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Exercise self-efficacy is weakly related to engagement in physical activity in persons with long-standing spinal cord injury
Kooijmans, Hedwig ; Post, Marcel ; Motazedi, Ehsan ; Spijkerman, Dorien ; Bongers-Janssen, Helma ; Stam, Henk ; Bussman, Hans - \ 2019
Disability & Rehabilitation (2019). - ISSN 0963-8288
behavioural model - exercise - physical activity - self-efficacy - Spinal cord injury
Aims: Many people with a long-standing spinal cord injury have an inactive lifestyle. Although exercise self-efficacy is considered a key determinant of engaging in exercise, the relationship between exercise self-efficacy and physical activity remains unclear. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between exercise self-efficacy and the amount of physical activity in persons with long-standing spinal cord injury. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 268 individuals (aged 28–65 years) with spinal cord injury ≥ 10 years and using a wheelchair. Physical activity was measured with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities. Exercise self-efficacy was assessed with the Spinal cord injury Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to test for the association between exercise self-efficacy and physical activity, controlling for supposed confounders. Results: Univariate regression analysis revealed that exercise self-efficacy was significantly related to the level of daily physical activity (β = 0.05; 95% CI 0.04–0.07; 15% explained variance; p < 0.001). In multivariable regression analysis exercise self-efficacy remained, explaining a significant additional amount of the variance (2%; p < 0.001) of physical activity. Conclusion: Exercise-self efficacy is a weak but independent explanatory factor of the level of physical activity among persons with long-standing spinal cord injury. Longitudinal trials are needed to study the impact of interventions targeting an increase of exercise self-efficacy on the amount of physical activity performed.Implications for rehabilitation Pre-intervention levels of exercise-self-efficacy might mediate the effectiveness of interventions that aim at increasing physical activities in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury. Enhancing exercise-self efficacy may improve levels of physical activity, even in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury. When it comes to enhancing physical activity, efforts to enhance non-structured daily physical activities such as household activities and gardening might be as important as efforts to enhance sports and other physical exercise.
Influences of light and humidity on carbonyl sulfide-based estimates of photosynthesis
Kooijmans, Linda M.J. ; Sun, Wu ; Aalto, Juho ; Erkkilä, Kukka Maaria ; Maseyk, Kadmiel ; Seibt, Ulrike ; Vesala, Timo ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Chen, Huilin - \ 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)7. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 2470 - 2475.
Carbon cycle - Carbonyl sulfide - Photosynthesis - Stomatal conductance
Understanding climate controls on gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for accurate projections of the future land carbon cycle. Major uncertainties exist due to the challenge in separating GPP and respiration from observations of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) flux. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has a dominant vegetative sink, and plant COS uptake is used to infer GPP through the leaf relative uptake (LRU) ratio of COS to CO 2 fluxes. However, little is known about variations of LRU under changing environmental conditions and in different phenological stages. We present COS and CO 2 fluxes and LRU of Scots pine branches measured in a boreal forest in Finland during the spring recovery and summer. We find that the diurnal dynamics of COS uptake is mainly controlled by stomatal conductance, but the leaf internal conductance could significantly limit the COS uptake during the daytime and early in the season. LRU varies with light due to the differential light responses of COS and CO 2 uptake, and with vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the peak growing season, indicating a humidity-induced stomatal control. Our COS-based GPP estimates show that it is essential to incorporate the variability of LRU with environmental variables for accurate estimation of GPP on ecosystem, regional, and global scales.
Designing with pathways : A spatial design approach for adaptive and sustainable landscapes
Zandvoort, Mark ; Kooijmans, Nora ; Kirshen, Paul ; Brink, Adri van den - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptiveness - Climate adaptation - Decision pathways - Flood risk management - Landscape architecture - Spatial design - Uncertainty - Visualization
Despite rising attention to pathways thinking in multiple domains such as climate adaptation, energy supply planning, and flood risk management, their spatial translation is so far understudied. We set out to study how spatial design based on pathways thinking can help develop more adaptive and sustainable landscapes. Using landscape analysis, field research, and research-through-designing in a case study on climate resilience in Boston (USA), we argue for better understanding of the spatial and design consequences of pathways in general. Our results indicate that pathways can be spatially translated, demanding landscape-informed choices when sequencing different policy actions. We found that spatial designing makes the landscape consequences of pathways transparent and enables policy-makers to replace the input of policy actions with spatial interventions, select pathways according to different underlying design strategies, use the mapped pathways to initiate an iterative research-through-designing process to test and inform different designs, and spatially visualize the pathways and possible sequences of actions. We conclude that policy-makers should be cognizant about the spatial implications of pathways and offer directions to enrich applications of pathways thinking for achieving adaptive and sustainable landscapes.
Urban bird conservation : presenting stakeholder-specific arguments for the development of bird-friendly cities
Snep, Robbert P.H. ; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe ; Kwak, Robert G.M. ; Foppen, Ruud P.B. ; Parsons, Holly ; Awasthy, Monica ; Sierdsema, Henk L.K. ; Marzluff, John M. ; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban ; Laet, Jenny de - \ 2016
Urban Ecosystems 19 (2016)4. - ISSN 1083-8155 - p. 1535 - 1550.
Argument - Conservation strategy - Stakeholder - Urban biodiversity - Urban bird conservation - Urban green
Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird literature we focus upon habitat fragmentation, limited habitat availability, lack of the native vegetation and vegetation structure as the most important challenges facing bird conservation in cities. We follow with an overview of the stakeholders in cities, and identify six main groups having the greatest potential to improve bird survival in cities: i) urban planners, urban designers and (landscape) architects, ii) urban developers and engineers, iii) homeowners and tenants, iv) companies and industries, v) landscaping and gardening firms, vi) education professionals. Given that motivation to act positively for urban birds is linked to stakeholder-specific advice, we present ten statements for bird-friendly cities that are guided by an action perspective and argument for each stakeholder group. We conclude with a discussion on how the use of stakeholder-specific arguments can enhance and rapidly advance urban bird conservation action.
Surface-Layer Similarity Functions for Dissipation Rate and Structure Parameters of Temperature and Humidity Based on Eleven Field Experiments
Kooijmans, Linda ; Hartogensis, O.K. - \ 2016
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 160 (2016)3. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 501 - 527.
In the literature, no consensus can be found on the exact form of the universal funtions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for the structure parameters of temperature, CT 2, and humidity, Cq 2, and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, ε. By combining 11 datasets and applying data treatment with spectral data filtering and error-weighted curve-fitting we first derived robust MOST functions of CT 2,Cq 2 and ε that cover a large stability range for both unstable and stable conditions. Second, as all data were
gathered with the same instrumentation and were processed in the same way—in contrast to earlier studies—we were able to investigate the similarity of MOST functions across different datasets by defining MOST functions for all datasets individually. For CT 2 and ε we found no substantial differences in MOST functions for datasets over different surface types or moisture regimes. MOST functions of Cq 2 differ from that of CT 2, but we could not relate these differences to turbulence parameters often associated with non-local effects.
Furthermore, we showed that limited stability ranges and a limited number of data points are plausible reasons for variations of MOST functions in the literature. Last, we investigated the sensitivity of fluxes to the uncertainty of MOST functions.We provide an overview of the uncertainty range for MOST functions of CT 2,Cq 2 and ε, and suggest their use in determining the uncertainty in surface fluxes.
|The application of the UASB-reactor for the direct treatment of domestic wastewater under tropical conditions
Schellinkhout, A. ; Lettinga, G. ; Velsen, A.F.M. van; Louwe Kooijmans, J. ; Rodriguez Passa, G. - \ 1985
In: Proc. Seminar Anaerobic Treatment of Sewage, M.S. Switzenbaum (ed.). Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA - p. 259 - 276.
|The UASB-process for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries
Louwe Kooijmans, J. ; Lettinga, G. ; Rodriguez Passa, G. - \ 1985
Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists 39 (1985). - p. 437 - 451.