Influence of calcium and magnesium on the secondary structure in solutions of individual caseins and binary casein mixtures
Grewal, Manpreet Kaur ; Vasiljevic, Todor ; Huppertz, Thom - \ 2020
International Dairy Journal 112 (2020). - ISSN 0958-6946
The influence of Ca and Mg addition on the secondary structure of αS1-, αS2-, β- and κ-CN in solutions of individual and binary mixtures of caseins was investigated using FTIR spectroscopy. Both in individual and their binary mixtures, addition of Ca and Mg resulted in increase in β-sheet structures and decrease in triple helices and turns, implying binding of cations to similar sites. Binding of cations with phosphoseryl clusters with loop-helix-loop motifs explained the reduction in helical element. In addition, the binding of cations to electronegative regions reduced electrostatic repulsion, resulting in an increase in hydrophobic interactions accounting for increase in sheet structures. Compared with Mg, it seemed that Ca had more affinity for caseins, especially when they were in a binary mixture. The information presented here expands the present understanding of casein interactions.
Comparison of Small Gut and Whole Gut Microbiota of First-Degree Relatives With Adult Celiac Disease Patients and Controls
Bodkhe, Rahul ; Shetty, Sudarshan A. ; Dhotre, Dhiraj P. ; Verma, Anil K. ; Bhatia, Khushbo ; Mishra, Asha ; Kaur, Gurvinder ; Pande, Pranav ; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K. ; Santosh, Beena P. ; Perumal, Rajadurai C. ; Ahuja, Vineet ; Shouche, Yogesh S. ; Makharia, Govind K. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X
Recent studies on celiac disease (CeD) have reported alterations in the gut microbiome. Whether this alteration in the microbial community is the cause or effect of the disease is not well understood, especially in adult onset of disease. The first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CeD patients may provide an opportunity to study gut microbiome in pre-disease state as FDRs are genetically susceptible to CeD. By using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we observed that ecosystem level diversity measures were not significantly different between the disease condition (CeD), pre-disease (FDR) and control subjects. However, differences were observed at the level of amplicon sequence variant (ASV), suggesting alterations in specific ASVs between pre-disease and diseased condition. Duodenal biopsies showed higher differences in ASVs compared to fecal samples indicating larger disruption of the microbiota at the disease site. The duodenal microbiota of FDR was characterized by significant abundance of ASVs belonging to Parvimonas, Granulicatella, Gemella, Bifidobacterium, Anaerostipes, and Actinomyces genera. The duodenal microbiota of CeD was characterized by higher abundance of ASVs from genera Megasphaera and Helicobacter compared to the FDR microbiota. The CeD and FDR fecal microbiota had reduced abundance of ASVs classified as Akkermansia and Dorea when compared to control group microbiota. In addition, predicted functional metagenome showed reduced ability of gluten degradation by CeD fecal microbiota in comparison to FDRs and controls. The findings of the present study demonstrate differences in ASVs and predicts reduced ability of CeD fecal microbiota to degrade gluten compared to the FDR fecal microbiota. Further research is required to investigate the strain level and active functional profiles of FDR and CeD microbiota to better understand the role of gut microbiome in pathophysiology of CeD.
|Exploring the functional role of the digital mucus glands and their secretions in tree frog attachment
Langowski, J.K.A. ; Singla, Saranshu ; Nyarko, Alex ; Schipper, H. ; Berg, Frank van den; Kaur, Sukhmanjot ; Astley, Henry C. ; Gussekloo, S.W.S. ; Dhinojwala, Ali ; Leeuwen, J.L. van - \ 2019
In: Animal biology abstracts 2. - Society for Experimental Biology - p. 167 - 167.
Comparative and functional analysis of the digital mucus glands and secretions of tree frogs
Langowski, Julian K.A. ; Singla, Saranshu ; Nyarko, Alex ; Schipper, Henk ; Berg, Frank T. van den; Kaur, Sukhmanjot ; Astley, Henry C. ; Gussekloo, Sander W.S. ; Dhinojwala, Ali ; Leeuwen, Johan L. van - \ 2019
Frontiers in Zoology 16 (2019). - ISSN 1742-9994
Cryo-histochemistry - Hyla cinerea - Infrared spectroscopy - Lubrication - Macrogland - Mucosubstance - Sum frequency generation spectroscopy - Synchrotron micro-computer-tomography - Wet adhesion
Background: Mucus and mucus glands are important features of the amphibian cutis. In tree frogs, the mucus glands and their secretions are crucial components of the adhesive digital pads of these animals. Despite a variety of hypothesised functions of these components in tree frog attachment, the functional morphology of the digital mucus glands and the chemistry of the digital mucus are barely known. Here, we use an interdisciplinary comparative approach to analyse these components, and discuss their roles in tree frog attachment.
Results: Using synchrotron micro-computer-tomography, we discovered in the arboreal frog Hyla cinerea that the ventral digital mucus glands differ in their morphology from regular anuran mucus glands and form a subdermal gland cluster. We show the presence of this gland cluster also in several other - not exclusively arboreal - anuran families. Using cryo-histochemistry as well as infrared and sum frequency generation spectroscopy on the mucus of two arboreal (H. cinerea and Osteopilus septentrionalis) and of two terrestrial, non-climbing frog species (Pyxicephalus adspersus and Ceratophrys cranwelli), we find neutral and acidic polysaccharides, and indications for proteinaceous and lipid-like mucus components. The mucus chemistry varies only little between dorsal and ventral digital mucus in H. cinerea, ventral digital and abdominal mucus in H. cinerea and O. septentrionalis, and between the ventral abdominal mucus of all four studied species.
Conclusions: The presence of a digital mucus gland cluster in various anuran families, as well as the absence of differences in the mucus chemistry between arboreal and non-arboreal frog species indicate an adaptation towards generic functional requirements as well as to attachment-related requirements. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the role of glands and their secretions in tree frog attachment and in bioadhesion in general, as well as the evolution of anurans.
Engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for production of astaxanthin
Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin ; Adiego-Pérez, Belén ; Doménech Belda, David ; Khangura, Jaspreet Kaur ; Holkenbrink, Carina ; Borodina, Irina - \ 2017
Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology 2 (2017)4. - ISSN 2405-805X - p. 287 - 294.
Astaxanthin - Isoprenoids - Metabolic engineering - Oleaginous yeast - Yarrowia lipolytica - β-carotene
Astaxanthin is a red-colored carotenoid, used as food and feed additive. Astaxanthin is mainly produced by chemical synthesis, however, the process is expensive and synthetic astaxanthin is not approved for human consumption. In this study, we engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for de novo production of astaxanthin by fermentation. First, we screened 12 different Y. lipolytica isolates for β-carotene production by introducing two genes for β-carotene biosynthesis: bi-functional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB) and phytoene desaturase (crtI) from the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The best strain produced 31.1 ± 0.5 mg/L β-carotene. Next, we optimized the activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG1) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGS1/crtE) in the best producing strain and obtained 453.9 ± 20.2 mg/L β-carotene. Additional downregulation of the competing squalene synthase SQS1 increased the β-carotene titer to 797.1 ± 57.2 mg/L. Then we introduced β-carotene ketolase (crtW) from Paracoccus sp. N81106 and hydroxylase (crtZ) from Pantoea ananatis to convert β-carotene into astaxanthin. The constructed strain accumulated 10.4 ± 0.5 mg/L of astaxanthin but also accumulated astaxanthin biosynthesis intermediates, 5.7 ± 0.5 mg/L canthaxanthin, and 35.3 ± 1.8 mg/L echinenone. Finally, we optimized the copy numbers of crtZ and crtW to obtain 3.5 mg/g DCW (54.6 mg/L) of astaxanthin in a microtiter plate cultivation. Our study for the first time reports engineering of Y. lipolytica for the production of astaxanthin. The high astaxanthin content and titer obtained even in a small-scale cultivation demonstrates a strong potential for Y. lipolytica-based fermentation process for astaxanthin production.
|The role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour : The CLYMBOL project
Hieke, Sophie ; Cascanette, Tamara ; Pravst, Igor ; Kaur, Asha ; Trijp, Hans Van; Verbeke, Wim ; Grunert, Klaus G. - \ 2016
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 27 (2016)3. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 26 - 29.
Consumer behaviour - Food choice - Food labelling - Health claims - Health symbols - Nutrition claims
Health claims and symbols are a convenient tool when it comes to the marketing of foods and they should, in theory, support consumers in making informed food choices, ideally in choosing healthier food products. However, not much is known about their actual impact on consumer behaviour. CLYMBOL ("The Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour") is an EU-funded project aiming to study how health claims and symbols influence consumer understanding, purchase and consumption behaviour. During a 4-year period, a wide range of research studies have been conducted across Europe, in order to analyse European consumer behaviour in the context of health claims and symbols. Results of the studies will provide a basis for recommendations for stakeholders such as policy makers, the food industry and consumer and patient organisations.
The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour : Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results
Hieke, S. ; Kuljanic, N. ; Wills, J.M. ; Pravst, I. ; Kaur, A. ; Raats, M.M. ; Trijp, H.C.M. van; Verbeke, W. ; Grunert, K.G. - \ 2015
Nutrition Bulletin 40 (2015)1. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 66 - 72.
Consumer behaviour - Food choice - Food labelling - Health claim - Health symbols
Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project Role of health-relatedCLaimsandsYMBOLsin consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health-related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies (i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross-country surveys, eye-tracking (i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in-store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their history of use and regulation of health claims and symbols prior to the harmonisation of 2006. Findings to date indicate the need for more structured and harmonised research on the effects of health claims and symbols on consumer behaviour, particularly taking into account country-wide differences and individual characteristics such as motivation and ability to process health-related information. Based on the studies within CLYMBOL, implications and recommendations for stakeholders such as policymakers will be provided.
Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in The Gambia
Tangena, J.A.A. ; Adiamoh, M. ; Alessandro, U. D'; Jarju, L. ; Jawara, M. ; Jeffries, D. ; Malik, N. ; Nwakanma, D. ; Kaur, H. ; Takken, W. ; Lindsay, S.W. ; Pinder, M. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)9. - ISSN 1932-6203
insecticide-treated nets - anopheles-gambiae - pirimiphos-methyl - molecular-forms - area - complex - susceptibility - identification - protection - mozambique
Background: Malaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently confers resistance to DDT. Therefore, alternative insecticides are urgently needed. Methodology/Principal Findings: Insecticide resistance and the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with different insecticides was determined in a Gambian village. Resistance of local vectors to pyrethroids and DDT was high (31% and 46% mortality, respectively) while resistance to bendiocarb and pirimiphos methyl was low (88% and 100% mortality, respectively). The vectors were predominantly Anopheles gambiae s.s. with 94% of them having the putative resistant genotype kdr 1014F. Four groups of eight residential compounds were each sprayed with either (1) bendiocarb, a carbamate, (2) DDT, an organochlorine, (3) microencapsulated pirimiphos methyl, an organophosphate, or (4) left unsprayed. All insecticides tested showed high residual activity up to five months after application. Mosquito house entry, estimated by light traps, was similar in all houses with metal roofs, but was significantly less in IRS houses with thatched roofs (p=0.02). Residents participating in focus group discussions indicated that IRS was considered a necessary nuisance and also may decrease the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets. Conclusion/Significance: Bendiocarb and microencapsulated pirimiphos methyl are viable alternatives for indoor residual spraying where resistance to pyrethroids and DDT is high and may assist in the management of pyrethroid resistance.
|An EMS population of tomato cultivar Micro-Tom. In search of durable disease resistance
Tuinen, A. van; Schipper, E.H. ; Kaur, Ujjal ; Rochette, A. ; Meijer-Dekens, R.G. ; Bai, Y. - \ 2012
MYB8 Controls Inducible Phenolamide Levels by Activating Three Novel Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme A:Polyamine Transferases in Nicotiana attenuata[W][OA]
Onkokesung, N. ; Gaquerel, E. ; Kotkar, H. ; Kaur, H. ; Baldwin, I.T. ; Galis, I. - \ 2012
Plant Physiology 158 (2012)1. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 389 - 407.
ultraviolet-b radiation - transcription factor - plant defense - acid-amides - convergent evolution - simulated herbivory - insect herbivores - responses - tobacco - metabolism
A large number of plants accumulate N-acylated polyamines (phenolamides [PAs]) in response to biotic and/or abiotic stress conditions. In the native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata), the accumulation of two major PAs, caffeoylputrescine and dicaffeoylspermidine (DCS), after herbivore attack is known to be controlled by a key transcription factor, MYB8. Using a broadly targeted metabolomics approach, we show that a much larger spectrum of PAs composed of hydroxycinnamic acids and two polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, is regulated by this transcription factor. We cloned several novel MYB8-regulated genes, annotated as putative acyltransferases, and analyzed their function. One of the novel acyltransferases (AT1) is shown to encode a hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:putrescine acyltransferase responsible for caffeoylputrescine biosynthesis in tobacco. Another gene (acyltransferase DH29), specific for spermidine conjugation, mediates the initial acylation step in DCS formation. Although this enzyme was not able to perform the second acylation toward DCS biosynthesis, another acyltransferase gene, CV86, proposed to act on monoacylated spermidines, was isolated and partially characterized. The activation of MYB8 in response to herbivore attack and associated signals required the activity of LIPOXYGENASE3, a gene involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis in N. attenuata. These new results allow us to reconstruct a complete branch in JA signaling that defends N. attenuata plants against herbivores: JA via MYB8’s transcriptional control of AT1 and DH29 genes controls the entire branch of PA biosynthesis, which allows N. attenuata to mount a chemically diverse (and likely efficient) defense shield against herbivores.
|Yield estimation and agro-technical description of production systems
Bandyopadhyay, S.K. ; Pathak, H. ; Kalra, N. ; Aggarwal, P.K. ; Kaur, R. ; Joshi, H.C. ; Choudhary, R. ; Roetter, R.P. - \ 2001
In: Land use analysis and planning for sustainable food security: with an illustration for the state of Haryana, India / Aggarwal, P.K., Roetter, R.P., Kalra, N., van Keulen, H., Hoanh, C.T., van Laar, H.H., New Delhi : IARI - p. 61 - 89.
India - bemesting - gewasproductie - landbouw - landgebruik - voedselproductie - Azië - India
|Exploring agricultural land use options for the State of Haryana: biophyscial modelling
Aggarwal, P.K. ; Kalra, N. ; Bandyopadhyay, S.K. ; Pathak, H. ; Sehgal, V.K. ; Kaur, R. ; Rajput, T.B.S. ; Joshi, H.C. ; Choudhary, R. ; Roetter, R.P. - \ 1998
In: Exchange of methodologies in land use planning; proceedings of an international workshop held at Can Tho, Vietnam, 15-19 June 1998. Los BaAos (Philippines), IRRI, 1998. SysNet Res. Pap. 1 / Roetter, R.P., Hoanh, C.T., Luat, N.V., van Ittersum, M.K., van Laar, H.H., - p. 59 - 65.