het project is uitgevoerd in het kader van het kennisbasisonderzoek van Wageningen UR. Het maakt deel uit van het programma ‘Transities in het Landelijk Gebied’ waarin de omslag die momenteel op veel fronten plaatsvindt, wordt gevolgd, geanalyseerd en geduid.
Welke stijl heeft mijn bedrijf?
Vijn, M.P. ; Bremmer, B. ; Migchels, G. ; Jong, D. de - \ 2014
Ekoland sept 2014 (2014). - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 24 - 25.
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - biologische landbouw - multifunctionele landbouw - farm management - entrepreneurship - organic farming - multifunctional agriculture
Alle (biologische) boeren runnen hun bedrijf op eigen wijze. Je kunt agrarische ondernemers niet over één kam scheren. Toch zijn er groepen ondernemers aan te wijzen die meer overeenkomsten dan verschillen kennen in hun denken en doen, zij hebben dezelfde bedrijfsstijl. Als ondernemers weten wat hun bedrijfsstijl is, kan dat hen helpen in het bepalen van hun strategie en visie waardoor zij succesvoller kunnen ondernemen.
Formal/Informal Dialectics and the Self-Transformation of Spatial Planning Systems: An Exploration
Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. ; Duineveld, M. - \ 2014
Administration and Society 46 (2014)6. - ISSN 0095-3997 - p. 654 - 683.
danube delta - institutions - governance - informality - management - property - participation - subcultures - insurgence - capacity
In this article, we present a perspective on the interaction between formal and informal institutions in spatial planning in which they transform each other continuously, in processes that can be described and analyzed as ongoing reinterpretations. The effects of configurations and dialectics are often ambiguous, only partially observable, different in different domains and at different times. By means of analyses of key concepts in planning theory and practice, this perspective is illustrated and developed. Finally, we analyze transformation options in pla-ning systems, emphasizing the limits of formal institutions in transforming formal/informal configurations, and stressing the importance of judgment and conflict.
Ernest Oberholtzer : het belang van rollen en ambiguïteit voor het landschap (Forumbijdrage)
Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2013
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 30 (2013)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 69 - 74.
natuurbescherming - deskundigen - veldwerk - biografieën - vs - nature conservation - experts - field work - biographies - usa
De Amerikaanse natuurbeschermer Ernest Oberholtzer (1884-1977) is ten onrechte in de vergetelheid geraakt. Hij werkte in een omgeving die vijandig stond ten opzichte van de natuurbescherming, maar wist door zijn verhalen, netwerken en optreden toch invloed uit te oefenen. Zijn leven en werk zijn ook voor ons in Nederland nog steeds, en misschien wel steeds meer, een studie waard.
Understanding contracts in evolving agro-economies: Fermers, dekhqans and networks in Khorezm, Uzbekistan
Djanibekov, U. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Boezeman, D. ; Djanibekov, N. - \ 2013
Journal of Rural Studies 32 (2013). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 137 - 147.
danube delta - moral hazard - choice - agriculture - governance - lessons - reform - risk
We combine institutional economic perspectives and actor-network theory to elucidate the role of contracts in the evolution of transitional agricultural systems. Such combination of theories can shed a light on the mutual constitution of actors and institutions, and the formation of economic strategies. We argue that forms and functions of contracts can only be understood in an evolutionary context. In a case study of the Khorezm region, Uzbekistan, where several waves of reform created two principal actors - commercial farms (called fermers locally) responsible for state-ordered production and semi-subsistence smallholders (called dekhqans locally) - it is demonstrated how in the self-transformation of the actor-network, and thus the shifts in forms and roles of contracts, several network features play a role: interdependencies between the actors, the essential actant of the irrigation and drainage system, formal/informal dialectics. Time horizons, risk/benefit calculations, trust and cooperation forms emerge in the self-reproducing network and leave space for certain contractual forms and functions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malta's Unintentional Consequences: Archaeological Heritage and the Politics of Exculsion in the Netherlands
Duineveld, M. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Beunen, R. - \ 2013
Public Archaeology 12 (2013)3. - ISSN 1465-5187 - p. 139 - 154.
implementation - systems
We argue that the apparently successful implementation of the European Malta Convention (1992) in the Netherlands resulted in a relatively closed archaeological policy system, which separates ordinary people from experts. As a result, citizens were increasingly excluded from the archaeological process. The process of closure and exclusion is made visible by investigating Dutch amateur archaeologists and their changing roles within Dutch archaeology. Amateur archaeologists are a group of semi-experts often deemed essential to the quality of research and policy regarding archaeological heritage. Their marginalization after Malta caused discussion and frustration, undermining public support for the initial policy goal of the Malta Convention: conservation of archaeological heritage. Our analysis draws on recent academic debates concerning the policy-practice nexus in processes of Europeanization. Reducing negative side effects and re-targeting policies for greater efficacy and democracy requires insight into the pathways of implementation.
|Visible and invisible informalities and institutional transformation in the transition countrieso of Georgia, Romania, Uzbekistan
Assche, K.A.M. van; Shtaltovna, A. ; Hornidge, A.K. - \ 2013
In: Informality in Eastern Europe: Structures, Political Cultures and Social Practices / Giordano, C., Hayoz, N., Bern : Peter Lang (Interdisciplinary Studies on Central and Eastern Europe 11) - ISBN 9783034314558 - 490 p.