Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    VVM Netwerk van Milieuprofessionals (External organisation)
    Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke - \ 2021
    Preselection committee Rachel Carson Thesis Award
    Results of 2-Year Ring Testing of a Semifield Study Design to Investigate Potential Impacts of Plant Protection Products on the Solitary Bees Osmia Bicornis and Osmia Cornuta and a Proposal for a Suitable Test Design
    Franke, Lea ; Elston, Charlotte ; Jütte, Tobias ; Klein, Olaf ; Knäbe, Silvio ; Lückmann, Johannes ; Roessink, Ivo ; Persigehl, Markus ; Cornement, Magdaléna ; Exeler, Nina ; Giffard, Hervé ; Hodapp, Bettina ; Kimmel, Stefan ; Kullmann, Britta ; Schneider, Christof ; Schnurr, Alexander - \ 2021
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 40 (2021)1. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 236 - 250.
    Ecotoxicology - Non-Apis - Osmia - Pesticides - Risk assessment - Semifield test design

    There are various differences in size, behavior, and life history traits of non-Apis bee species compared with honey bees (Apis mellifera; Linnaeus, 1758). Currently, the risk assessment for bees in the international and national process of authorizing plant protection products has been based on honey bee data as a surrogate organism for non-Apis bees. To evaluate the feasibility of a semifield tunnel test for Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Osmia cornuta (Latreille, 1805), a protocol was developed by the non-Apis working group of the International Commission for Plant-Pollinator Relationships, consisting of experts from authorities, academia, and industry. A total of 25 studies were performed over a 2-yr period testing a replicated control against a replicated positive control using either a dimethoate or diflubenzuron treatment. Studies were regarded to be valid, if ≥30% of released females were found to occupy the nesting units in the night/morning before the application (establishment). Thirteen studies were regarded to be valid and were analyzed further. Parameters analyzed were nest occupation, flight activity, cell production (total and per female), cocoon production (total and per female), emergence success, sex ratio, and mean weight of females and males. Dimethoate was a reliable positive control at the tested rate of 75 g a.i./ha, once >30% females had established, displaying acute effects such as reduction in flight activity, increase in adult mortality (shown by nest occupation), and reproduction ability of the females (total cell and cocoon production). On the other hand, no effects on larval and pupal development were observed. The growth regulator diflubenzuron had statistically significant effects on brood development, causing mortality of eggs and larvae at a rate of approximately 200 g a.i./ha, whereas fenoxycarb did not cause any significant effects at the tested rates of 300 and 600 g a.i./ha. In conclusion, the ring-test protocol proved to be adequate once the study comprised a well-established population of female Osmia bees, and the results improved in the second year as the laboratories increased their experience with the test organism. It is noted that the success of a study strongly depends on the experience of the experimenter, the crop quality, the quality of the cocoons, and the weather conditions. Based on these finding, recommendations for a semifield study design with Osmia spp. are proposed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;00:1–15.

    Application of General Unified Threshold Models of Survival Models for Regulatory Aquatic Pesticide Risk Assessment Illustrated with An Example for the Insecticide Chlorpyrifos
    Brock, Theo ; Arena, Maria ; Cedergreen, Nina ; Charles, Sandrine ; Duquesne, Sabine ; Ippolito, Alessio ; Klein, Michael ; Reed, Melissa ; Teodorovic, Ivana ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Focks, Andreas - \ 2021
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 17 (2021)1. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 243 - 258.
    Chlorpyrifos - GUTS - Pesticide risk assessment - Time-variable exposure - Toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic modeling

    Mathematical models within the General Unified Threshold models of Survival (GUTS) framework translate time-variable chemical exposure information into expected survival of animals. The GUTS models are species and compound specific and explicitly describe the internal exposure dynamics in an organism (toxicokinetics) and the related damage and effect dynamics (toxicodynamics), thereby connecting the external exposure concentration dynamics with the simulated mortality or immobility over time. In a recent scientific opinion on toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic (TKTD) models published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the GUTS modeling framework was considered ready for use in the aquatic risk assessment for pesticides and aquatic fauna. The GUTS models are suggested for use in risk assessment, if they are sufficiently validated for a specific substance–species combination. This paper aims to illustrate how they can be used in the regulatory environmental risk assessment for pesticides for a specific type of refinement, that is, when risks are triggered by lower tiers in acute as well as in chronic risk assessment and mortality or immobility is the critical endpoint. This approach involves the evaluation of time-variable exposure regimes in a so-called “Tier-2C” assessment. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was selected as an example compound because a large data set was available. The GUTS models for 13 different freshwater arthropods and 8 different theoretical aquatic exposure profiles were used to calculate a series of GUTS-based risk estimates, including exposure profile-specific multiplication factors leading to 50% mortality or immobility at the end of the tested profile (LP50/EP50) as “margins of safety.” To put the use of GUTS models within the tiered aquatic risk assessment into perspective, GUTS models for the 13 aquatic arthropods were also used to predict the environmental risks of a measured chlorpyrifos exposure profile from an experimental ditch study (Tier-3 approach), and the results are discussed in the context of calibration of the tiered approach. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020;00:1–16.

    Shifting states, shifting services: Linking regime shifts to changes in ecosystem services of shallow lakes
    Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Hilt, Sabine ; Kosten, Sarian ; Klein, Jeroen J.M. de; Paerl, Hans W. ; Waal, Dedmer B. Van de - \ 2021
    Freshwater Biology 66 (2021)1. - ISSN 0046-5070 - p. 1 - 12.
    climate change - cyanobacteria - eutrophication - higher plants - restoration

    Shallow lakes can shift between stable states as a result of anthropogenic or natural drivers. Four common stable states differ in dominant groups of primary producers: submerged, floating, or emergent macrophytes or phytoplankton. Shifts in primary producer dominance affect key supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural ecosystem services supplied by lakes. However, links between states and services are often neglected or unknown in lake management, resulting in conflicts and additional costs. Here, we identify major shallow lake ecosystem services and their links to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), compare service provisioning among the four ecosystem states and discuss potential trade-offs. We identified 39 ecosystem services potentially provided by shallow lakes. Submerged macrophytes facilitate most of the supporting (86%) and cultural (63%) services, emergent macrophytes facilitate most regulating services (60%), and both emergent and floating macrophytes facilitate most provisioning services (63%). Phytoplankton dominance supports fewer ecosystem services, and contributes most to provisioning services (42%). The shallow lake ecosystem services we identified could be linked to 10 different SDGs, notably zero hunger (SDG 2), clean water and sanitation (SDG 6), sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11), and climate action (SDG13). We highlighted several trade-offs (1) among ecosystem services, (2) within ecosystem services, and (3) between ecosystem services across ecosystems. These trade-offs can have significant ecological and economic consequences that may be prevented by early identification in water quality management. In conclusion, common stable states in shallow lakes provide a different and diverse set of ecosystem services with numerous links to the majority of SDGs. Conserving and restoring ecosystem states should account for potential trade-offs between ecosystem services and preserving the natural value of shallow lakes.

    Verneveld interferon als COVID-19 medicijn
    Tramper, J. - \ 2020
    Bio Based Press
    In april en mei van 2020 onderzochten Engelse wetenschappers in een klein klinisch onderzoek het effect van inhalatie van verneveld interferon-bèta-1a (SNG001) op het ziekteverloop van COVID-19 patiënten. De resultaten zijn hoopvol en rechtvaardigen verder onderzoek.
    VVM Netwerk van Milieuprofessionals (External organisation)
    Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke - \ 2020
    Preselection committee Rachel Carson Thesis Award
    Forest Policy and Economics (Journal)
    Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke - \ 2020
    Forest Policy and Economics (2020). - ISSN 1389-9341
    Biotechnology for Tomorrow's World : Scenarios to Guide Directions for Future Innovation
    Cornelissen, Marc ; Małyska, Aleksandra ; Nanda, Amrit Kaur ; Lankhorst, René Klein ; Parry, Martin A.J. ; Saltenis, Vandasue Rodrigues ; Pribil, Mathias ; Nacry, Philippe ; Inzé, Dirk ; Baekelandt, Alexandra - \ 2020
    Trends in Biotechnology (2020). - ISSN 0167-7799
    bioeconomy - biotechnology - earning scenarios - microbiome - open innovation - research and innovation

    Depending on how the future will unfold, today's progress in biotechnology research has greater or lesser potential to be the basis of subsequent innovation. Tracking progress against indicators for different future scenarios will help to focus, emphasize, or de-emphasize discovery research in a timely manner and to maximize the chance for successful innovation. In this paper, we show how learning scenarios with a 2050 time horizon help to recognize the implications of political and societal developments on the innovation potential of ongoing biotechnological research. We also propose a model to further increase open innovation between academia and the biotechnology value chain to help fundamental research explore discovery fields that have a greater chance to be valuable for applied research.

    Meer, Ingrid van der - \ 2020

    'Het lijkt een klein en onbeduidend plantje, maar eendenkroos bevat veel eiwitten, vitamines en mineralen en is dus erg voedzaam' (...).

    'Eendenkroos verdubbelt zich constant. Elke twee dagen. Je kan dus enorm veel eiwit in een krote tijd produceren en daarbij komt ook nog dat je continu kan oogsen. Eendenkroos kan per hectare wel zes tot tien keer meer eiwit opleveren dan bijvoorbeeld soja'. (..)

    'Het eendenkroos, red.: zit boordevol eiwitten, groeit enorm snel en het is ook neens lekker ' (..) ' Je kunt denken aan een soort sla. Het kan door de pasta, of je kan er een soepje van maken, en je zou het in de toekomst misschien ook kunnen kopen als diepvriesblokjes net als bij spinazie.' (..) ' Mensen vonden het net zo lekker als spinazie, ze verteren het goed en we zien dat ze ook de eiwitten goed kunnen opnemen'. (...) ' Dat is toch bijzonder? Dat zo'n lief klein plantje gaat bijdragen aan het oplossen van het wereldvoedselprobleem'.

    De Wageningse moleculair bioloog Ingrid van der Meer in het Algemeen Dagblad van 8 november 2020.

    Temporal tracking of quantum-dot apatite across in vitro mycorrhizal networks shows how host demand can influence fungal nutrient transfer strategies
    van’t Padje, Anouk ; Oyarte Galvez, Loreto ; Klein, Malin ; Hink, Mark A. ; Postma, Marten ; Shimizu, Thomas ; Kiers, E.T. - \ 2020
    ISME Journal (2020). - ISSN 1751-7362
    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi function as conduits for underground nutrient transport. While the fungal partner is dependent on the plant host for its carbon (C) needs, the amount of nutrients that the fungus allocates to hosts can vary with context. Because fungal allocation patterns to hosts can change over time, they have historically been difficult to quantify accurately. We developed a technique to tag rock phosphorus (P) apatite with fluorescent quantum-dot (QD) nanoparticles of three different colors, allowing us to study nutrient transfer in an in vitro fungal network formed between two host roots of different ages and different P demands over a 3-week period. Using confocal microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy, we could distinguish between P transfer from the hyphae to the roots and P retention in the hyphae. By tracking QD-apatite from its point of origin, we found that the P demands of the younger root influenced both: (1) how the fungus distributed nutrients among different root hosts and (2) the storage patterns in the fungus itself. Our work highlights that fungal trade strategies are highly dynamic over time to local conditions, and stresses the need for precise measurements of symbiotic nutrient transfer across both space and time.
    Forest Biodiversity, Carbon Sequestration, and Wood Production: Modeling Synergies and Trade-Offs for Ten Forest Landscapes Across Europe
    Biber, Peter ; Felton, Adam ; Nieuwenhuis, Maarten ; Lindbladh, Matts ; Bahýl, Jan ; Bingöl, Özkan ; Borges, Jozé G. ; Botequim, Brigite ; Brukas, Vilis ; Bugalho, Miguel N. ; Corradini, Giulia ; Eriksson, Ljusk Ola ; Forsell, Niklas ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A. ; Kadiogullari, Ali Íhsan ; Karahalil, Uzay ; Lodin, Isak ; Lundholm, Anders ; Makrickienė, Ekaterina ; Masiero, Mauro ; Mozgeris, Gintautas ; Pivoriūnas, Nerijus ; Poschenrieder, Werner ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Sedmák, Róbert ; Tuček, Ján - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8 (2020). - ISSN 2296-701X
    Europe's forests provide vital habitat for biodiversity and essential ecosystem services whose provision must be sustained or enhanced over the coming century. However, the potential to secure or increase forest ecosystem services, while securing the habitat requirements of taxa remains unclear, especially within the context of uncertain climate and socio-economic developments. To tease out the associated trade-offs and synergies, we used 10 case study landscapes within nine countries throughout Europe. Starting with the current status of the forests in the case study landscapes, we simulated forest development 100 years into the future. Simulations were embedded in three combined climate and socio-economic frame scenarios based on global and European policies which varied in their climate change mitigation efficiency. Scenarios were translated into country specific projections of climate variables, and resultant demands for wood products. Forest management regimes were projected to vary in response to these scenarios at local scales. The specific combinations of alternative forest management practices were based on parallel research and input from local forest stakeholders. For each case study, a specific forest growth simulator was used. In general, the climate scenarios applied did not cause fundamentally different ecosystem service outputs at the case study level. Our results revealed almost no reduction in outcomes for biodiversity indicators with an increase in wood production, and in some cases synergistic results occurred when diversity was actively promoted as part of the management concept. Net carbon uptake was not strongly correlated with biodiversity, indicating that biodiversity-friendly forest management doesn't need to curtail carbon sequestration. Notably, we obtained heterogeneous results for the relation between sustainable wood production and net carbon uptake. Most scenarios resulted in a more or less reduced net carbon uptake over the long term, often due to stand age class distribution shifts. Levels of sustainable wood production varied widely during the simulation period, from significant increases (Sweden, Lithuania) to minor changes (Slovakia, Turkey) and slight decreases (Ireland, Netherlands). We place our results within the larger context of European forest policy and the challenges of simulating and contrasting forest biodiversity and the ecosystem services that societies depend on.
    Relationship between intake and plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in 873 adults with a physically active lifestyle : a cross-sectional study
    Baart, A.M. ; Balvers, M.G.J. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Haaf, D.S.M. ten; Hopman, M.T.E. ; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T. - \ 2020
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics (2020). - ISSN 0952-3871
    folate - intake - physical activity - plasma concentrations - vitamin B12
    Background: Vitamin B12 and folate function as co-factors in pathways used during physical activity. Physical activity may therefore increase vitamin requirements, leading to a risk of deficient plasma concentrations. We aimed to investigate the relationship between intake and plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in physically active adults, as well as identify other determinants of vitamin B12 and folate plasma concentrations. Methods: The study population consisted of 873 adults (528 men and 345 women), aged 19–78 years, who participated in a 4-day walking event. The relationship between intake and plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate was assessed using correlation and linear regression analyses. In addition, potential other determinants (sex, age, body mass index, energy intake and physical activity) of vitamin plasma concentrations were investigated. Results: Significant positive correlations were observed between intake and plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 [Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.08–0.21] and folate (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.12–0.25). In addition to vitamin intake, sex, age and energy intake were also determinants of both vitamin B12 and folate plasma concentrations in multivariable regression models. Conclusions: The results suggest a positive association between intake and plasma concentrations for both vitamin B12 and folate in physically active people. By contrast to our hypothesis, physical activity was not a determinant of vitamin B12 and folate plasma concentrations. However, sex, age and energy intake were found to be determinants. Thus, when studying the relationship between intake and plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 or folate, these factors should be taken into account.
    Integrating ecosystem services in power analysis in forest governance : A comparison across nine European countries
    Juerges, Nataly ; Arts, Bas ; Masiero, Mauro ; Başkent, Emin Z. ; Borges, José G. ; Brodrechtova, Yvonne ; Brukas, Vilis ; Canadas, Maria João ; Carvalho, Pedro Ochôa ; Corradini, Giulia ; Corrigan, Edwin ; Felton, Adam ; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke ; Krott, Max ; Laar, Jim van; Lodin, Isak ; Lundholm, Anders ; Makrickienė, Ekaterina ; Marques, Marlene ; Mendes, Américo ; Mozgeris, Gintautas ; Novais, Ana ; Pettenella, Davide ; Pivoriūnas, Nerijus - \ 2020
    Forest Policy and Economics 121 (2020). - ISSN 1389-9341
    Actor-centred power - Ecosystem services trade-off - Europe - Forest governance - Governance transformation - Power shift

    Within forest governance research, the transfer of power from governmental actors to civil society and market actors has been subject to intense scientific debate. We move forward on this debate by analyzing how ongoing transformations and power shifts in forest governance affect the power relations of actors with interest in various ecosystem services (ESs) in nine countries (Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, the Netherlands, Turkey). In order to examine power resources of actors, we triangulated 220 qualitative interviews, document analysis, and participatory observations. Governmental actors (with various interests in ESs) were the most powerful actors in most countries, and thus drove forest management. Our analysis shows that the power relations of actors with interest in different forest ESs, varied within the nine countries, though many similarities existed. Governmental, market, and civil society actors differed in their capacity to apply the power strategies “coercion”, “(dis)incentives”, and “dominant information”, to realize their interests in ESs. In Lithuania, Slovakia and Turkey, governmental actors relied mostly on coercion; in the Netherlands on incentives; and in Sweden on dominant information. In Germany, Ireland, Italy and Portugal governmental actors relied on a mix of coercion, incentives, and dominant information. Market actors in all countries relied mostly on incentives, and civil society actors on dominant information as their power strategy.

    Policy forum: Trends and debates in forest policy research in Europe
    Behagel, Jelle Hendrik ; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke A. - \ 2020
    Forest Policy and Economics 121 (2020). - ISSN 1389-9341
    Effect of exercise on micronutrient status and stress and immune response
    Terink, Rieneke - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.F. Witkamp; M.T.E. Hopman, co-promotor(en): M.R. Mensink; J.M.T. Klein Gunnewiek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954037 - 265

    Exercise induces a range of physiological responses involving different organs, tissues and systems. The acute exercise response refers to the metabolic and mechanical effects directly following exercise, while the recovery after exercise concerns mechanisms to repair, refuel, replenish and return to homeostasis. Longer-term adaptations are important for growth and supercompensation. The role of nutrition or specific nutrients in these processes is substantial and demands further investigation. In this thesis, we investigated the exercise response during acute and repeated exercise and exercise training. In addition, a dietary intervention was conducted to investigate whether nutritional status, i.e. high vs low carbohydrate intake, modulated of the exercise induced stress and immune response.

    First, we assessed the impact of exercise on the variation in blood magnesium levels before exercise and during 6hours post-exercise recovery in well-trained cyclists and triathletes. We showed that both ionized (iMg) and total magnesium (tMg) decreased directly after exercise and returned to pre-exercise levels within 3.5hours after exercise. The decrease in blood magnesium levels after exercise and subsequent increase a few hours later likely reflects re-distribution to muscles and to blood respectively. We concluded that exercise affects magnesium levels and timing of blood sampling to analyse magnesium status is important.

    These observations in athletes highlighted the impact of an acute bout of exercise, but what would happen when older adults exercise for multiple days in a row remained unclear. Therefore, we examined changes in iMg and tMg levels during four consecutive days of prolonged walking exercise (~8hours) in a group of very old adults (>80 years). Blood samples were collected at baseline (1 or 2 days before the first walking day) and every walking day directly after finishing. Our results showed that iMg levels dropped directly after the first day of walking, while tMg showed no clear pattern. During subsequent days, iMg levels did not drop after exercise. After exercise, sub-optimal iMg and tMg levels were found in 88% and 16% of the participants, respectively. These sub-optimal levels were not associated with drop-out or health problems.

    This previous study protocol, was also used to assess iron parameters in a group of healthy adults. We showed that plasma iron decreased across days, while ferritin increased. Haptoglobin showed a decrease after the first day and increased over subsequent days. Haemoglobin did not change after the first day but increased during subsequent days. These observations probably reflect increased iron losses via foot strike haemolysis, sweat and urine, but also the impact of exercise-induced inflammation on hepcidin and iron status.

    The exercise-induced inflammatory response was established by the cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1β) response. The first day of walking exercise caused an increase in cytokine levels, thereafter, levels decreased from day 1 to day 2 and remained rather stable during the following days. These results suggest that an acute inflammatory response occurred after the first day of walking and that individuals adapt rapidly to this type of repeated exercise.

    Shifting our focus to prolonged training instead of acute exercise, we assessed whether salivary cortisol and testosterone could be used to assess training load in a group of elite swimmers. Previous research showed that cortisol and testosterone can be used to assess acute exercise stress in athletes, while their usefulness during a training periodization remained unclear. In our study, ten male elite swimmers were monitored during 10 consecutive weeks of training, ending with a competition. Although the training load decreased over the 10weeks, both salivary cortisol and testosterone levels remained unchanged. During competition, both salivary cortisol and testosterone increased directly after the first race and returned back to baseline levels within 2hours after the last race. This let us conclude that salivary cortisol and testosterone can be used to assess acute exercise stress but not prolonged training load over several weeks.

    In chapter 7, we reviewed the literature regarding various research designs that were used to study overreaching and overtraining. We had noticed how the field is struggling with the question on how to stimulate, measure and/or follow up overtraining in athletes. Therefore, we discussed the available information on (non)functional overreaching and overtraining from the perspective of the researcher. This review can be seen as a kind of guideline on ‘how to perform an overreaching/overtraining study’ and what are the critical issues that a researcher should keep in mind.
    We also investigated the effects of a short-term (2days) and prolonged (2weeks) low carbohydrate (LC) diet (<10En% carbohydrates) on the exercise induced stress and immune response in a cross-over study design with a high carbohydrate diet (HC) as a control diet. The results of this study showed that short-term adherence to a LC diet already led to metabolic changes, as reflected by lower respiratory exchange rates, lower glucose, higher free fatty acids and higher ketone levels. However, the exercise induced stress response was still higher after 2days on the LC diet, and attenuated after 2weeks on the LC diet, shown by very high plasma cortisol levels after 2days on the LC diet. We also showed that 2days adherence to the LC diet resulted in different immune cell counts after exercise compared 2days adherence to the HC diet, resulting in lower T cell, Th cell and B cell counts in the LC diet. These differences were diminished and not significant anymore after 2weeks adherence to both diets. T cell homing kinetics to the airways also showed differences between the LC and HC diet after 2days, but not after 2weeks on the diets, with lower Th cell airway homing on the LC diet 2hours after exercise. At baseline, immune cell count and homing were not different between diets, while differences between diets were detected directly after exercise and 2hours after exercise. A clear exercise response was evident for immune cell differential count and cell proliferation rate. We concluded that adaptation to a LC diet in terms of metabolic and stress response occurs within two weeks, but not after 2days; and that exercise, more than diet, differentially affects homing of immune cells in our study.

    Sustainable Consumption : The Right to a Healthy Environment
    Amaral Junior, Alberto Do ; Almeida, Lucila de; Klein Vieira, Luciane - \ 2020
    Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030169848
    This book provides a broad understanding of whether law plays a role in influencing patterns of sustainable consumption and, if so, how. Bringing together legal scholars from the Global South and the Global North, it examines these questions in the context of national, transnational and international law, within single and plural legal systems, and across a range of sector-specific issue areas.
    The chapters identify how traditional legal disciplines (e.g. constitutional law, consumer law, public procurement, international public law), sector-related regulation (e.g. energy, water, waste), and legal rules in specific areas (e.g. eco-labelling and packing) engage with the concept of sustainable consumption. A number of the contributions describe this relationship by isolating a national legal system, while others approach it from the vantage point of legal pluralism, exploring the conflicts and convergences of rules between multiple international treaties (or guidelines) and those between the rules of international and transnational law (or both) vis-à-vis national legal systems.
    While sustainable consumption is recognised as an important field of interdisciplinary research linking virtually all social science disciplines, legal scholarship, in contrast, has neglected the importance of the field of sustainable consumption to the law. This book fills the gap.
    Looking Back to Look Forward: A Future Research Agenda for Sustainable Consumption, Law and Development
    Amaral Junior, Alberto Do; Almeida, Lucila De; Klein Vieira, Luciane - \ 2020
    In: Sustainable Consumption / Amaral Junior, Alberto do, Almeida, Lucila de, Klein Vieira, Luciane, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030169848 - p. 495 - 500.
    This chapter aims to look forward to a future research agenda for sustainable consumption, law and development by way of conclusion. While it is for the readers to retrieve the lessons addressed by each contribution in this edited book, for us it is compelling to close this journey by looking forward. Therefore, we suggest and seek for a future research agenda that aligns the concept of sustainable consumption with the interdisciplinary debate of law and development.
    An Introduction to Sustainable Consumption and the Law
    Amaral Junior, Alberto Do; Almeida, Lucila De; Klein Vieira, Luciane - \ 2020
    In: Sustainable Consumption / Amaral Junior, Alberto do, Almeida, Lucila de, Klein Vieira, Luciane, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030169848 - p. 1 - 9.
    This chapter introduces this edited book by shedding light on its normative and conceptual framework, as well as its contribution to the field as collection of interconnected works on how the law does and/or should play a role in influencing patterns of sustainable consumption.
    Multiphasic nonlinear mixed growth models for laying hens
    Klein, S.A.S. van der; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Zuidhof, M.J. - \ 2020
    Poultry Science 99 (2020)11. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 5615 - 5624.
    gain - growth - laying hen - modeling

    Appropriate evaluation of BW and gain during rearing is required for optimal extended laying performance in laying hens. The objective of this study was to compare monophasic, diphasic, and triphasic Gompertz and logistic models describing BW and gain in individually fed free-run laying hens and to study the variation between individuals in shape parameters. Fifteen Lohmann Brown Lite hens were fed ad libitum from week 0 to 43 with a precision feeding system, measuring feed intake and BW individually in a group housed setting. Random variables related to mature weight and timing of maximum gain during the pubertal growth phase were introduced into the multiphasic model for BW with the best fit. For both the weight-age and gain-age functions, the diphasic and triphasic Gompertz and logistic model models fitted the data better than the monophasic models. The Gompertz model was able to identify the ages at the highest gain at similar time points for both BW and gain, whereas the logistic models failed to do so. The derivative of the multiphasic Gompertz models for the gain-age relationship identified age at the highest gain at similar ages as compared with the logistic models for gain. The mixed models predicted that the individual mature BW ranged from 1.83 kg to 2.10 kg and the variability in the timing of the highest rate of gain during the pubertal growth spurt ranged from 15.26 wk to 19.79 wk. Including random terms associated with the mature BW and the second inflection point of the diphasic Gompertz growth model allowed for identification of variability in the growth curve shape between individuals, which can be a tool to study the relationship between the individual growth curve shape and performance parameters.

    Pan-European homogenization of daily multi-decadal temperature series from station-based observations
    Squintu, Antonello A. - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M.G. Klein Tank, co-promotor(en): G. van der Schrier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954730 - 152

    The changes of European climate have serious effects on society and economy. A thorough climatological analysis is fundamental to provide reliable and accurate assessments of these changes. Extreme temperature events, such as heatwaves and cold spells, have considerable effects on e.g. health systems, energy consumption and phenological cycles. Their changes in frequency and severity over the last centuries can be studied using daily temperature series from in-situ weather stations. However, these series suffer from external interventions to the measuring stations, such as relocations and modifications to the instruments, and from changes in their surroundings (growing trees, new buildings). These induced changes in the recorded values are not related to climatic events, making the series inhomogeneous and unreliable. With the aim of producing solid temperature databases, several works in the past decades have introduced techniques for the identification of such changes and their correction (homogenization). Within this thesis, a new procedure has been developed, taking inspiration from the Quantile Matching method [Trewin, 2013]. This is based on the calculation of different adjustments for average and extreme values and, in this project,  has  been  revisited  and  modified,  introducing  new aspects  aimed at making it more flexible, more heuristic and more faithful to the originally observed data. The new homogenization is applied to the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D), a pan-European dataset providing observations from all European National Meteorological Services. The method is validated with a comparison to acknowledged homogenization methods against a benchmark dataset, proving its robustness and the quality of the results. The homogenized temperature series, thanks to their high reliability, are then analyzed, performing trend analyses focused on the extreme events. Finally the homogenized series are used to create a homogenized version of E-OBS, gridded dataset obtained with the interpolation of ECA&D station data. The homogenized E-OBS is then employed to compare the trends on average and extreme values of the last decades with those simulated in the same period by climate models, which in other studies are used for predictions of future climate under different emission scenarios.

    The Introduction (Chapter 1) explains the context in which this thesis is developed. The current state and knowledge about climate change is introduced, followed by the issues implied by the presence of inhomogeneities in temperature series. The aims of the thesis and the expected results and further applications are then exposed in detail.

    Chapter 2 describes in detail the statistical bases of the homogenization method. It is composed by a break detection that statistically identifies the timing of the occurred inhomogeneities. This is needed since the dataset is too big to handle the available docu- mentation of reported changes occurred to the stations (metadata),  which would require a long and labourious process. The second step is the adjustment calculation, developed following previous studies on the technique of Quantile Matching. This calculates different adjustments for the daily data according to their position in the temperature distribution, thus handling differently average and extreme values. The reported case studies prove   the effectiveness of the routine, showing clear improvement in the quality of the series. The difference in the trends of several indices of minimum and maximum temperature between homogenized and raw series show limited changes in average (between +0.01 and +0.02) and no geographical patterns. Moreover, the trends of homogenized series present a clear improvement of the geographical consistency and a considerable narrowing of their distribution. This proves the increased quality of the dataset.

    The work reported in Chapter 3 describes the process of blending of series. This involves, for example,  the series of the station in a city centre that was ended and the new one  that was started in a close-by rural area or in an airport. The blending procedure here described joins these series by concatenating them and by mutually filling their gaps. While on one side this process generates long series,  on the other hand the blended  series are not necessarily homogeneous. For this reason, the homogenization process exposed in Chapter 2 is adapted and applied to these series.  The results of this process   is a set of long and homogeneous series that are fundamental for thorough historical climatic inspections.   Three case studies help exposing the complexity of the process   and its benefits. Finally a trend assessment on the new homogenized blended series has been performed. Similarly to what reported by previous studies, this has revealed steep trends in summer maximum temperatures over the Mediterranean and in winter minimum temperatures in Eastern Europe. The latter is connected with a narrowing of the winter minimum temperatures, while in Central Europe a relevant widening of summer maximum temperatures is observed.

    The Quantile Matching homogenization procedure is compared with other methods in Chapter 4. Here two benchmark datasets are generated, concatenating data from homo- geneous neighbouring series in the national network of Czech Republic and among series specifically selected within the ECA&D. Two benchmark datasets allow to compare situ- ations with very good data quality and station density (Czech dataset) and with scarcer station density and presence of missing data (European dataset). Three well known methods (DAP, HOM, SPLIDHOM) are evaluated together with the Quantile Matching, making use of a set of metrics, such as Root Mean Square Error, percentage of adjusted data and evaluation of trends in average and extreme values. On the Czech Dataset almost all methods perform very well, proving the quality of their statistical features in favourable conditions. The European Dataset allows to test the robustness of the methods in challenging conditions. Here some methods show difficulties in the homogenization of warm extremes and large percentages of missed adjustments of biased data. The Quantile Matching works very well in both cases, showing good performances, comparable to the results of a prestigious method as SPLIDHOM.

    The homogeneous blended series are the bases for a new version of the gridded dataset E-OBS, which is a valuable tool for the validation of climate simulations, such as the ones developed in the frame of the High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project. These models aim at simulating the climate of the period after 1950 and can be compared to observed values to detect how well they reproduced climate variability and trends. Studies of previous versions of climate simulations highlighted underestimations in the trends of (especially warm) extreme events. In Chapter 5 this comparison is performed taking the difference of the trends in average values and in the number of warm (or cold) extreme events above (or below) percentile-based thresholds. The studied models simulate the trends generally well, though they show underestimation of the strong reduction of cold events in Eastern Europe and of the steep increase of warm events in the Mediterranean area.

    In the Synthesis (Chapter 6) the obtained results are summarized and discussed, focusing on how they have accomplished the aims of the research. The homogenization method based on the Quantile Matching has shown to work very well on the individual series and on the whole network, reducing the presence of anomalous trends and increasing spatial coherence of the data. The comparison with other methods against a benchmark dataset has validated the quality of the new method and given reliability to the studies performed on the homogenized dataset. These have confirmed the severe warming processes over Europe, highlighting the increased distribution width of summer daily temperatures over Central Europe and the narrowing of the distribution of winter daily temperatures over  the Alps and Eastern Europe. Finally,  one of the very powerful uses of the results of   this thesis has been shown. This is the evaluation of climate simulations against a ho- mogenized gridded dataset, which has allowed to inspect how well the models are able to reproduce the statistical features of the extreme temperature events over the last decades. Moreover, in the Synthesis possible improvements for the homogenization method are ex- posed together with concluding remarks. The main conclusions of this thesis are the acknowledgement of the high efficiency of the developed method, of the high quality of the obtained dataset and of the important added value  that homogenization processes like this provide to climatological analyses and to the solidity of the evidences of climate change.

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