The ex/inclusion paradox in heritage management : the Mobarak mosque in The Hague
Knippenberg, Karim van; Duineveld, Martijn ; Buizer, Marleen - \ 2020
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development (2020). - ISSN 2044-1266
Authorised heritage discourse (AHD) - Heritage management - Minority groups - Social inclusion/exclusion
Purpose: In the field of critical heritage studies, it has often been argued that a more inclusive and participatory heritage management approach neutralises differences and can contribute to a more contemporary, plural, democratic and inclusive notion of heritage. Yet, the needs and aspirations of those assumed being excluded from heritage making are not always taken into account, because the analysis and critique often focussed on the dominant heritage discourses, organisations and institutions. This paper conceptualises heritage from below and explores and reconceptualises how subdominant notions of heritage relate to dominant, institutionalised conceptualisations of heritage. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a case study of the Mobarak mosque in The Hague, the authors present the multiplicity of subdominant conceptualisations of heritage, the ways heritage is (expected to be) recognised and represented by the community and the complexity of issues of social inclusion/exclusion. Findings: The authors conclude that inclusive and/or participatory heritage management practices are inclusive in name only when the needs and aspirations of those seemingly being “excluded” are not fully understood and taken into account. Originality/value: A binary heritage/non-heritage framework, the authors argue, is limited to understand matter that matters. Also the authors find that the assumption that there is a growing desire among local community groups to include their histories and related materialities as heritage in the dominant heritage discourse should be challenged.
Enhancing milk quality and safety: : Towards milk quality-based milk payments in Kenya
Ndambi, O.A. ; Njiru, Ruth ; Knippenberg, Camee van; Lee, J. van der; Kilelu, C.W. ; Ngigi, M. ; Mulwa, R.M. ; Asher, D. ; Mbera, Gloria - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research (3R Kenya Project Research Brief 001)
Private and public costs and benefits of implementing a quality-based milk payment system in Kenya
Ndambi, O.A. ; Njiru, Ruth ; Knippenberg, Camee van; Lee, J. van der; Kilelu, C.W. ; Ngigi, M. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (3R Kenya Project Research Brief 001) - 14 p.
The missing pillar : Eudemonic values in the justification of nature conservation
Born, Riyan J.G. van den; Arts, B. ; Admiraal, J.G.A. ; Beringer, A. ; Knights, P. ; Molinario, E. ; Horvat, K.P. ; Porras-Gomez, C. ; Smrekar, A. ; Soethe, N. ; Vivero-Pol, J.L. ; Ganzevoort, W. ; Bonaiuto, M. ; Knippenberg, L. ; Groot, W.T. De - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)5-6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 841 - 856.
biodiversity - committed action - eudaimonia - life history interview - nature
The public justification for nature conservation currently rests on two pillars: hedonic (instrumental) values, and moral values. Yet, these representations appear to do little motivational work in practice; biodiversity continues to decline, and biodiversity policies face a wide implementation gap. In seven EU countries, we studied why people act for nature beyond professional obligations. We explore the motivations of 105 committed actors for nature in detail using life-history interviews, and trace these back to their childhood. Results show that the key concept for understanding committed action for nature is meaningfulness. People act for nature because nature is meaningful to them, connected to a life that makes sense and a difference in the world. These eudemonic values (expressing the meaningful life) constitute a crucial third pillar in the justification of nature conservation. Important policy implications are explored, e.g. with respect to public discourse and the encounter with nature in childhood.
From Landscape Preservation to Landscape Governance: European Experiences with Sustainable Development of Protected Landscapes
Janssen, J. ; Knippenberg, L. - \ 2012
In: Studies on Environmental and Applied Geomorphology / Piacentini, T., Miccadei, E., Rijeka : InTech - ISBN 9789535103615 - p. 241 - 266.
online from March 21, 2012 http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/from-landscape-preservation-to-landscape-governance-european-experiences-with-sustainable-developmen
Analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus genome transcription
Knippenberg, I.C. van - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.W. Goldbach, co-promotor(en): Richard Kormelink. - Wageningen : Ponsen & Looijen - ISBN 9789085040880 - 98
tomatenbronsvlekkenvirus - plantenvirussen - genomen - transcriptie - tomato spotted wilt virus - plant viruses - genomes - transcription
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is the type species of the genus Tospovirus within the Bunyaviridae, a family of segmented negative strand RNA viruses. Although much ground has been covered in the past two decades, many questions concerning the mechanism of replication and transcription of this important group of viruses have thus far remained unanswered. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of viral transcription and replication requires manipulable systems in which these processes can be studied and unravelled. At the onset of the research described in this thesis, an in vitro assay was available in which RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) activity ofpurified TSWV virions was observed, although it was unclear what kind of RNA synthetic activity was observed: transcription or replication.With the aim to unravel the molecular details of TSWV transcription, the in vitro assay was further developed into a well-defined transcription assay (Chapter 2). Transcription of TSWV, like that of all segmented negative strand RNA viruses, is initiated by cap snatching. In this process, a host mRNA (i.e. cap donor) is cleaved in its non-coding leader sequence by a virally encodedendonuclease,and the resulting capped leader is subsequently used to prime transcription of the viral genome. The existing in vitro system, in which only viral replication was observed, was modified by the addition ofrabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) which allowed viral transcription to take place. In this way a system was established in which the mechanism of cap snatching could be studied. Not only globin mRNAs present in the lysate, but also exogenously added capped RNA molecules were used as cap donors.The observed requirement for RRL seemed to imply a translational dependence of TSWV transcription. This possibility was further investigated in Chapter 3, using two inhibitors of protein synthesis. Surprisingly, in contrast to what has been observed for other Bunyaviruses, addition of these translation inhibitors had no effect on TSWV transcription in vitro. Moreover, no actual protein synthesis could be detected in the in vitro transcription assay, due to the assay conditions being incompatible with in vitro translation. These results indicated that TSWV transcription, unlike that of several other Bunyaviridae, is not coup led to translation.In the absence of RRL, viral replication was observed in the in vitro system (Chapter 2), although at a much lower rate than transcription. Not only RNPs (ribonucleoprotein complexes) as present in the lysed virus particles, but also purified cytoplasmic RNPs were active in RNA synthesis in the in vitro assay. However, in contrast to virion-RNPs, cytoplasmic RNPs were found to be highly active in replication (in the absence of RRL) but hardly active in transcription (in the presence of RRL). These findings imply the existence of RNPs in two different states: replication-mode and transcription-mode.As a first step towards understanding transcription termination, a rough mapping of the 3'-ends of the S RNA-encoded mRNAs was undertaken (Chapter 4). Viral mRNAs synthesised in the in vi/ra system were amplified by RT-PCR using primers for the leader sequence snatched from a-globin mRNAs in combination with a range of primers spanning the entire intergenic region (IR) of the S RNA segment. In addition, the size of the N mRNAs produced in infected plants was compared with the sizes of synthetic transcripts representing mRNAs terminated at defined positions in the intergenic region. The results indicated that transcription terminates near the 3'-end of the intergenic hairpin, yielding mRNAs that contain this hairpin structure at their 3' end, including a conserved sequence motif. These findings point toward a transcription termination mechanism reminiscent of that used by prokaryotes, where formation of a hairpin structure in the nascent transcript induces termination of transcription.Meanwhile, based on a concurrent PhD study, a model for TSWV cap snatching was proposed in which a cap donor (host mRNA leader) is required to have a single base complementarity to the viral temp late for transcription. The globin mRNAs in the RRL that are used as cap donor in the in vi/ra assay (Chapter 2) have 2 bases complementary to the viral temp late, which led to the question how far this complementarity could be extended. To investigate this, a capped transcript resembling a TSWV N mRNA, having a 15-nt stretch of complementarity, was tested and indeed found to be used as cap donor (Chapter 2), i.e. the 'viral mRNA' was re-snatched. The potential for re-snatching ofviral mRNAs occurring in vivo was investigated in Chapter 5. Competition assays using single-, double- and multiple-basepairing cap donors indicated a preference for donors with a long extent of base complementarity to the viral template. This implies that viral mRNAs would preferentially be used as cap donors, in other words re-snatching of viral mRNAs would prevail over snatching of host mRNAs. In addition, primer extension analyses on the products of a re-snatching reaction were used to examine the exact endonuclease cleavage site of re-snatching, indicating that endonuclease cleavage takes place after the first or second nucleotide complementary to the viral template. In chapter 6 the results presented in chapters 2-5 and their implications are discussed in relation to current knowledge on replication, transcription, and translation of negative and ambisense RNA viruses. The current model for the mechanism of cap snatching is fine-tuned further in view ofthe findings reported in Chapter 5.
Tomato spotted wilt virus transcriptase in vitro displays a preference for cap donors with multiple base complementary to the viral template
Knippenberg, I.C. van; Lamine, M. ; Goldbach, R.W. ; Kormelink, R.J.M. - \ 2005
Virology 335 (2005)1. - ISSN 0042-6822 - p. 122 - 130.
messenger-rna synthesis - influenza-virus - 5' ends - mosaic-virus - independent translation - heterogeneous sequences - nsm protein - s-rna - polymerase - bunyavirus
Transcription of segmented negative-strand RNA viruses is initiated by cap snatching: a host mRNA is cleaved generally at 10¿20 nt from its 5¿ capped end and the resulting capped leader used to prime viral transcription. For Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), type species of the plant-infecting Tospovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae, cap donors were previously shown to require a single base complementarity to the ultimate or penultimate viral template sequence. More recently, the occurrence in vitro of ¿re-snatching¿ of viral mRNAs, i.e., the use of viral mRNAs as cap donors, has been demonstrated for TSWV. To estimate the relative occurrence of re-snatching compared to snatching of host mRNAs, the use of cap donors with either single, double, or multiple complementarity to the viral template was analyzed in pair-wise competition in TSWV in vitro transcription assays. A strong preference was observed for multiple-basepairing donors
Tomato spotted wilt virus S-segment mRNAs have overlapping 3'-ends containing a predicted stem-loop structure and conserved sequence motif
Knippenberg, I.C. van; Goldbach, R.W. ; Kormelink, R.J.M. - \ 2005
Virus Research 110 (2005)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1702 - p. 125 - 131.
mosaic-virus - independent translation - uukuniemi virus - punta-toro - viral-rna - termini - transcription - mechanism - protein - initiation
The Tomato spotted wilt virus ambisense M- and S-RNA segments contain an A/U-rich intergenic region predicted to form a stable hairpin structure. The site of transcription termination of S-segment encoded N and NSs mRNAs synthesised in an in vitro transcription system was roughly mapped to the 3¿-end of the intergenic hairpin, i.e. position 1568¿1574 for N and position 1852¿1839 for NSs, as determined by RT-PCR cloning and size estimation on Northern blots. This suggests that these viral transcripts contain a predicted stem-loop structure at their 3¿-end. The potential involvement of the 3¿-end structure in transcription termination is discussed
In vitro transcription of Tomato spotted wilt virus is independent of translation
Knippenberg, I.C. van; Goldbach, R.W. ; Kormelink, R.J.M. - \ 2004
Journal of General Virology 85 (2004). - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1335 - 1338.
vesicular stomatitis-virus - messenger-rna-synthesis - ribosomal-subunits - invitro - requirement
Ongoing transcription in vitro of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has previously been demonstrated to require the presence of reticulocyte lysate. This dependence was further investigated by testing the occurrence of transcription in the presence of two translation inhibitors: edeine, an inhibitor that still allows scanning of nascent mRNAs by the 40S ribosomal subunit, and cycloheximide, an inhibitor that completely blocks translation including ribosome scanning. Neither of these inhibitors blocked TSWV transcription initiation or elongation in vitro, as demonstrated by de novo-synthesized viral mRNAs with globin mRNA-derived leader sequences, suggesting that TSWV transcription in vitro requires the presence of (a component within) reticulocyte lysate, rather than a viral protein resulting from translation.
|Van Wasserbombe tot vlinderende consument
Dagevos, H. ; Horlings, L.G. - \ 2004
In: Een kwestie van smaak / Knippenberg et al, L., Tilburg : Telos - ISBN 9789077572023 - p. 85 - 92.
|Molecular pathology of tomato spotted wilt virus, a plant-infecting bunyavirus
Goldbach, R.W. ; Knippenberg, I.C. van; Kormelink, R.J.M. ; Bucher, E.C. ; Prins, M.W. - \ 2003
In: EMBO Workshop Genomci Apporaches in Plant Virology, May 28-31, Keszthely, Hungary Keszthely, Hungary : - p. 42 - 42.
|Analysis of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus transcription activity in vitro
Knippenberg, I.C. van; Goldbach, R.W. ; Kormelink, R.J.M. - \ 2003
In: XII International Conference on Negative Strand Viruses Pisa : - p. 120 - 120.
|Analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus transcription in vitro
Knippenberg, I. van; Goldbach, R.W. ; Kormelink, R. - \ 2002
In: The World of Microbes : XIIth International Congress of Virology, 27 July - 1 August, 2002, Paris, France Paris : EDK Medical and Scientific Int. Publisher - p. 399 - 399.
|Genome replication and expression of tomato spotted wilt virus, a plant-infecting bunyavirus
Goldbach, R.W. ; Knippenberg, I.C. van; Duijsings, D. ; Prins, M.W. ; Kormelink, R.J.M. - \ 2002
In: XIII National Meeting of Virology, Aguas de Lindoia [S.l.] : S.n. - p. 56 - 57.
Purified tomato spotted wilt virus particles support both genome replication and transcription
Knippenberg, I. van; Goldbach, R.W. ; Kormelink, R. - \ 2002
Virology 303 (2002). - ISSN 0042-6822 - p. 278 - 286.
Purified Tomato spotted wilt virus particles were shown to support either genome replication or transcription in vitro, depending on the conditions chosen. Transcriptional activity was observed only upon addition of rabbit reticulocyte lysate, indicating a dependence on translation. Under these conditions RNA molecules of subgenomic length were synthesized that hybridized to strand-specific probes for the N and NSs genes. Cloning of these transcripts demonstrated the presence of nonviral leader sequences at their 5' ends, confirming the occurrence of genuine viral transcription initiation known as "cap snatching." Sequence analyses revealed that both - and -globin mRNA, present in the reticulocyte lysate, as well as added Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNA sequences, were utilized as cap donors. Moreover, an artificially produced N mRNA containing an AMV-derived leader was shown to be used as cap donor, indicating that resnatching of viral mRNAs takes place in vitro.
|Analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus transcription activity in vitro
Knippenberg, I.C. van; Goldbach, R.W. ; Kormelink, R. - \ 2002
In: IUBMB Symposium on Genome Replication of RNA Viruses. - Helsinki - 2002 : s.n., 2002 - p. 30 - 30.
|Eenzijdige versus tweezijdige communicatie : Het effect op de verwerking en de beoordeling van de boodschap
Meegeren, P. van; Martijn, C. - \ 1999
In: Fundamentele sociale psychologie / Rutte, C.G., van Knippenberg, D., Martijn, C., Stapel, D., - p. 187 - 195.
|Fundamentele sociale psychologie, deel 12.
Knippenberg, D. van; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Martijn, C. ; Rutte, C. - \ 1998
Tilburg : Tilburg University Press
Bactericidal effect of long chain fatty acids in anaerobic digestion.
Rinzema, A. ; Boone, M. ; Knippenberg, K. van; Lettinga, G. - \ 1994
Water Environment Research 66 (1994). - ISSN 1061-4303 - p. 40 - 49.
lozing - bewerking - verwerking - rioolslib - slib - drijfmest - disposal - handling - processing - sewage sludge - sludges - slurries
|Anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage and wastewater.
Lettinga, G. ; Man, A. de; Last, A.R.M. van der; Wiegant, W. ; Knippenberg, K. van; Frijns, J. ; Buuren, J.C.L. van - \ 1992
In: Proc. 1st Middle East Conf. Water supply and sanitation for rural areas, T. Elgohary (ed.). Cairo - p. 164 - 170.