First experiences with a novel farmer citizen science approach : crowdsourcing participatory variety selection through on-farm triadic comparisons of technologies (tricot)
Etten, Jacob van; Beza, Eskender ; Calderer, Lluís ; Duijvendijk, Kees van; Fadda, Carlo ; Fantahun, Basazen ; Kidane, Yosef Gebrehawaryat ; Gevel, Jeske van de; Gupta, Arnab ; Mengistu, Dejene Kassahun - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)S1. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 275 - 296.
Rapid climatic and socio-economic changes challenge current agricultural R&D capacity. The necessary quantum leap in knowledge generation should build on the innovation capacity of farmers themselves. A novel citizen science methodology, triadic comparisons of technologies or tricot, was implemented in pilot studies in India, East Africa, and Central America. The methodology involves distributing a pool of agricultural technologies in different combinations of three to individual farmers who observe these technologies under farm conditions and compare their performance. Since the combinations of three technologies overlap, statistical methods can piece together the overall performance ranking of the complete pool of technologies. The tricot approach affords wide scaling, as the distribution of trial packages and instruction sessions is relatively easy to execute, farmers do not need to be organized in collaborative groups, and feedback is easy to collect, even by phone. The tricot approach provides interpretable, meaningful results and was widely accepted by farmers. The methodology underwent improvement in data input formats. A number of methodological issues remain: integrating environmental analysis, capturing gender-specific differences, stimulating farmers' motivation, and supporting implementation with an integrated digital platform. Future studies should apply the tricot approach to a wider range of technologies, quantify its potential contribution to climate adaptation, and embed the approach in appropriate institutions and business models, empowering participants and democratizing science.
Seroprevalence and risk factors of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia
Molla, Wassie ; Frankena, Klaas ; Gari, Getachew ; Kidane, Menbere ; Shegu, Dereje ; Jong, Mart C.M. de - \ 2018
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 160 (2018). - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 99 - 104.
Capripoxvirus - Cattle - Ethiopia - Lumpy skin disease - Risk factors - Seroprevalence
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an acute or inapparent viral disease of cattle which is endemic in many African and Middle East countries. LSD is one of the major transboundary livestock diseases in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling was undertaken in central and north-western parts of Ethiopia with the objectives to estimate seroprevalence and to identify and quantify risk factors contributing to the occurrence of the disease. A total of 2386 cattle sera were sampled from 605 herds and 30 clusters (kebeles) located in 10 districts and tested for presence of LSD virus antibodies using virus neutralization test. All the serum samples were collected from cattle having no history of LSD vaccination. The overall animal level and herd level apparent seroprevalences were 25.4% (95% CI: 23.7–27.2) and 48.9% (95% CI: 44.9-52.9), respectively and varied significantly between districts. The true animal level and herd level prevalences were estimated as 26.5% (95% CI: 24.7–28.3) and 52.6% (95% CI: 48.3–56.9), respectively. At animal level, adult age (OR = 2.44 (95% CI: 1.67–3.55) compared to calf), contact with other animals (OR = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.23-0.74), compared to no contact) and presence of water bodies (OR = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.03–2.52), compared to no such bodies) were identified as the most important risk factors in relation to testing LSD positive. The putative risk factors altitude, breed, sex, and presence of animal trade route showed no significant association with LSD sero-status. Generally, cattle population with many adult animals and that live in wet areas are at highest risk, whereas cattle in frequent contact with other animals and animal species have lower risk, potentially due to a dilution effect of vectors.
Estimating the burden of rabies in Ethiopia by tracing dog bite victims
Beyene, Tariku Jibat ; Mourits, Monique C.M. ; Kidane, Abraham Haile ; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
In developing countries where financial resources are limited and numerous interests compete, there is a need for quantitative data on the public health burden and costs of diseases to support intervention prioritization. This study aimed at estimating the health burden and post-exposure treatment (PET) costs of canine rabies in Ethiopia by an investigation of exposed human cases. Data on registered animal bite victims during the period of one year were collected from health centers in three districts, i.e. Bishoftu, Lemuna-bilbilo and Yabelo, to account for variation in urban highland and lowland areas. This data collection was followed by an extensive case search for unregistered victims in the same districts as the registered cases. Victims were visited and questioned on their use of PET, incurred treatment costs and the behavioral manifestations of the animal that had bitten them. Based on the collected data PET costs were evaluated by financial accounting and the health burden was estimated in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). In total 655 animal bite cases were traced of which 96.5% was caused by dog bites. 73.6% of the biting dogs were suspected to be potentially rabid dog. Annual suspected rabid dog exposures were estimated per evaluated urban, rural highland and rural lowland district at, respectively, 135, 101 and 86 bites, which led, respectively, to about 1, 4 and 3 deaths per 100,000 population. In the same district order average costs per completed PET equaled to 23, 31 and 40 USD, which was significantly higher in rural districts. Extrapolation of the district results to the national level indicated an annual estimate of approximately 3,000 human deaths resulting in about 194,000 DALYs per year and 97,000 exposed persons requiring on average 2 million USD treatment costs per year countrywide. These estimations of the burden of rabies to the Ethiopian society provide decision makers insights into the potential benefits of implementing effective interventions.
Wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia
Kidane, Berhane ; Maesen, L.J.G. van der; Asfaw, Zemede ; Sosef, M.S.M. ; Andel, Tinde van - \ 2015
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 62 (2015)2. - ISSN 0925-9864 - p. 221 - 234.
Food shortage - Leafy vegetables - Social group differentiation - Traditional botanical knowledge
We studied wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical methods, including individual and focus group (n = 18) discussions, field observations, and individual interviews (n = 144), were used in three rural kebeles (lowest administrative unit). The two ethnic communities consumed 30 leafy vegetable species grouped into 22 genera and 15 families. The study participants underlined that wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables are important components in traditional dishes, more frequently during periods of food shortage. The communities showed high preference for Balanites aegyptiaca and Solanum dasyphyllum in the Maale and Ari study sites respectively. Taste, marketability and above ground edible biomass were farmers’ main selection criteria suitable for leafy vegetables cultivation. The transfer of local knowledge within the community on wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables is not differentiated by gender or age and thus enables knowledge continuity, although harvesting and cooking activities are considered as women’s tasks by the communities. Major threats to wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables need to be minimized and complementary in-situ and ex situ conservation strategies scaled up.
Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia
Kidane, Berhane ; Andel, Tinde van; Maesen, Laurentius J.G. van der; Asfaw, Zemede - \ 2014
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10 (2014). - ISSN 1746-4269
Background: Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia.Methods: Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n = 74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012.Results: A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (≤ 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources.Conclusion: S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation.
Ethnobotany of wild and semi-wild edible fruit species used by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia
Kidane, Berhane ; Maesen, L.J.G. van der; Andel, Tinde van; Asfaw, Zemede ; Sosef, M.S.M. - \ 2014
Ethnobotany Research & Applications 12 (2014). - ISSN 1547-3465 - p. 455 - 472.
Wild and semi-wild tree fruit species are important resources in combating food insecurity and providing supplementary diet to rural people. We studied wild and semi-wild fruit species used by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia and the conservation status of these resources. We used focus group discussions (n = 18) and individual interviews (n = 144) in three rural kebeles. In total, the two communities used 52 species of wild and semi-wild fruit species which were especially important for their diet in times of food shortage. The most important species were, for the Maale community, Balanites rotundifolia (Tiegh.) Blatt. and Dobera glabra (Forssk.) Juss. ex Poir. and, for the Ari community, Carissa spinarum L. and Vitex doniana Sweet. No significant variation in ethnobotanical knowledge regarding fruit species existed among gender and age groups. The main traded fruit species were B. rotundifolia, Ximenia caffra Sond., and Vangueria madagascariensis J.F.Gmel. The major threats reported by informants to the availability of wild and semiwild fruit species were tree felling and conversion of forest to agricultural land. In addition to preserving the local knowledge and implementing conservation strategies that protect the remaining fruit trees, maintenance and enrichment planting of the most important species are plausible management interventions.
Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia
Kidane, B. ; Maesen, L.J.G. van der; Andel, T. van; Asfaw, Z. - \ 2014
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 153 (2014)1. - ISSN 0378-8741 - p. 274 - 282.
bulamogi county - uganda
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of livestock diseases by the Maale and An ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. Materials and methods: We used quantitative and qualitative ethobotanical methods, including individual and focus group discussions (n=18), field observations, and individual interviews (n=74) at three study sites. Results: In total, 46 plant species (28 families) were used for the treatment of livestock diseases. Leaves with succulent stems were the most used part of the plant. The most frequently cited cattle disease was blackleg, for which 21 plant species were used. Our study showed variation in ethnoveterinary plant species used among sites (laccard's similarity indices <0.25). The number of medicinal plant species used was significantly influenced by gender and site. Knowledge on ethnoveterinary plants was predominantly held by males, who cited more plant uses than females. The most widely used species were Lepidium sativum, Allium sativum, Clausena anisata, Croton macrostachyus, Ozoroa insignis, Sida rhombifolia, Centella asiatica, Cissampelos mucronata, Vernonia theophrastifolia and Vernonia amygdalina Conclusions: The study indicated that ethnoveterinary medicinal plants are important for the Maale and An ethnic communities. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies should focus on widely used and multi-use species. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Using local capacity for improved land resources planning: A case from Ethiopia
Kidane, F.Y. ; Mitiku, H. ; Bregt, A.K. ; Epema, G.F. - \ 2005
- 12 p.