The global abundance of tree palms
Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
Development and validation of the acculturative stress scale for Pakistani Muslim students
Bashir, Asma ; Khalid, Ruhi - \ 2020
Cogent Psychology 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2331-1908
academic stressors - acculturative stress - cultural stressors - discrimination - financial stressors - Pakistani - religious stressors
The current study aimed to develop a culturally competent scale to examine the unique stressors encountered by Muslim Pakistani students during their stay abroad. A pool of 31-item was subjected to Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) which yielded the final 24 items scale resulted in six distinct domains of stressors, academic (six items), general living and finance (four items), perceived discrimination (three items), cultural and religious (four items), local & environmental (four items), language barrier (three items). The Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Scale was developed and validated for Pakistani students and can be used as a diagnostic tool by campus counselors and mental health practitioners.
Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Iqbal, Nasir ; Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin ; Chen, Yuan Kai ; Wasaya, Allah ; Ahmed, Shoaib ; Ud Din, Atta Mohi ; Khan, Ahsin ; Ahmed, Saeed ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322 - 1 p.
Shading conditions adversely affect flower-number and pod-number of soybeans under maize-soybean relay-intercropping (MSR). Here we reveal that leaf-removal from maize-canopy improves the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) transmittance and dry-matter production (DMP) of soybean (especially during the co-growth phase), and compensates the maize seed-yield loss by considerably increasing soybean seed-yield. In a two-year experiment with MSR, maize-plants were subjected to different leaf-removal treatments to increase the PAR-transmittance of soybean; removal of the topmost two-leaves (R2), four-leaves (R4), six-leaves (R6), with no-removal of leaves (R0). Leaf-removal treatments improved the PAR-transmittance, photosynthetic-rate, and morphological-characteristics of soybean under MSR. At 90 days after sowing, the dry-matter of pods, and seeds was increased by 25%, and 32%, respectively under R6 than R0. Importantly, enhanced PAR-transmittance and DMP under R6 enabled soybean to initiate a greater number of flowers 182.2 plant-1 compared to 142.7 plant-1 under R0, and it also decreased the flower-abscission (by 13%, from 54.9% under R0 to 47.6% under R6). These positive responses increased the pod-number by 49% and seed-number by 28% under R6 than R0. Overall, under R6, relay-intercropped soybean produced 78% of sole-soybean seed-yield, and relay-intercropped maize produced 81% of sole-maize seed-yield and achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.59.
Narrow-wide-row planting pattern increases the radiation use efficiency and seed yield of intercrop species in relay-intercropping system
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Cai, Gao Ren ; Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin ; Iqbal, Nasir ; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad ; Meraj, Tehseen Ahmad ; Naeem, Muhammd ; Khan, Imran ; Ur Rehman, Sana ; Ansar, Muhammad ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2019
Food and Energy Security 8 (2019)3. - ISSN 2048-3694
competition - intercropping - land equivalent ratio - radiation use efficiency
Planting arrangements affect radiation use efficiency (RUE) and competitiveness of intercrop species in intercropping systems. Here, we reveal that narrow-wide-row planting arrangement in maize-soybean relay-intercropping system increases the dry matter and competitiveness of soybean, increased the RUE of maize and soybean, and compensates the yield loss of maize by substantially increasing the yield of soybean. In this field study, maize was planted with soybean in different planting arrangements (P1, 20:180, P2, 40:160; P3, 60:140, and P4, 80:120) of relay intercropping, all the relay-intercropping treatments were compared with sole crops of maize (SM) and soybean (SS). Results showed that P1 improved the total RUE 3.26 g/MJ (maize RUE + soybean RUE) of maize and soybean in relay-intercropping system. Compared to P4, treatment P1 increased the soybean competition ratio (CR) values (by 55%) but reduced the maize CR values (by 29%), which in turn significantly improved the yield of soybean by maintaining the maize yield. Generally, in P1, soybean produced 82% of SS yield, and maize produced 88% of SM yield, and it achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.7. These results suggest that by maintaining the appropriate planting distances between maize and soybean we can improve the competitiveness and yield of intercrop species in relay-intercropping system.
Molecular quantification of Plasmodium parasite density from the blood retained in used RDTs
Robinson, Ailie ; Busula, Annette O. ; Muwanguzi, Julian K. ; Powers, Stephen J. ; Masiga, Daniel K. ; Bousema, Teun ; Takken, Willem ; Boer, Jetske G. de; Logan, James G. ; Beshir, Khalid B. ; Sutherland, Colin J. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
Most malaria-endemic countries are heavily reliant upon rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria case identification and treatment. RDT previously used for malaria diagnosis can subsequently be used for molecular assays, including qualitative assessment of parasite species present or the carriage of resistance markers, because parasite DNA can be extracted from the blood inside the RDT which remains preserved on the internal components. However, the quantification of parasite density has not previously been possible from used RDT. In this study, blood samples were collected from school-age children in Western Kenya, in the form of both dried blood spots on Whatman filter paper, and the blood spot that is dropped into rapid diagnostic tests during use. Having first validated a robotic DNA extraction method, the parasite density was determined from both types of sample by duplex qPCR, and across a range of densities. The methods showed good agreement. The preservation of both parasite and human DNA on the nitrocellulose membrane inside the RDT was stable even after more than one year’s storage. This presents a useful opportunity for researchers or clinicians wishing to gain greater information about the parasite populations that are being studied, without significant investment of resources.
Adolescent health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the global burden of disease 2015 study
Azzopardi, Peter ; Cini, Karly ; Kennedy, Elissa ; Sawyer, Susan ; Elbcheraoui, Charbel ; Charara, Raghid ; Khalil, Ibrahim ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Collison, Michael ; Afifi, Rima A. ; Al-raiby, Jamela ; Krohn, Kristopher J. ; Daoud, Farah ; Chew, Adrienne ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Foreman, Kyle J. ; Kassebaum, Nicholas J. ; Kutz, Michael ; Kyu, Hmwe H. ; Liu, Patrick ; Olsen, Helen E. ; Smith, Alison ; Stanaway, Jeffrey D. ; Wang, Haidong ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Ahmadkiadaliri, Aliasghar ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Ali, Raghib ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Anber, Nahla ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Anwari, Palwasha ; Artaman, Al ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L. ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Beghi, Ettore ; Bennett, Derrick A. ; Bensenor, Isabela M. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Butt, Zahid A. ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A. ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Charlson, Fiona J. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Vos, Theo - \ 2018
International Journal of Public Health 63 (2018). - ISSN 1661-8556 - p. 79 - 96.
Adolescent health - Burden of disease - Eastern Mediterranean Region
Objectives: The 22 countries of the East Mediterranean Region (EMR) have large populations of adolescents aged 10–24 years. These adolescents are central to assuring the health, development, and peace of this region. We described their health needs. Methods: Using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we report the leading causes of mortality and morbidity for adolescents in the EMR from 1990 to 2015. We also report the prevalence of key health risk behaviors and determinants. Results: Communicable diseases and the health consequences of natural disasters reduced substantially between 1990 and 2015. However, these gains have largely been offset by the health impacts of war and the emergence of non-communicable diseases (including mental health disorders), unintentional injury, and self-harm. Tobacco smoking and high body mass were common health risks amongst adolescents. Additionally, many EMR countries had high rates of adolescent pregnancy and unmet need for contraception. Conclusions: Even with the return of peace and security, adolescents will have a persisting poor health profile that will pose a barrier to socioeconomic growth and development of the EMR.
Genetic diversity of endangered terrestrial orchids Spathoglottis plicata in Peninsular Malaysia based on AFLP markers
Ginibun, Florence C. ; Arens, Paul ; Vosman, Ben ; Bhassu, Subha ; Khalid, Norzulaani ; Othman, Rofina Yasmin - \ 2018
Plant OMICS 11 (2018)3. - ISSN 1836-0661 - p. 135 - 144.
AFLP - Genetic diversity - Spathoglottis plicata - Terrestrial orchids
Spathoglottis plicata is an endangered terrestrial orchid species that have experienced severe threats to its habitat as wild forest sites come under pressure from industrialisation and natural disasters. This orchid species chosen to evaluate their levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which 25-30 accession collected in the different location with different geographical, altitude and habitat. Genomic DNA was extracted from six natural populations (n=172) in Peninsular Malaysia using eleven AFLP markers of EcoRI+3 bases/MseI+3 base primer combinations. Based on 279 polymorphic bands, a significant degree of genetic population differentiation was found, with a 78.5% variation within populations as measured by AMOVA, indicating a potential restricted gene flow. Two distinct clades generated from a UPGMA dendrogram were further investigated through a Bayesian analysis using STRUCTURE software, producing an estimated population structure at optimal value K=4. These results point to the presence of four genetic structures in the Spathoglottis plicata population. The Pahang and Terengganu population revealed a higher than average genetic variation (60.25%), indicating that there may be a robust structural division between the population samples and a possible hybridisation between the Northern (Kedah), Southern (Negeri Sembilan and Johor) and Central (Selangor) region populations. In sum, these results suggest that geographical distance is the primary factor contributing to differences among populations and the need for conservation measures to protect the Spathoglottis plicata species.
Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes
Robinson, Ailie ; Busula, Annette O. ; Voets, Mirjam A. ; Beshir, Khalid B. ; Caulfield, John C. ; Powers, Stephen J. ; Verhulst, Niels O. ; Winskill, Peter ; Muwanguzi, Julian ; Birkett, Michael A. ; Smallegange, Renate C. ; Masiga, Daniel K. ; Mukabana, W.R. ; Sauerwein, Robert W. ; Sutherland, Colin J. ; Bousema, Teun ; Pickett, John A. ; Takken, Willem ; Logan, James G. ; Boer, Jetske G. De - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)18. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E4209 - E4218.
Aldehydes - Disease biomarkers - Host attractiveness - Malaria transmission - Parasite–vector–host interactions
Malaria parasites (Plasmodium) can change the attractiveness of their vertebrate hosts to Anopheles vectors, leading to a greater number of vector–host contacts and increased transmission. Indeed, naturally Plasmodium-infected children have been shown to attract more mosquitoes than parasite-free children. Here, we demonstrate Plasmodium-induced increases in the attractiveness of skin odor in Kenyan children and reveal quantitative differences in the production of specific odor components in infected vs. parasite-free individuals. We found the aldehydes heptanal, octanal, and nonanal to be produced in greater amounts by infected individuals and detected by mosquito antennae. In behavioral experiments, we demonstrated that these, and other, Plasmodium-induced aldehydes enhanced the attractiveness of a synthetic odor blend mimicking “healthy” human odor. Heptanal alone increased the attractiveness of “parasite-free” natural human odor. Should the increased production of these aldehydes by Plasmodium-infected humans lead to increased mosquito biting in a natural setting, this would likely affect the transmission of malaria.
Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests
Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.
Global, regional, and national age-sex specifc mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
Naghavi, Mohsen ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmadi, Alireza ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Syed Danish ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Anber, Nahla ; Andersen, Hjalte H. ; Andrei, Catalina Liliana ; Androudi, Sofa ; Ansari, Hossein ; Hoek, Hans W. ; Liu, Yang ; Nguyen, Cuong Tat ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nguyen, Trang Huyen ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1151 - 1210.
Background: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specifc mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Methods: We estimated cause-specifc deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specifc causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specifc deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. Findings: The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2-73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5-20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00-8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006-16 - age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176-181) increase in deaths in ages 90-94 years and a 210% (208-212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL signifcantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the fve leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a fner level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. Interpretation: The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and confict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might refect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which efective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems.
Plasmodium falciparum parasites with histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in two endemic regions of Kenya
Beshir, Khalid B. ; Sepúlveda, Nuno ; Bharmal, Jameel ; Robinson, Ailie ; Mwanguzi, Julian ; Busula, Annette Obukosia ; Boer, Jetske Gudrun De; Sutherland, Colin ; Cunningham, Jane ; Hopkins, Heidi - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
Deletions of the Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 and hrp3 genes can affect the performance of HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Such deletions have been reported from South America, India and Eritrea. Whether these parasites are widespread in East Africa is unknown. A total of 274 samples from asymptomatic children in Mbita, western Kenya, and 61 genomic data from Kilifi, eastern Kenya, were available for analysis. PCR-confirmed samples were investigated for the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. In samples with evidence of deletion, parasite presence was confirmed by amplifying three independent genes. We failed to amplify pfhrp2 from 25 of 131 (19.1%) PCR-confirmed samples. Of these, only 8 (10%) samples were microscopic positive and were classified as pfhrp2-deleted. Eight microscopically-confirmed pfhrp2-deleted samples with intact pfhrp3 locus were positive by HRP2-based RDT. In addition, one PCR-confirmed infection showed a deletion at the pfhrp3 locus. One genomic sample lacked pfhrp2 and one lacked pfhrp3. No sample harbored parasites lacking both genes. Parasites lacking pfhrp2 are present in Kenya, but may be detectable by HRP-based RDT at higher parasitaemia, possibly due to the presence of intact pfhrp3. These findings warrant further systematic study to establish prevalence and diagnostic significance.
Burden of diarrhea in the eastern mediterranean region, 1990-2013 : Findings from the global burden of disease study 2013
Khalil, Ibrahim ; Colombara, Danny V. ; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein ; Troeger, Christopher ; Daoud, Farah ; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar ; Bcheraoui, Charbel El; Rao, Puja C. ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Charara, Raghid ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Akanda, Ali Shafqat ; Akseer, Nadia ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Ali, Raghib ; AlMazroa, Mohammad A. ; Alomari, Mahmoud A. ; Salem Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Alsowaidi, Shirina ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Ammar, Walid ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Asayesh, Hamid ; Asghar, Rana Jawad ; Atique, Suleman ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Bacha, Umar ; Badawi, Alaa ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bekele, Tolesa ; Bensenor, Isabela M. ; Betsu, Balem Demtsu ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Abdulhak, Aref A. Bin; Butt, Zahid A. ; Danawi, Hadi ; Dubey, Manisha ; Endries, Aman Yesuf ; Faghmous, Imad M.D.A. ; Farid, Talha ; Farvid, Maryam S. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed Mohammad ; Fischer, Florian ; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph Robert ; Gibney, Katherine B. ; Mohamed Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem ; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo ; Gugnani, Harish Chander ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Hedayati, Mohammad T. ; Hsairi, Mohamed ; Husseini, Abdullatif ; Jahanmehr, Nader ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; Beyene, Tariku ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Khader, Yousef Saleh ; Khan, Abdur Rahman ; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad ; Khan, Gulfaraz ; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer ; Kinfu, Yohannes ; Kissoon, Niranjan ; Koyanagi, Ai ; Lal, Aparna ; Abdul Latif, Asma Abdul ; Lunevicius, Raimundas ; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Mehari, Alem ; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B. ; Melaku, Yohannes Adama ; Memish, Ziad A. ; Mendoza, Walter ; Misganaw, Awoke ; Ibrahim Mohamed, Layla Abdalla ; Nachega, Jean B. ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nisar, Muhammad Imran ; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame ; Platts-Mills, James A. ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Ur Rahman, Sajjad ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Rana, Saleem M. ; Ranabhat, Chhabi L. ; Rao, Sowmya R. ; Refaat, Amany H. ; Riddle, Mark ; Roshandel, Gholamreza ; Ruhago, George Mugambage ; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad ; Sanabria, Juan R. ; Sawhney, Monika ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Setegn, Tesfaye ; Sliwa, Karen ; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T. ; Sykes, Bryan L. ; Tavakkoli, Mohammad ; Tedla, Bemnet Amare ; Terkawi, Abdullah S. ; Ukwaja, Kingsley ; Uthman, Olalekan A. ; Westerman, Ronny ; Wubshet, Mamo ; Yenesew, Muluken A. ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al; Wang, Haidong ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Vos, Theo ; Lopez, Alan D. ; Murray, Christopher J.L. ; Mokdad, Ali H. - \ 2016
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95 (2016)6. - ISSN 0002-9637 - p. 1319 - 1329.
Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low-and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.
A preliminary amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers selection for spathoglottis species
Ginibun, F.C. ; Bhassu, S. ; Khalid, N. ; Arens, P. ; Vosman, B. ; Othman, R.Y. - \ 2015
Acta Horticulturae 1078 (2015). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 167 - 173.
AFLP primer - Molecular marker - Terrestrial orchid
Spathoglottis is a native terrestrial orchid that attracting horticultural interest as a landscaping plant. Distinguishing orchid at species level based on morphological characteristics is unconvincing as some characteristic may sensitive to environmental. Therefore, molecular characterization could be an alternative method in characterizing Spathoglottis species. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) marker was selected to characterize the Spathoglottis species. Among 56 AFLP primer combinations tested on Spathoglottis plicata, only eight primer combinations gave clear scorable polymorphic bands. A total of 60 accessions of Spathoglottis species, hybrid and outgroup (Dendrobium) were analysed using the eight primer combinations and generated 891 polymorphic bands with 98.41% in average. The AFLP patterns showed that the Spathoglottis species sampled were clearly different.