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|Integrated Sensorimotor Target Extraction Techniques in Untethered Drosophila Flight Control
Faruque, I.A. ; Muijres, F.T. ; Macfarlane, K.M. ; Kehlenbeck, A. ; Humberg, J.S. - \ 2018
Integrative and Comparative Biology 58 (2018)supplement 1. - ISSN 1540-7063 - p. E61 - E61.
Insects provide attractive models for micro aerial vehicle development because they achieve robust flight performance in cluttered and unstructured environments despite the relatively limited neural capability of their sensing, actuation, and control structures when compared with vertebrate flight. What feedback strategies do insects incorporate to regulate themselves to desired trajectories? We investigated this question by digitizing the flight of freely-flying fruit flies (Drosophila hydei). Three high-speed digital video cameras were used to digitize wing and body kinematics, from which sections approximating stabilized were extracted. Inverse optimal control techniques were applied to examine the composite function of the insect’s integrated sensorimotor feedback. This control extraction technique provides progress towards combining the study of individual sensors and tethered laboratory responses by using untethered trajectory information to quantify the structure, performance, and optimal control targets of the integrated sensors and neural feedback.
Identification of optimal feedback control rules from micro-quadrotor and insect flight trajectories
Faruque, Imraan A. ; Muijres, Florian T. ; Macfarlane, Kenneth M. ; Kehlenbeck, Andrew ; Humbert, J.S. - \ 2018
Biological Cybernetics 112 (2018)3. - ISSN 0340-1200 - p. 165 - 179.
Control - Drosophila - Flight - Identification - Insect - Optimal
This paper presents “optimal identification,” a framework for using experimental data to identify the optimality conditions associated with the feedback control law implemented in the measurements. The technique compares closed loop trajectory measurements against a reduced order model of the open loop dynamics, and uses linear matrix inequalities to solve an inverse optimal control problem as a convex optimization that estimates the controller optimality conditions. In this study, the optimal identification technique is applied to two examples, that of a millimeter-scale micro-quadrotor with an engineered controller on board, and the example of a population of freely flying Drosophila hydei maneuvering about forward flight. The micro-quadrotor results show that the performance indices used to design an optimal flight control law for a micro-quadrotor may be recovered from the closed loop simulated flight trajectories, and the Drosophila results indicate that the combined effect of the insect longitudinal flight control sensing and feedback acts principally to regulate pitch rate.
Understanding the Roles of Forests and Tree-based Systems in Food Provision
Jamnadass, R. ; McMullin, S. ; Dawson, M.I.I.K. ; Powell, B. ; Termote, C. ; Lckowitz, A. ; Kehlenbeck, K. ; Vinceti, B. ; Vliet, van, N. ; Keding, G. ; Stadlmayr, B. ; Damme, P. van; Carsan, S. ; Sunderland, T. ; Njenga, M. ; Gyau, A. ; Cerutti, P. ; Schure, J.M. ; Kouame, C. ; Obiri, B.D. ; Ofori, D. ; Agarwal, B. ; Neufeldt, H. ; Degrande, A. ; Serban, A. - \ 2015
In: Forests, trees and landscapes for food security and nutrition. Global assessment report / Vira, B., Wildburger, C., Mansourian, S., IUFRO – The World's Network of Forest Science (IUFRO World Series 33) - ISBN 9783902762405 - p. 25 - 49.
Forests and other tree-based systems such as agroforestry contribute to food and nutritional security in myriad ways. Directly, trees provide a variety of healthy foods including fruits, leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds and edible oils that can diversify diets and address seasonal food and nutritional gaps. Forests are also sources of a wider range of edible plants and fungi, as well as bushmeat, fish and insects. Treebased systems also support the provision of fodder for meat and dairy animals, of “green fertiliser” to support crop production and of woodfuel, crucial in many communities for cooking food. Indirectly, forests and tree-based systems are a source of income to support communities to purchase foods and they also provide environmental services that support crop production. There are, however, complexities in quantifying the relative benefits and costs of tree-based systems in food provision. These complexities mean that the roles of tree-based systems are often not well understood. A greater understanding focuses on systematic methods for characterising effects across different landscapes and on key indicators, such as dietary diversity measures. This chapter provides a number of case studies to highlight the relevance of forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition, and indicates where there is a need to further quantify the roles of these systems, allowing proper integration of their contribution into national and international developmental policies.
Protocol for mapping endangered areas taking climate, climate change, biotic and abiotic factors, land use and economic impacts into account accessed via a hyperlink in a project web page and integrated into the web-based EPPO PRA scheme PD No. 3.3
Baker, R. ; Benninga, J. ; Bremmer, J. ; Brunel, S. ; Dupin, M. ; Eyre, D. ; Llieva, Z. ; Jarosik, V. ; Kehlenbeck, H. ; Kriticos, D. ; Makowski, D. ; Pergl, J. ; Reynaud, P. ; Robinet, C. ; Soliman, T. ; Werf, W. van der; Worner, S. - \ 2013
EU Framework 7 (Pratique No. 212459 PD No. 3.3) - 73 p.
A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis
Robinet, C. ; Kehlenbeck, H. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2012
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera - Anoplophora chinensis - Anoplophora glabripennis - Eichhornia crassipes - Bursaphelenchus xylophilus - Gibberella circinata - Meloidogyne enterolobii - spread model - potential range expansion - biological invasion - pest risk analysis
In the frame of the EU project PRATIQUE (KBBE-2007-212459 Enhancements of pest risk analysis techniques) a suite of models was developed to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis. This dataset contains the model codes (R language) for the four models in the suite. Three versions of the code are provided, differing in grid and spatial extent: (1) a decimal degree grid version for Europe; (2) a metric grid version for Europe and (3) a decimal degree grid version for other parts of the world. Usage of the code is described in the “Tutorial on the generic spread models“. Case studies were conducted with the decimal degree version, using European maps of climate suitability and presence of host or habitat for seven species: (1) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, (2) Anoplophora chinensis, (3) Anoplophora glabripennis, (4) Eichhornia crassipes; (5) Meloidogyne enterolobii, (6) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus / Monochamus, (7) Gibberella circinata. See the “Description of case studies“ for details. Further background can be found in the publication: Robinet C, Kehlenbeck H, Kriticos DJ, Baker RHA, Battisti A, Brunel S, Dupin M, Eyre D, Faccoli M, Ilieva Z, Kenis M, Knight J, Reynaud P, Yart A, van der Werf W (2012) A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis. PLoS ONE
A protocol for the cost: benefit analysis of eradication and containment measures during outbreaks - Deliverable 5.2.
Breukers, A. ; Kehlenbeck, H. ; Cannon, R. ; Leach, A. ; Battisti, A. ; Mumford, J. - \ 2012
EU - 39 p.
Modelling and mapping spread in pest risk analysis: a generic approach
Kehlenbeck, H. ; Robinet, C. ; Werf, W. van der; Kriticos, D. ; Reynaud, P. ; Baker, R. - \ 2012
EPPO Bulletin 42 (2012)1. - ISSN 0250-8052 - p. 74 - 80.
Assessing the likelihood and magnitude of spread is one of the cornerstones of pest risk analysis (PRA), and is usually based on qualitative expert judgment. This paper proposes a suite of simple ecological models to support risk assessors who also wish to estimate the rate and extent of spread, e.g. when modelling the dynamics of invasion and the economic impacts that may result. Models are based on simple ecological principles, such as logistic growth, radial range expansion and population growth in combination with dispersal. Different models capture different perspectives of the spread process, being based on pest density or simply presence/absence, and they compare spatially explicit and spatially implicit approaches. A case study on Diabrotica virgifera virgifera is provided for illustration. The suite of models requires further development and testing with the risk assessment community building familiarity before their more general application in PRA.
A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis
Robinet, C. ; Kehlenbeck, H. ; Kriticos, D.J. ; Baker, R.H.A. ; Battisti, A. ; Brunel, S. ; Dupin, M. ; Eyre, D. ; Faccoli, M. ; Ilieva, Z. ; Kenis, M. ; Knight, J. ; Reynaud, P. ; Yart, A. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)10. - ISSN 1932-6203
diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera - western corn-rootworm - long-distance dispersal - population expansion - economic-impact - pitch canker - invasions - asterisk - climate - europe
Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice
A protocol for analysing the costs and benefits of plant health control measures
Kehlenbeck, H. ; Cannon, R. ; Breukers, A. ; Battisti, A. ; Leach, A. ; Mumford, J.D. ; MacLeod, A. - \ 2012
EPPO Bulletin 42 (2012)1. - ISSN 0250-8052 - p. 81 - 88.
This paper describes a protocol developed within the PRATIQUE project for applying cost/benefit analysis to select appropriate phytosanitary measures for use against quarantine pests. The protocol consists of nine steps, each underpinned by clear guidelines for collating and structuring the relevant data, to assist risk managers with the challenging task of assessing the benefits and costs of phytosanitary measures in a consistent, transparent and reproducible manner. Together with the decision-support scheme that generates contingency plants and prioritizes action during pest outbreaks, it provides a framework for decision making on phytosanitary measures and helps to provide economic justification for selecting appropriate measures. The practical application of the protocol is demonstrated using two examples: cost/benefit analysis of eradication measures against Anoplophora glabripennis in Northern Italy; and eradication and containment measures against Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in Germany.
A decision-support scheme for mapping endangered areas in pest risk analysis
Baker, R.H.A. ; Benninga, J. ; Bremmer, J. ; Brunel, S. ; Dupin, M. ; Eyre, D. ; Ilieva, Z. ; Jarosik, V. ; Kehlenbeck, H. ; Kriticos, D.J. ; Makowski, D. ; Pergl, J. ; Reynaud, P. ; Robinet, C. ; Soliman, T. ; Werf, W. van der; Worner, S. - \ 2012
EPPO Bulletin 42 (2012)1. - ISSN 0250-8052 - p. 65 - 73.
This paper describes a decision-support scheme (DSS) for mapping the area where economically important loss is likely to occur (the endangered area). It has been designed by the PRATIQUE project to help pest risk analysts address the numerous risk mapping challenges and decide on the most suitable methods to follow. The introduction to the DSS indicates the time and expertise that is needed, the data requirements and the situations when mapping the endangered areas is most useful. The DSS itself has four stages. In stage 1, the key factors that influence the endangered area are identified, the data are assembled and, where appropriate, maps of the key factors are produced listing any significant assumptions. In stage 2, methods for combining these maps to identify the area of potential establishment and the area at highest risk from pest impacts are described, documenting any assumptions and combination rules utilised. When possible and appropriate, Stage 3 can then be followed to show whether economic loss will occur in the area at highest risk and to identify the endangered area. As required, Stage 4, described elsewhere, provides techniques for producing a dynamic picture of the invasion process using a suite of spread models. To illustrate how the DSS functions, a maize pest, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and a freshwater invasive alien plant, Eichhornia crassipes, have been used as examples
A suite of simple models to support quantitative assessment of spread and impact in pest risk analysis
Werf, W. van der; Robinet, C. ; Kehlenbeck, H. - \ 2011
Gewasbescherming 42 (2011)3. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 128 - 128.
risicoschatting - plantenplagen - verspreiding - modellen - risk assessment - plant pests - dispersal - models
Samenvatting van de sessie 'a suite of simple models to support quantitative assessment of spread and impact in pest risk analysis' op de KNPV-voorjaarsvergadering, 8 juni 2011.