Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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'Koningin laat zich voor karretje spannen'
Schroder, Jaap - \ 2019
European mushroom assemblages are darker in cold climates
Krah, Franz Sebastian ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Schaefer, Hanno ; Müller, Jörg ; Andrew, Carrie ; Boddy, Lynne ; Diez, Jeffrey ; Egli, Simon ; Freckleton, Robert ; Gange, Alan C. ; Halvorsen, Rune ; Heegaard, Einar ; Heideroth, Antje ; Heibl, Christoph ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Høiland, Klaus ; Kar, Ritwika ; Kauserud, Håvard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Norden, Jenni ; Papastefanou, Phillip ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Bässler, Claus - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723

Thermal melanism theory states that dark-colored ectotherm organisms are at an advantage at low temperature due to increased warming. This theory is generally supported for ectotherm animals, however, the function of colors in the fungal kingdom is largely unknown. Here, we test whether the color lightness of mushroom assemblages is related to climate using a dataset of 3.2 million observations of 3,054 species across Europe. Consistent with the thermal melanism theory, mushroom assemblages are significantly darker in areas with cold climates. We further show differences in color phenotype between fungal lifestyles and a lifestyle differentiated response to seasonality. These results indicate a more complex ecological role of mushroom colors and suggest functions beyond thermal adaption. Because fungi play a crucial role in terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles, understanding the links between the thermal environment, functional coloration and species’ geographical distributions will be critical in predicting ecosystem responses to global warming.

Intestinal stem-cell organoids as experimental models to investigate feed efficiency
Ellen, E.D. ; Taverne, N. ; Taverne-Thiele, J.J. ; Madsen, O. ; Woelders, H. ; Bergsma, R. ; Knol, Egbert F. ; Kar, S.K. ; Haas, Y. de; Groenen, M. ; Wells, J.M. - \ 2018
In: Book of Abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of Abstracts ) - ISBN 9789086863235 - p. 478 - 478.
Evaluation of functional properties of current and novel protein sources using enteroids
Kar, S.K. ; Boekschoten, M.V. - \ 2018
GSE98051 - Mus musculus - PRJNA383808
This study was designed to address key questions concerning the use of alternative protein sources for animal feeds and addresses aspects such as their nutrient composition and impact on gut function. We used casein (CAS), spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP), soybean meal (SBM), and yellow meal worm (YMW) as protein sources. We have investigated the use of intestinal organoids as a model to test the effects of different protein sources on the intestinal epithelium. Mouse enteroids were exposed to different undigested protein sources (4% w/v, viz. soybean meal, SBM; casein, CAS; spray dried plasma protein, SDPP; and yellow meal worm, YMW) or DMEM as a control. Microarrays were used to detail the global gene expression.
Amine Metabolism Is Influenced by Dietary Protein Source
Kar, Soumya K. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Kruijt, Leo ; Harms, Amy C. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Smits, Mari A. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Nutrition 4 (2017). - ISSN 2296-861X
Growth in world population will inevitably leads to increased demand for protein for humans and animals. Protein from insects and blood plasma are being considered as possible alternatives, but more research on their nutritional quality and health effects is needed. Here, we studied the effect of dietary protein source on metabolism and metabolic amine profiles in serum and urine of mice. Groups of mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 300 g/kg of soybean meal, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray-dried plasma
protein, wheat gluten meal, and yellow mealworm. Feed and water intake as well as body weight gain were measured for 28 days. After 14 and 28 days, serum and urine samples were collected for measurement of a large panel of amine metabolites. MetaboAnalyst 3.0 was used for analysis of the raw metabolic data. Out of 68 targeted amine metabolites, we could detect 54 in urine and 41 in blood serum. Dietary protein sources were found to have profound effects on host metabolism, particularly in systemic amine profiles, considered here as an endophenotype. We recommend serum over urine to screen for the amine metabolic endophenotype based on partial least squares discriminant analysis. We concluded that metabolites like alpha-aminobutyric acid and methylhistidine are sensitive indicators of too much or too little availability of specific amino acids in the different protein diets. Furthermore, we concluded that amine metabolic profiles can be useful for assessing the nutritional quality of different protein sources.
Dietary protein sources differentially affect microbiota, mTOR activity and transcription of mTOR signaling pathways in the small intestine
Kar, Soumya K. ; Jansman, Alfons J.M. ; Benis, Nirupama ; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier ; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Kruijt, Leo ; Stolte, Ellen H. ; Taverne-Thiele, Johanna J. ; Smits, Mari A. ; Wells, Jerry M. - \ 2017
PLoS ONE 12 (2017)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g) were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis): soybean meal (SBM), casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed to collect ileal tissue to acquire gene expression data, and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, ileal digesta to study changes in microbiota and serum to measure cytokines and chemokines. By genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified fourteen high level regulatory genes that are strongly affected in SBM-fed mice compared to the other experimental groups. They mostly related to the mTOR pathway. In addition, an increased (P < 0.05) concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was observed in serum of SBM-fed mice compared to other dietary groups. Moreover, by 16S rRNA sequencing, we observed that SBM-fed mice had higher (P < 0.05) abundances of Bacteroidales family S24-7, compared to the other dietary groups. We showed that measurements of genome-wide expression and microbiota composition in the mouse ileum reveal divergent responses to diets containing different protein sources, in particular for a diet based on SBM.
Multi-level integration of environmentally perturbed internal phenotypes reveals key points of connectivity between them
Benis, Nirupama ; Kar, Soumya K. ; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Smits, Mari A. ; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Suarez-Diez, Maria - \ 2017
Frontiers in Physiology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-042X - 11 p.
Data integration - Gastrointestinal tract - Internal phenotype - Metabolomics - Microbiota - Proteomics - Systems biology - Transcriptomics

The genotype and external phenotype of organisms are linked by so-called internal phenotypes which are influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, we used five existing -omics datasets representing five different layers of internal phenotypes, which were simultaneously measured in dietarily perturbed mice. We performed 10 pair-wise correlation analyses verified with a null model built from randomized data. Subsequently, the inferred networks were merged and literature mined for co-occurrences of identified linked nodes. Densely connected internal phenotypes emerged. Forty-five nodes have links with all other data-types and we denote them "connectivity hubs." In literature, we found proof of 6% of the 577 connections, suggesting a biological meaning for the observed correlations. The observed connectivities between metabolite and cytokines hubs showed higher numbers of literature hits as compared to the number of literature hits on the connectivities between the microbiota and gene expression internal phenotypes. We conclude that multi-level integrated networks may help to generate hypotheses and to design experiments aiming to further close the gap between genotype and phenotype. We describe and/or hypothesize on the biological relevance of four identified multi-level connectivity hubs.

FeedOmics, an approach to evaluate the functional properties of protein containing feed ingredients
Kar, Soumya K. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Smits; J.M. Wells, co-promotor(en): A.J.M. Jansman; D. Schokker. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434461 - 254
compound feeds - ingredients - protein sources - proteins - functional properties - metabolism - feed formulation - protein digestion - proteomics - digestive tract - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition - livestock feeding - mengvoer - ingrediënten - eiwitbronnen - eiwitten - functionele eigenschappen - metabolisme - voersamenstelling - eiwitvertering - eiwitexpressieanalyse - spijsverteringskanaal - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding - veevoeding

This thesis presents FeedOmics approach as a toolkit, to evaluate (novel) protein containing feed ingredients of different origin considering both their nutritional and functional value in terms of their capacity to support or modify nutrient supply, the animal’s physiology, tissue development and functioning. Such knowledge may contribute to introduce novel and/or alternative protein containing feed ingredients in the diet of livestock, thus creating a sustainable food supply for growing human population.

Ileal expression data of mice fed with diet containing protein from various sources
Kar, Soumya ; Hooiveld, Guido ; Schokker, Dirkjan - \ 2016
GSE84442 - Mus musculus - PRJNA329185
This study was designed to address key questions concerning the use of alternative protein sources for animal feeds and addresses aspects such as their nutrient composition and impact on gut function, the immune system and systemic physiology. We used casein (CAS), partially delactosed whey powder (DWP), spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP), soybean meal (SBM), wheat gluten meal (WGM) and yellow meal worm (YMW) as protein sources.
Effects of dietary protein sources on intestinal and systemic responses of pigs
Kar, S.K. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Schokker, D. ; Kruijt, L. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2016
- 1 p.
Protein, peptide, amino acid composition, and potential functional properties of existing and novel dietary protein sources for monogastrics
Kar, S.K. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Boeren, S. ; Kruijt, L. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)7 supplement 3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 30 - 39.
Amino acid - Bioactive peptide - Bioinformatics - Monogastric - Novel proteins - Peptides

Replacement of current protein resources for novel or alternative sources may be one of the solutions to abolish the expected scarcity of dietary protein for animal feeds. However, little is known about the nutritional, protein composition, and potential functional value of such novel or alternative protein sources. In the present study, we used advanced proteomic and bioinformatic approaches to characterize the protein component of 6 different protein sources and predicted the biofunctionalities of their in vivo digestion products. We used casein (CAS), partially delactosed whey powder (DWP), spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), soybean meal (SBM), wheat gluten meal (WGM), and yellow meal worm (YMW). We characterized and semiquantified the individual proteins present in these resources by nano-liquid chromatography–LTQ Orbitrap–mass spectrometry (nLCMS). Based on the data obtained, we calculated the AA composition of the proteins that constitute 90% of the total calculated protein content and compared this with the chemically deter-mined AA compositions of the corresponding protein sources. By the use of bioinformatic procedures, we predicted the bioactive properties of these protein sources after in silico digestion with monogastric proteolytic enzymes. We detected and semiquantified 37, 58, 85, 188, 113, and 33 different individual proteins in CAS, DWP, SDPP, SBM, WGM, and YMW, respectively. The calculated AA composition of the various protein sources was almost identical to the chemically determined composition, with correlation values ranging from 0.85 to 0.94. Furthermore, we revealed that the selected protein sources are potentially rich in bioactive peptides, in particular of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and peptides with antioxidative properties. We discuss the results in terms of the benefit of the applied nLCMS-based approach for analyzing protein feed ingredients and the use of these alternative sources of protein in animal feeds for monogastrics. Furthermore, we discuss new potential applications of this method in the area of (animal) nutrition.

Effect of dietary proteins on immunity and metabolism in mice
Kar, S.K. ; Kruijt, L. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2016
In: Energy and protein Metabolism and Nutrition. - Wageningen Academic Publishers (EAAP publication 137) - ISBN 9789086862863 - p. 175 - 175.
Impact of diets comprising various protein containing feed ingredients on the microbiota composition in the small intestine of mice
Kar, S.K. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Kruijt, L. ; Bree, F.M. de; Harders, F.L. ; Kuijt, E.T.H. ; Bossers, A. ; Smits, A. - \ 2014
Mount Kenya volcanic activity and the Late Cenozoic landscape reorganisation in the upper Tana fluvial system
Veldkamp, A. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Wijbrans, J.R. ; Claessens, L.F.G. - \ 2012
Geomorphology 145-146 (2012). - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 19 - 31.
african climate-change - western turkey - sediment yield - gregory rift - debris flows - east-africa - pleistocene - evolution - river - uplift
Volcanic–fluvial landscape interaction of the late Cenozoic Mt Kenya region in the upper Tana catchment has been reconstructed. The oldest newly dated phonolite flow is 5.78 Ma (40Ar/39Ar), placing the initiation of Mt Kenya volcanic activity within the Late Miocene, much earlier than reported before, 3–3.5 Ma (K/Ar). The main body of the stratovolcano was already in existence around 4.22–5.27 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) supplying lahars to its lower footslopes. The final recorded volcanic main vent phase in the study area produced multiple phonolitic flows and lahars around 2.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar). There is evidence of at least two major Pliocene drainage blocking events between 3.89 and 2.81 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) causing lava dammed lakes in which volcanic tuff deposits accumulated. Around this time the river Tana did not incise much and shaped an extensive fluvial plain, whose remnants can now be found around 1150 m altitude. This fluvial plain has been incising during the last 2.8 Ma, whereby the incision rate changed in time due to changing uplift rate and volcanic events. A flood basalt eruption covering 1150 km2, estimated to be 5 km3, on the south flank of Mt Kenya of the Thiba basalts at 0.80 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) plugged the Upper Tana basin and caused significant drainage reorganisation. The Tana was diverted southwards abandoning its former valley. The terrace record in the Tana valley downstream the Thiba basalts appears to register this event as a post 0.8 Ma accelerated incision. Current Thiba valley morphology is relatively young and appears to register uplift controlled terraces with interbedded lahars for the last 300 ka only, indicating a delayed fluvial response of approximately 0.5 Ma. The landscape reconstruction demonstrates that the Tana was well able to compensate for many volcanic events such as lahars and lava flows. Only the build-up of a stratovolcano body and a large flood basalt caused prolonged impact on fluvial landscape development
Duurzaamheid, innovatie en risico; vier cases uit de agrarische sector
Galen, M.A. van; Lauwere, C.C. de; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Wolf, P.L. de; Bakker, T. ; Dijk, S.M. van; Meulen, H.A.B. van der - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt &amp; ketens ) - ISBN 9789086155477 - 122
landbouwsector - systeeminnovatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - overheidsbeleid - fondsgelden - subsidies - samenwerking - agricultural sector - system innovation - sustainability - government policy - funding - cooperation
Belangrijke ingrediënten voor een succesvolle systeeminnovatie zijn 'sense of urgency', ontwikkelingen op verschillende schaalniveaus die bij elkaar aansluiten, congruente belangen van de betrokken actoren, netwerkvorming, bevlogen mensen die de kar trekken en de juiste interventie op het juiste moment. Het vinden van fondsen en het overwinnen van wettelijke barrières en risicoaversie bij ondernemers zijn belangrijke uitdagingen, naast het verwerven of behouden van maatschappelijk draagvlak. De (rijks)overheid speelt een belangrijke rol bij het tot stand komen van systeeminnovaties door subsidieregelingen, experimenteerruimte en het laten uitvoeren van (haalbaarheids)onderzoeken. Beleid kan belemmerend werken door wet- en regelgeving voor milieu- en bouwvergunningen. Een lotingsysteem voor het verkrijgen van subsidies wordt als belemmering ervaren vanwege de onzekerheid. Vangnetten of garantieregelingen om onzekerheid te verminderen en risico's minder ongrijpbaar te maken, zijn belangrijk.
Groene Kinderopvang: praktijkgeorienteerd onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van uitdagende speelnatuur in de buitenschoolse kinderopvang
Langers, F. ; Blitterswijk, H. van; Brinkhuijsen, M. ; Westerink - Petersen, J. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1713) - 73
dagopvang voor kinderen - kinderen - jeugd - speelterreinen - gezondheid - onderwijs - natuur - multifunctionele landbouw - child day care - children - youth - playgrounds - health - education - nature - multifunctional agriculture
Het ministerie van LNV wil weten op wat voor manieren de betrokkenheid van kinderen bij natuur vergroot kan worden. In dit rapport staan de mogelijkheden van groene kinderopvang centraal. Het onderzoek maakt deel uit van de studie Opgroeien in het groen, waarbinnen ook een verkenning is uitgevoerd. Vijf concepten van kinderopvang zijn onderscheiden, die allen op een andere manier de natuur in hun infrastructuur hebben verweven. De concepten variëren van agrarische kinderopvang op boerenbedrijven tot buiten-BSO. Voor ieder concept is een inspirerend praktijkvoorbeeld uitgelicht. Tegelijkertijd zijn gesprekken gevoerd met beleidsmakers en ondersteunende organisaties. Of een initiatief slaagt, blijkt nauw samen te hangen met de competenties van de trekkende persoon. Bovendien stelt het eisen aan de groepsleiding. Wil de overheid de concepten uitdragen, dan is het belangrijk om wettelijke belemmeringen weg te nemen en een voorlichtingstraject te starten, dat zich richt op kennis delen. Het ministerie van LNV lijkt het meest voor de hand liggende departement om de kar te trekken
Late Cenozoic fluvial dynamics of the River Tana, Kenya, an uplift dominated record
Veldkamp, A. ; Buis, E. ; Wijbrans, J.R. ; Olago, D.O. ; Boshoven, E.H. ; Maree, M. ; Berg van Saparoea, R.M. van den - \ 2007
Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007)22-24. - ISSN 0277-3791 - p. 2897 - 2912.
african climate-change - east-africa - terrace stratigraphy - quaternary volcanism - environmental-change - mount kenya - rift - geochronology - history - lahars
The Late Cenozoic development of the River Tana in Kenya has been reconstructed for its central reach near its confluence with the River Mutonga, which drains the Mount Kenya region. Age control for this system has been provided by K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating. Between 3.21 and 2.65 Ma a major updoming occurred, in relation to the formation of the Kenyan rift valley. The tilting related to this doming has been reconstructed from lava flows that preserve former river gradients. Linear projection of these trends to the current rift valley rim suggests a net updoming of the eastern Gregory Rift valley by at least similar to 1 km during 3.21-2.65 Ma. In contrast, since 2.65 Ma the Tana system has been mainly subject to relatively minor epeirogenic uplift. Changing climatic conditions combined with continuing uplift yielded a typical staircase of strath terraces with at least 10 distinct levels. A more detailed reconstruction of the incision rates since 215 ka has been made, by correlating mineralogically fingerprinted volcaniclastic Tana deposits with dated tephras in a lake record. These volcaniclastic sediments were deposited during glacial periods, contemporaneous with lahars. The reconstructed incision rates for the three youngest terraces are similar to 0.1-0.2 mm a(-1), thus considerably faster than the overall average rate of valley incision since the Mid-Pliocene, of 0.06 mm a(-1). A plausible uplift history has been reconstructed using the estimated ages of the Tana terraces and marine terraces on the Indian Ocean coastline. The result suggests an increase in the rate of incision by the River Tana at similar to 0.9 Ma, an observation typical in most European river terrace staircases. The reconstructed Late Quaternary development of Tana valley indicates that a similar Quaternary uplift mechanism has operated in both Europe and East Kenya, suggesting a globally applicable process. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decline of the Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata in Ladakh, India
Bhatnagar, Y.V. ; Wangchuk, R. ; Mishra, C. - \ 2006
Oryx 40 (2006)2. - ISSN 0030-6053 - p. 229 - 232.
The Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. In the Ladakh region of northern India its range declined from c. 20,000 km2 in the early 1900s to c. 1,000 km2 in the late 1980s. Here we report the results of our recent (1999¿2003) assessments of the gazelle¿s conservation status in Ladakh. Rangewide surveys indicate that the present population of the Tibetan gazelle in Ladakh is c. 50, restricted to a range of c. 100 km2. Populations in the Tso Kar basin and Dungti have gone extinct within the past decade. Throughout the last century hunting was the primary cause of the gazelle¿s decline. Although hunting has been brought under control in the last two decades, intensified livestock grazing appears to have prevented the gazelle¿s recovery and may be precipitating further declines. The species needs immediate, participatory conservation management, as well as a reassessment of its IUCN Red List status.
Screening for resistance to the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) in Allium cepa and its wild relatives
Zheng, S.J. ; Henken, B. ; Sofiari, E. ; Wietsma, W.A. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Krens, F.A. ; Kik, C. - \ 2000
Euphytica 114 (2000). - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 77 - 85.
The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) is the most important pest in tropical Allium cultivations. All shallot ( Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum) cultivars are susceptible to this pest. Therefore accessions from three wild Allium species, namely A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. fistulosum L. and A. roylei Stearn, next to A. cepa L. were used to screen for resistance. First of all, a reliable bio-assay had to be developed. To this end transparent plastic cages with in total 5 plants of one accession per cage were placed on perlite in a heated greenhouse. Five 3-day old larvae were inoculated on each plant. Eight days after inoculation the number of surviving larvae per cage and the mean fresh weight per larva was determined. The lowest larval survival (36€was found on A. roylei. This was not, however, significantly different from other Allium accessions. Significant differences were found in the fresh weight per larva fed on different Allium accessions. The larvae survived on A. roylei had a very low fresh weight (10.3 mg per larva), while those on an accession of A. fistulosum had the highest fresh weight (45.1 mg per larva). The larval fresh weight on A. roylei was lower than all the other accessions except from the tropical shallot cultivar Bawang Bali. To check whether or not a toxic compound was involved in the resistance present in A. roylei, ten accessions from four Allium species were screened. Five 3-day old larvae were inoculated on regularly replaced leaf material of each accession of Allium species. No significant differences were found in mean fresh weight per larva and mean survival of larvae among different accessions. There were also no significant differences in pupal weight and developmental time. All larvae became pupae 10 days after inoculation. The data indicate that there is no toxic compound present in A. roylei. These results are underlined by the observation in the greenhouse bio-assay that A. roylei plants were equally damaged by the beet armyworm compared to other Allium species. The results obtained so far therefore suggest that introduction of resistance to S. exigua via the exploitation of variation for resistance to the beet armyworm in A. roylei is unclear and that genetic engineering using Cry sequences could provide a way forward.
Arbeid en gezondheid van varkenshouders onder de loep
Hartman, E. ; Roelofs, P. - \ 1999
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 13 (1999)1. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 14 - 15.
varkens - beroepsgevaren - gezondheid op het werk - arbeidsomstandigheden - beroepskwalen - arbeid in de landbouw - pigs - occupational hazards - occupational health - working conditions - occupational disorders - farm labour
Uit een enquete van het Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij en IMAG-DL0 blijkt dat varkenshouders het handmatig wegslepen van dode dieren, het verplaatsen van biggen met een kar en het drijven en tillen van af te leveren biggen als het zwaarst voor hun rug ervaren.
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