Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Toelaatbaarheid nieuwe vormen van lijkbezorging
    Nijhuis, J.G. ; Koeman, N.S.J. ; Kompanje, E.J.O. ; Mathijssen, B.M.H.P. ; Pijl, Y.H. van der; Wisselink, H.J. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2020
    Gezondheidsraad
    Critical comparison of methods for fault diagnosis in metabolomics data
    Koeman, M. ; Engel, J. ; Jansen, J. ; Buydens, L. - \ 2019
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
    Platforms like metabolomics provide an unprecedented view on the chemical versatility in biomedical samples. Many diseases reflect themselves as perturbations in specific metabolite combinations. Multivariate analyses are essential to detect such combinations and associate them to specific diseases. For this, usually targeted discriminations of samples associated to a specific disease from non-diseased control samples are used. Such targeted data interpretation may not respect the heterogeneity of metabolic responses, both between diseases and within diseases. Here we show that multivariate methods that find any set of perturbed metabolites in a single patient, may be employed in combination with data collected with a single metabolomics technology to simultaneously investigate a large array of diseases. Several such untargeted data analysis approaches have been already proposed in other fields to find both expected and unexpected perturbations, e.g. in Statistical Process Control. We have critically compared several of these approaches for their sensitivity and their correct identification of the specifically perturbed metabolites. Also a new approach is introduced for this purpose. The newly introduced Sparse Mean approach, which we find here as most sensitive and best able to identify the specifically perturbed metabolites, turns metabolomics into an untargeted diagnostic platform. Aside from metabolomics, the proposed approach may greatly benefit fault diagnosis with untargeted analyses in many other fields, such as Industrial Process Control, food Adulteration Detection, and Intrusion Detection.
    Voorkomen en bestrijden emissies kasteelten : WP1. Waterstromen afwijkend van drainwater
    Ruijven, J. van; Koeman-Stein, N. - \ 2019
    Bleiswijk : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw (Wageningen Plant Research rapport WPR-821) - 46
    De Nederlandse glastuinbouw werkt hard aan het terugdringen van de emissie van meststoffen en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen naar oppervlaktewater. In het voorliggende rapport worden resultaten getoondvan analyses van vrijkomend water tijdens de teeltwisseling van substraatteelten, waterstromen die buitende zuiveringsplicht en emissienormen stikstof vallen. Het gaat hierbij onder andere om het reinigingswatervan de binnenzijde van het kasdek, irrigatieleidingen en teeltgoten/teelttafels. De metingen tonen aan dat de waterstromen bij lozing op het oppervlaktewater kunnen zorgen voor overschrijdingen van de normen voor oppervlaktewater. Daarom zijn best practices beschreven voor het voorkomen van emissie van deze waterstromen. De eerste stap om het water te kunnen hergebruiken is het zodanig aanpassen van het teeltsysteem of de reinigingsstrategie dat het vrijkomende water kan worden opgevangen. De tweede stap is kritisch kijken naar de gebruikte reinigings- of ontsmettingsproducten, omdat sommige producten schadekunnen geven aan het nieuwe gewas. Indien hergebruik toch niet wenselijk is, is het advies de waterstromen tezuiveren voor lozing met een BZG-goedgekeurde installatie, zodat de emissie van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen voor het grootste deel voorkomen wordt.---Dutch greenhouse horticulture is putting much effort into implementing measures to reduce emission of nutrients and plant protection products to surface water. This report shows results of analyses of cleaning waterproduced during crop interchange of substrate grown crops, water flows currently not included in legislationon nitrogen emission and obligated purification of discharge water. Water for cleaning the inside of windows,irrigation pipelines and cultivation gutters/tables is evaluated. Measurements show that discharge of these waterflows to surface water can cause exceedance of surface water quality standards. Therefore, best practices aredescribed to prevent emission of nutrients and plant protection products with these water flows. First step is to adapt the cultivation system or cleaning strategy in such a way that collection of the water is possible. This creates an option for reuse or treatment of the water. Second step is close consideration of the use of cleaningor disinfection agents, as some of these products can cause damage to the new crop. If reuse is undesirable,it is advisable to purify the water before discharge for the removal of plant protection agents, by using a BZG approved installation, as this significantly decreases the emission of plant protection products.
    Workshop teeltwisseling substraatteelt; voorkomen emissie gewasbeschermingsmiddelen
    Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Koeman, Nienke - \ 2018
    Actief koolfiltratie voor de glastuinbouw : Technologie voor behandeling van lozingswater in de glastuinbouwOnderdeel A: Ontwikkelen toepassing actief koolfiltratie, Onderdeel B: Technologie effectiever maken
    Koeman-Stein, Nienke ; Palmen, Luc ; Ruijven, Jim van - \ 2018
    Nieuwegein : KWR (KWR rapport 2018.033) - 50
    Actieve kool voor verwijdering gewasbeschermingsmiddelen : uit lozingswater van de glastuinbouw
    Ruijven, J.P.M. ; Staaij, M. van der; Eveleens-Clark, B. ; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Koeman, N. ; Palmen, L. - \ 2018
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw rapport WPR-726) - 42
    Zuivering met actief kool is in potentie een interessante techniek voor toepassing op lozingswater van de glastuinbouw. Doel van het project was het ontwikkelen en testen van een simpele en robuuste installatie op basis van poeder actief kool (PAC), die kan concurreren met alternatieve zuiveringstechnieken die reeds op de markt zijn. Een benchmark voor kosten van de installatie is berekend met een nieuw ontwikkelde rekentool (gekoppeld aan het model waterstromen), die voor situaties van individuele telers de investerings- en jaarkosten van de beschikbare zuiveringsinstallaties kan vergelijken. Deze rekentool is ook online beschikbaar gemaakt voor telers. De ontworpen installatie bestaat uit een doseerunit voor PAC, een geroerd reactorvat, een doseerunit voor vlokmiddel en nafiltratie met een doekfilter. Voor drie doseringen en drie contacttijden is voor SAE Super en Pulsorb WP235 het zuiveringsrendement bepaald. Verhogen van contacttijd en dosering verhoogt het zuiveringsrendement. Het gewenste zuiveringsrendement van 95% werd niet voor alle werkzame stoffen gehaald. Daarnaast was de toegepaste nafiltratie niet effectief genoeg en heeft nog optimalisatie nodig. Als spinoff van het project is inmiddels een installatie van WaterQ op basis van PAC en ultrafiltratie goedgekeurd voor het zuiveren van glastuinbouw lozingswater---Water purification using activated carbon is potentially an interesting technology for the removal of plant protection products from greenhouse discharge water. Goal of this project was development and testing of a simple and robust powdered activated carbon installation (PAC), that is competitive with already available technologies. A newly developed tool (connected with the ‘model waterstromen’ ) is capable of calculating a benchmark for cost of purification equipment for individual practical situations. This tool is publicly available online for growers. The developed installation consists of a PAC dosing unit, a stirred reaction tank, a dosing unit for flocculation of chemicals and filtration with a paper band filter. The purification efficacy is measured with this installation for three dosages and three contact times for SAE Super and Pulsorb WP235 PAC. Increasing the contact time and dosage increased the purification efficacy. The minimal purification efficacy of 95% was not reached for all active ingredients. In addition to that, chosen filtration needs optimisation to achieve a reasonable efficacy for application in practice. Project partner WaterQ in the meantime achieved an approval for an installation with PAC and ultrafiltration for purification of greenhouse discharge water as a spin-off from this project
    Voorkomen en bestrijden emissies kasteelten : Fase I: 2017
    Beerling, Ellen ; Blok, Chris ; Cornelissen, Emile ; Eveleens-Clark, Barbara ; Gozales, Jorge ; Harmsen, Danny ; Koeman, Nienke ; Leyh, Romain ; Os, Eric van; Palmen, Luc ; Roest, Els van der; Ruijven, Jim van; Stijger, Ineke ; Voogt, Wim - \ 2018
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport WPR 748) - 46
    In this project, solutions are developed to minimise leaching of nutrients and pesticides from greenhouses to the environment (esp. surface water), in order to comply with legislation and societal demands. In 2017 the following questions have been addressed: To prevent emission, drain solutions are reused or purified. Other water flows may deviate in compositionand possibilities for reuse or purification. The option for reuse or purification for these water flows has been investigated, and a working methodology for the end of a cultivation (e.g. cleaning) has been developed. Applications of Forward Osmosis in horticulture have been investigated. Water extracted from the discharge flow with Forward Osmosis using the concentrated nutrient solution holds prospects, but extracting irrigation water from brackish groundwater seems less feasible. In a long-term experiment, sodium (Na) standards for sweet pepper have been reinterpreted. It was shown that an increase in the Na standard up to 8-10 mmol/l causes no damage or loss in pepper production. Inaddition, it was shown that the split-root system can be used for uptake of extra Na without growth hampering. Furthermore, applying humate can prevent negative sodium effects at high sodium levels (Chinese cabbage). Finally, insight was gained into the risks associated with the use of chlorinated cleaning products in zero-discharge cultivations.
    Better interpretable models after correcting for natural variation : Residual approaches examined
    Koeman, Mike ; Engel, Jasper ; Jansen, Jeroen ; Buydens, Lutgarde - \ 2018
    Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 174 (2018). - ISSN 0169-7439 - p. 142 - 148.
    Disease diagnosis - Interpretation - Metabolomics - PCA - Residuals - Smearing
    The interpretation of estimates of model parameters in terms of biological information is often just as important as the predictions of the model itself. In this study we consider the identification of metabolites in a possibly biologically heterogeneous case group that show abnormal patterns with respect to a set of (healthy) control observations. For this purpose, we filter normal (baseline) natural variation from the data by projection of the data on a control sample model: the residual approach. This step should more easily highlight the abnormal metabolites. Interpretation is, however, hindered by a problem we named the ‘residual bias’ effect, which may lead to the identification of the wrong metabolites as ‘abnormal’. This effect is related to the smearing effect. We propose to alleviate residual bias by considering a weighted average of the filtered and raw data. This way, a compromise is found between excluding irrelevant natural variation from the data and the amount of residual bias that occurs. We show for simulated and real-world examples that this compromise may outperform inspection of the raw or filtered data. The method holds promise in numerous applications such as disease diagnoses, personalized healthcare, and industrial process control.
    Verwijderen gewasbeschermingsmiddelen met actief kool
    Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Koeman-Stein, N. ; Palmen, Luc ; Boxhoorn, H. ; Blaak, H. ; Blok, J.J. de; Gelder, B. van; Schoenmakers, M. - \ 2017
    Onderzoek Waterkringloopsluiting Tulpenbroeierij : overzicht huidige en toekomstige technieken om waterkringloopsluiting mogelijk te maken
    Os, E.A. van; Feenstra, L. ; Ruijven, J. van; Stijger, C.C.M.M. ; Koeman-Stein, N. ; Appelman, W. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1394) - 38
    tulpen - forceren van planten - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - recirculatiesystemen - drainagewater - pathogenen - pathogeen eliminatie - gewasbescherming - voedingsstoffen - fenolen - tulips - forcing - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - waste water treatment - waste water - recirculating systems - drainage water - pathogens - pathogen elimination - plant protection - nutrients - phenols
    Closing of the water cycle is required in the forcing of tulips. For growers it is important to know if and how they can eliminate pathogens at an adequate way and which equipment is most suitable to break down plant protection products from waste water. Now participating growers have various equipment for full or partly disinfection. It is recommended to start with good pre-filtration methods to eliminate pathogens which can be fully achieved with UV and ozone, while products such as hydrogen peroxide with additives or chlorite products can be used for an after-effect in the pipe work. Phenolic compounds, released by the roots, can be eliminated with oxidising methods. However efficacy has not been investigated. Purification of discharge water, before entering the waste ditch, will be obliged. New, certified, equipment will come on the market soon. Reuse of discharge water, after pre-fi ltration and disinfection, is also an option.
    Onderzoek zuiveringsinstallaties
    Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Staaij, M. van der; Os, E.A. van; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Beerendonk, Erwin ; Palmen, Luc ; Paalman, Marcel ; Koeman-Stein, Nienke - \ 2016
    Vergroten zelfvoorzienendheid watervoorziening glastuinbouw : watervraag glastuinbouw Haaglanden : deelrapport A
    Appelman, W. ; Koeman-Stein, N. ; Creusen, R. ; Paalman, M. ; Raterman, B. ; Voogt, W. - \ 2014
    Utrecht : Programmabureau Kennis voor Klimaat (Kvk rapport nummer KvK105/2013A) - 96
    glastuinbouw - watervoorziening - neerslag - zoet water - waterbehoefte - zuid-holland - westland - greenhouse horticulture - water supply - precipitation - fresh water - water requirements - zuid-holland - westland
    De watervoorziening van de glastuinbouw in Haaglanden staat onder druk door toekomstige ontwikkelingen zoals klimaatverandering (langere perioden van droogte en toename verzilting), veranderingen in het beheer van het hoofdwatersysteem en verschuivingen in de zoet-zout grens (uitvoering kierbesluit en planvorming voor een zout water Volkerak-Zoommeer) en de discussie rondom het infiltreren van brijn in de ondergrond. Dit heeft zowel betrekking op de beschikbaarheid van regenwater als ook van voldoende en geschikt oppervlaktewater.
    Eindrapport 20 juni 2014 : deelrapport B: wateraanbod glastuinbouw Haaglanden
    Koeman-Stein, N. ; Appelman, W. ; Creusen, R. ; Paalman, M. ; Raterman, B. ; Voogt, W. - \ 2014
    Utrecht : Programmabureau Kennis voor Klimaat (Kvk rapport nummer KvK105/2013B) - 48
    glastuinbouw - watervoorziening - neerslag - zoet water - watergebruik - zuid-holland - westland - greenhouse horticulture - water supply - precipitation - fresh water - water use - zuid-holland - westland
    In de regio Haaglanden is veel glastuinbouw. Op dit moment wordt hemelwater als primaire gietwaterbron gebruikt voor de substraatteelt, wat 88% van het glastuinbouw areaal in deze regio beslaat. Bedrijven zijn verplicht een hemel-waterberging te hebben van minimaal 500 m3/ha. Dit is echter niet genoeg voor de meeste bedrijven. Doordat water tijdens piekbuien onvoldoende kan worden opgevangen, en het meeste water nodig is in een periode met weinig regenval, ontstaat een watertekort. Om het huidige tekort op te lossen wordt een alternatieve bron ingezet als aanvullend gietwater. Een veelbelovende alternatieve gietwaterbron lijkt water van de afvalwaterzui-vering Harnaschpolder. Behalve het inzetten van een alternatieve waterbron, of het vergroten van de bergingscapaciteit, kan ook gezocht worden naar manieren om de watervraag te verminderen.
    A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings
    Bolhuis, D.P. ; Temme, E.H.M. ; Koeman, F. ; Noort, M.W.J. ; Kremer, S. ; Janssen, A.M. - \ 2011
    The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)12. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2249 - 2255.
    dietary-sodium - blood-pressure - taste preference - table salt - flavor - bitterness - mortality - disease - alters
    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCI and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 +/- 3 y; BMI: 22 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings
    Monitoringonderzoek proefverkweldering Noard-Fryslân Bûtendyks : Tussenrapportage 2004
    Duin, W.E. van; Esselink, P. ; Bos, D. ; Verweij, G. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra - 93
    vegetatie - bodemwater - vogels - flora - wetlands - friesland - vegetation - soil water - birds - flora - wetlands - friesland
    Gegevens betreffende: vernatting en grondwatersamenstelling, verzilting (bodemvochtigheid en saliniteit), vegetatie-ontwikkeling, ganzen en broedvogels. Gezamenlijk onderzoek van: Altenburg & Wymenga, koeman en bijkerk, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, en Alterra-Texel
    Science in society: how to improve environmental awareness
    Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2005
    In: Responsibilities of Environmental Research, Amterdam, 2005 / Koeman, J.H., Schiereck, J.D., Amsterdam : Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences - ISBN 9789069844442 - p. 91 - 93.
    Conclusions and observations with regard to the main questions of the conference
    Koeman, J.H. ; Ierland, E.C. van; Opschoor, J.B. ; Rabbinge, R. ; Straalen, N.M. van; Udo de Haes, H.A. ; Schiereck, J.D. - \ 2005
    In: Responsibilities of environmental research, Amsterdam, 17 September 2004. - Amsterdam : Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences - p. 17 - 22.
    Androgenic activity in surface water samples detected using the AR-LUX assay: indications for mixture effects
    Blankvoort, B.M.G. ; Rodenburg, R.J.T. ; Murk, A.J. ; Koeman, J.H. ; Schilt, R. ; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. - \ 2005
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 19 (2005)2. - ISSN 1382-6689 - p. 263 - 272.
    reporter gene assay - estrogenic activity - cell-line - in-vitro - mass-spectrometry - steroid-hormones - anabolic agents - risk-assessment - cancer cells - testosterone
    This paper describes the screening of 22 extracts from 18 different aquatic environmental samples for androgenic activity, including indirect and interactive effects on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signal transduction, using the AR-LUX bioassay. Four samples, originating from an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WTP) or the river Meuse, were shown to contain substantial androgenic activity. Moreover, the samples originating from the industrial WTP showed an enhancement of the maximal androgenic response relative to that elicited by the standard androgen methyltrienolone (R1881) in the AR-LUX assay. This indicates the involvement of cellular mechanisms other than receptor-ligand interaction influencing AR-regulated pathways. This also demonstrates the additional value of cell based assays featuring a more complete array of fully functional interacting pathways. Chemical analysis using GC-MS confirmed the presence of a number of androgens and also estrogens in these WTP samples. Subsequently, we showed that estrone and tributyltin hydride (TBT-H) enhance the response to androgens. This indicates that the presence of numerous compounds in addition to androgens in environmental mixtures might very well result in a more profound perturbation of the normal physiology of exposed organisms than estimated based on the androgen levels alone. Therefore, risk assessment of environmental samples should include an evaluation of the presence and the interactive effects of (ant)agonists of carefully selected relevant cellular receptors in order to provide a realistic estimate of the integrated ecotoxicological risk of the compounds present. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Developmental exposure to 4-hydroxy-2,3,3 ',4 ',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107): Long-term effects on brain development, behavior, and brain stem auditory evoked potentials in rats
    Meerts, I.A.T.M. ; Lilienthal, H. ; Hoving, S. ; Berg, J.H.J. van den; Weijers, B.M. ; Bergman, A. ; Koeman, J.H. ; Brouwer, A. - \ 2004
    Toxicological sciences 82 (2004)1. - ISSN 1096-6080 - p. 207 - 218.
    polychlorinated-biphenyls aroclor-1254 - thyroid-hormone concentrations - hydroxylated pcb metabolites - postnatal exposure - maternal exposure - hearing-loss - congeners - system - toxicity - deficits
    In the present study the developmental neurotoxic effects of the PCB metabolite 4-OH-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) were compared with effects caused by a mixture of parent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (Aroclor 1254). Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to 0.5 or 5 mg 4-OH-CB107, or 25 mg Aroclor 1254 per kg body weight from gestation days 10 to 16. Plasma thyroid hormone levels were significantly decreased in the offspring of all treatment groups at postnatal day 4 (PND 4). Behavioral experiments using an open field paradigm revealed an impaired habituation in male offspring of all treatment groups at PND 130. Passive avoidance experiments indicated significant influences on the time course of step-down latencies across trials in exposed male rats. Catalepsy induced by haloperidol showed increases in latencies to movement onset in female offspring exposed to 0.5 mg 4-OH-CB107 compared to Aroclor 1254 treated offspring at PND 168¿175. Male offspring exposed to 4-OH-CB107 or Aroclor 1254 showed decreases in latencies compared to control animals. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) measured at PND 300¿310 showed significant increases in auditory thresholds in the low frequency range between Aroclor 1254 and 4-OH-CB107 (5 mg/kg bw) treated animals. Measurements of neurotransmitter levels revealed effects of Aroclor 154 exposure on both the dopaminergic and the serotonergic systems, whereas 4-OH-CB107 exposure affected dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems, with slight but not significant effects on the serotonergic system. These results indicate that 4-OH-CB107 is able to induce long-term effects on behavior and neurodevelopment. The observed effects for 4-OH-CB107 are similar to, but in some aspects different from, the effects observed after Aroclor 1254 exposure.
    Effects of In Utero Exposure to 4-hydroxy-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) on Developmental Landmarks, Steroid Hormone Levels, and Female Estrous Cyclicity in Rats
    Meerts, I.A.T.M. ; Hoving, S. ; Berg, J.H.J. van den; Weijers, B.M. ; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Beek, E.M. van der; Bergman, A. ; Koeman, J.H. - \ 2004
    Toxicological sciences 82 (2004)1. - ISSN 1096-6080 - p. 259 - 267.
    polychlorinated-biphenyls aroclor-1254 - hydroxylated pcb metabolites - reproductive decline - mouse - hypothyroidism - dioxins - dibenzofurans - inhibition - induction - estradiol
    Previous studies have revealed that one of the major metabolites of PCBs detected in human blood, 4-OH-2,3,3',4',5-pentaCB (4-OH-CB107), accumulated in fetal liver, brain, and plasma and reduced maternal and fetal thyroid hormone levels after prenatal exposure to pregnant rats from gestational days (GD) 10¿16. In the present study, the effects of 4-OH-CB-107 on developmental landmarks, steroid hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity of rat offspring after in utero exposure to 4-OH-CB107 was investigated. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, and 5.0 mg 4-OH-CB107 per kg bw from GD 10 to GD 16. Another group of rats was exposed to Aroclor 1254 (25 mg/kg bw) to study the differences between effects caused by parent PCB congeners and the 4-OH-CB107 alone. A significant, dose-dependent prolongation of the estrous cycle was observed in 75% and 82% of female offspring exposed to 0.5 and 5.0 mg 4-OH-PCB107, respectively, compared to 64% of Aroclor 1254 (25 mg/kg) exposed offspring. The diestrous stage of the estrous cycle was prolonged, resembling a state of pseudopregnancy, which might reflect early signs of reproductive senescence. Plasma estradiol concentrations in female rat offspring were significantly increased (50%) in the proestrous stage after exposure to 5 mg 4-OH-CB107 per kg bw. No effects on estradiol levels were observed in Aroclor 1254 treated animals. These results indicate that in utero exposure to 4-OH-CB107 leads to endocrine-disrupting effects, especially in female offspring. The possible impact on neurobehavior following exposure to 4-OH-CB107 will be reported elsewhere
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