Strain-specific probiotic properties of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli for the prevention of diarrhea caused by rotavirus in a preclinical model
Azagra-Boronat, Ignasi ; Massot-Cladera, Malén ; Knipping, Karen ; Garssen, Johan ; Amor, Kaouther Ben; Knol, Jan ; Franch, Àngels ; Castell, Margarida ; Rodríguez-Lagunas, María J. ; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J. - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)2. - ISSN 2072-6643
Diarrhea - Probiotic - Rotavirus - Suckling rats
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to test their comparative efficacy. Neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, or Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 from days 2–14 of life. On day five, animals received RV SA-11 orally. Fecal samples were collected daily, weighed, and scored for the calculation of severity and incidence of diarrhea. In addition, fecal pH and fecal viral shedding were measured. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and their blood was obtained for the quantification of RV-specific immunoglobulins. RV infection was induced in ~90% of the animals. All probiotics caused a reduction of several clinical variables of severity and incidence of diarrhea, except L. salivarius PS2. L. acidophilus NCFM, B. breve M-16V, and L. helveticus R0052 seemed to be very effective probiotic strains. In addition, all Lactobacillus strains reduced the viral elimination one day post-inoculation. No differences were detected in the specific anti-RV humoral response. The present study highlights the strain-specific effects of probiotics and identifies promising probiotics for use in ameliorating and preventing RV-induced diarrhea in children, for example by including them in infant formulas.
Plasma citrulline concentration, a marker for intestinal functionality, reflects exercise intensity in healthy young men
Kartaram, Shirley ; Mensink, Marco ; Teunis, Marc ; Schoen, Eric ; Witte, Gerrit ; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke ; Verschuren, Martie ; Mohrmann, Karin ; M'Rabet, Laura ; Knipping, Karen ; Wittink, Harriet ; Helvoort, Ardy van; Garssen, Johan ; Witkamp, Renger ; Pieters, Raymond ; Norren, Klaske van - \ 2019
Clinical Nutrition 38 (2019)5. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 2251 - 2258.
Citrulline - Exercise intensity - Glutamine - Intestinal fatty acid binding protein - Intestinal function
Background & aims: Plasma citrulline concentration is considered to be a marker for enterocyte metabolic mass and to reflect its reduction as may occur during intestinal dysfunction. Strenuous exercise can act as a stressor to induce small intestinal injury. Our previous studies suggest that this comprises the intestinal ability to produce citrulline from a glutamine-rich protein bolus. In this study we investigated the effects of different exercise intensities and hydration state on citrulline and iFABP levels following a post-exercise glutamine bolus in healthy young men. Methods: Fifteen healthy young men (20–35 yrs, VO2 max 56.9 ± 3.9 ml kg−1 min−1) performed in a randomly assigned cross-over design, a rest (protocol 1) and four cycle ergometer protocols. The volunteers cycled submaximal at different percentages of their individual pre-assessed maximum workload (Wmax): 70% Wmax in hydrated (protocol 2) and dehydrated state (protocol 3), 50% Wmax (protocol 4) and intermittent 85/55% Wmax in blocks of 2 min (protocol 5). Immediately after 1 h exercise or rest, subjects were given a glutamine bolus with added alanine as an iso-caloric internal standard (7.5 g of each amino acid). Blood samples were collected before, during and after rest or exercise, up to 24 h post onset of the experiment. Amino acids and urea were analysed as metabolic markers, creatine phosphokinase and iFABP as markers of muscle and intestinal damage, respectively. Data were analysed using a multilevel mixed linear statistical model. p values were corrected for multiple testing. Results: Citrulline levels already increased before glutamine supplementation during normal hydrated exercise, while this was not observed in the dehydrated and rest protocols. The low intensity exercise protocol (50% Wmax) showed the highest increase in citrulline levels both during exercise (43.83 μmol/L ± 2.63 (p < 0.001)) and after glutamine consumption (50.54 μmol/L ± 2.62) compared to the rest protocol (28.97 μmol/L ± 1.503 and 41.65 μmol/L ± 1.96, respectively, p < 0.05). However, following strenuous exercise at 70% Wmax in the dehydrated state, citrulline levels did not increase during exercise and less after the glutamine consumption when compared to the resting condition and hydrated protocols. In line with this, serum iFABP levels were the highest with the strenuous dehydrated protocol (1443.72 μmol/L ± 249.9, p < 0.001), followed by the high intensity exercise at 70% Wmax in the hydrated condition. Conclusions: Exercise induces an increase in plasma citrulline, irrespective of a glutamine bolus. The extent to which this occurs is dependent on exercise intensity and the hydration state of the subjects. The same holds true for both the post-exercise increase in citrulline levels following glutamine supplementation and serum iFABP levels. These data indicate that citrulline release during exercise and after an oral glutamine bolus might be dependent on the intestinal health state and therefore on intestinal functionality. Glutamine is known to play a major role in intestinal physiology and the maintenance of gut health and barrier function. Together, this suggests that in clinical practice, a glutamine bolus to increase citrulline levels after exercise might be preferable compared to supplementing citrulline itself. To our knowledge this is the first time that exercise workload-related effects on plasma citrulline are reported in relation to intestinal damage.
Embracing Complexity beyond Systems Medicine: A New Approach to Chronic Immune Disorders
Velde, Anje A. Te; Bezema, Tjitske ; Kampen, Antoine H.C. Van; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Hart, Bert A. 't; Middendorp, Henriët Van; Hack, Erik C. ; Montfrans, Joris M. Van; Belzer, Clara ; Jans-Beken, Lilian ; Pieters, Raymond H. ; Knipping, Karen ; Huber, Machteld ; Boots, Annemieke M.H. ; Garssen, Johan ; Radstake, Tim R. ; Evers, Andrea W.M. ; Prakken, Berent J. ; Joosten, Irma - \ 2016
Frontiers in Immunology 7 (2016). - ISSN 1664-3224
In order to combat chronic immune disorders (CIDs), it is an absolute necessity to understand the bigger picture, one that goes beyond insights at a one-disease, molecular, cellular, and static level. To unravel this bigger picture we advocate an integral, cross-disciplinary approach capable of embracing the complexity of the field. This paper discusses the current knowledge on common pathways in CIDs including general psychosocial and lifestyle factors associated with immune functioning. We demonstrate the lack of more in-depth psychosocial and lifestyle factors in current research cohorts and most importantly the need for an all-encompassing analysis of these factors. The second part of the paper discusses the challenges of understanding immune system dynamics and effectively integrating all key perspectives on immune functioning, including the patient’s perspective itself. This paper suggests the use of techniques from complex systems science in describing and simulating healthy or deviating behavior of the immune system in its biopsychosocial surroundings. The patient’s perspective data are suggested to be generated by using specific narrative techniques. We conclude that to gain more insight into the behavior of the whole system and to acquire new ways of combatting CIDs, we need to construct and apply new techniques in the field of computational and complexity science, to an even wider variety of dynamic data than used in today’s systems medicine.
The first thousand days – intestinal microbiology of early life: establishing a symbiosis
Wopereis, H. ; Oozeer, R. ; Knipping, K. ; Belzer, C. ; Knol, J. - \ 2014
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 25 (2014)5. - ISSN 0905-6157 - p. 428 - 438.
gradient gel-electrophoresis - infant gut microbiota - fecal microbiota - atopic-dermatitis - allergic diseases - immune-system - galacto-oligosaccharides - fructo-oligosaccharides - reduced diversity - human-milk
The development of the intestinal microbiota in the first years of life is a dynamic process significantly influenced by early-life nutrition. Pioneer bacteria colonizing the infant intestinal tract and the gradual diversification to a stable climax ecosystem plays a crucial role in establishing host–microbe interactions essential for optimal symbiosis. This colonization process and establishment of symbiosis may profoundly influence health throughout life. Recent developments in microbiologic cultivation-independent methods allow a detailed view of the key players and factors involved in this process and may further elucidate their roles in a healthy gut and immune maturation. Aberrant patterns may lead to identifying key microbial signatures involved in developing immunologic diseases into adulthood, such as asthma and atopic diseases. The central role of early-life nutrition in the developmental human microbiota, immunity, and metabolism offers promising strategies for prevention and treatment of such diseases. This review provides an overview of the development of the intestinal microbiota, its bidirectional relationship with the immune system, and its role in impacting health and disease, with emphasis on allergy, in early life.