Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Life cycle analysis of horticultural products : Memo on Nitrogen and phosphorus emissions modelling
    Kool, Anton ; Blonk, Hans ; Verweij-Novikova, I. - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research 2020-041j) - 14 p.
    This memo has been prepared to address the modelling of pesticides emissions from fertilisers.
    DISAC: Precision spraying in onion fields
    Kool, Janne ; Hoog, Dirk de; Sijbrandij, Fedde - \ 2020
    Thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a mayor weed in onion cropping. Currently spraying happens in the whole field. It is desirable to go to a more selective spraying regime. This project aims to enable precision spraying using drone-images.
    Autonomous collaborative robots for agri-food processes
    Bairam, Uldanay ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Burg, Simone van der; Chauhan, A. ; Elburg, Eline van; Kool, Janne ; Lokhorst, C. ; Hemming, J. ; Mencarelli, A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Riviere, I.J. la - \ 2020
    Gold and silver dichroic nanocomposite in the quest for 3D printing the Lycurgus cup
    Kool, Lars ; Dekker, Floris ; Bunschoten, Anton ; Smales, Glen J. ; Pauw, Brian R. ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Saggiomo, Vittorio - \ 2020
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 11 (2020). - ISSN 2190-4286 - p. 16 - 23.
    3D printing - Dichroism - Lycurgus cup - Nanocomposite

    The Lycurgus cup is an ancient glass artefact that shows dichroism as it looks green when a white light is reflected on it and a red colouring appears when a white light is transmitted through it. This peculiar dichroic effect is due to silver and gold nanoparticles present in the glass. In this research we show the synthesis of dichroic silver nanoparticles and their embedding in a 3D printable nanocomposite. The addition of gold nanoparticles to the silver nanoparticle composite, gave a 3D printable nanocomposite with the same dichroism effect of the Lycurgus cup.

    Automated spider mite damage detection on tomato leaves in greenhouses
    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. ; Kool, J. ; Suh, H.K. ; Hemming, J. - \ 2020
    Acta Horticulturae 1268 (2020). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 165 - 172.
    Deep learning - Greenhouse - Machine vision - Pest detection - Spider mite

    Spider mites are one of the most challenging pests in the greenhouse, and their management is more and more challenging due to resistance to pesticides. Spider mites prefer young leaves at the outer canopy, stay at the bottom of leaves, and can crawl to nearby plants. Typical symptoms are small yellow and white spots on the upper side of the leaf due to chlorophyll depletion, leading to bronzing of the leaves. The challenge is to detect the spider mite damage in an early stage, as it is hardly possible to detect the actual spider mites underneath the leaves. Based on a structured requirement list, the following camera systems were identified as detection system candidates. Three multispectral cameras and one RGB camera were further investigated in the research. A lab study with hyperspectral imaging was performed that identified discriminating wavebands between healthy and diseased leaves. The wavebands 700, 716 and 747 nm were selected and used in the multispectral systems. Using Fisher LDA, accuracies up to 0.88 could be reached at pixel level with these multispectral cameras. However, none of the setups could meet the spatial resolution to detect spider mite damage at early stage on the leaves. Second step was to perform color image analysis. An identical accuracy of 0.88 with sufficient spatial resolution was reached. Based on these results, a high resolution RGB camera was mounted on a measurement cart. Experiments were performed in a greenhouse compartment with an ongoing spider mite damage infestation in a tomato crop. The results show the automated pipeline for spider mite damage detection in a time series of four recordings over three months, having an accuracy of 0.90. Heat maps of the infestation rate are presented to the grower and are used for input in models for integrated pest management and to support the decision on the release of beneficial insects.

    Indelingscategorieën broeikasgasemissie : Voor SMK-bedrijven met bedekte teelt
    Ruijs, Marc ; Meer, Ruud van der; Vermeulen, Peter ; Kool, Anton - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2020-01) - ISBN 9789463952552 - 45
    Wageningen Economic Research has been commissioned by Stichting Milieukeur (SMK) and financed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality to investigate different classification systems for SMK certified companies according to the size of the greenhouse gas emissions. Five classification systems have been developed, which can be used by SMK as a basis for encouraging companies to become more sustainable in the field of energy. The choice and elaboration of the classification criterion is not part of the study.
    Beheersing van bodempathogenen via bodemgezondheidsmaatregelen : Een overzicht van de beschikbare kennis voor een selectie van akkerbouwgewassen met hun bijbehorende bodemziekten
    Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Postma, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Biointeractions and Plant Health (Rapport / Wageningen Plant Research WPR-955) - 103
    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van bodemmaatregelen die ingezet kunnen worden om bodempathogenen in de Nederlandse akkerbouw te beheersen. De nadruk ligt op de gewassen aardappelen, cichorei, granen, kool- en raapzaad, peen, peulvruchten, suikerbiet en ui. Relevante kennis in de wetenschappelijke literatuur en rapporten en kennis aanwezig bij experts vanuit lopend onderzoek is voor de meest voorkomende problematische bodempathogenen, zowel aaltjes als schimmels, in kaart gebracht.
    Automatic Detection of Tulip Breaking Virus (TBV) Using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network
    Polder, Gerrit ; Westeringh, Nick Van De ; Kool, Janne ; Khan, Haris Ahmad ; Kootstra, Gert ; Nieuwenhuizen, Ard - \ 2019
    IFAC-PapersOnLine 52 (2019)30. - ISSN 2405-8963 - p. 12 - 17.
    Tulip crop production in the Netherlands suffers from severe economic losses caused by virus diseases such as the Tulip Breaking Virus (TBV). Infected plants which can spread the disease by aphids must be removed from the field as soon as possible. As the availability of human experts for visual inspection in the field is limited, there is an urgent need for a rapid, automated and objective method of screening. From 2009-2012, we developed an automatic machine-vision-based system, using classical machine-learning algorithms. In 2012, the experiment conducted a tulip field planted at production density of 100 and 125 plants per square meter, resulting in images with overlapping plants. Experiments based on multispectral images resulted in scores that approached results obtained by experienced crop experts. The method, however, needed to be tuned specifically for each of the data trails, and a NIR band was needed for background segmentation. Recent developments in artificial intelligence and specifically in the area of convolutional neural networks, allow the development of more generic solutions for the detection of TBV. In this study, a Faster R-CNN network is applied on part of the data from the 2012 experiment. The outcomes show that the results are almost the same compared to the previous method using only RGB data.
    Tomato plant spider mite damage images
    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. ; Kool, Janne ; Hemming, J. ; Bosmans, L. ; Brenard, N. ; Janssen, D. ; Sluydts, V. ; Suh, H.K. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    deep learning - disease detection - spider mite - tomato plant
    Image dataset of tomato plants in Belgian greenhouse. The tomato plants were infested with spider mites. Some of the leaves contain spider mite damage. Image locations with spider mite damage have been annotated by human expert annotations.
    Gold nanoparticles embedded in a polymer as a 3D-printable dichroic nanocomposite material
    Kool, Lars ; Bunschoten, Anton ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Saggiomo, Vittorio - \ 2019
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2190-4286 - p. 442 - 447.
    3D printing - Dichroism - Gold nanoparticles - Nanocomposite

    Background: Nanotechnology, even if unknowingly, has been used for millennia. The occurrence of shiny colors in pottery and glass made hundreds and thousand of years ago is due to the presence of nanoparticles in the fabrication of such ornaments. In the last decade, 3D printing has revolutionized fabrication and manufacturing processes, making it easier to produce, in a simple and fast way, 3D objects. Results: In this paper we show how to fabricate a 3D-printable nanocomposite composed of dichroic gold nanoparticles and a 3D-printable polymer. The minute amount of gold nanoparticles used for obtaining the dichroic effect does not influence the mechanical properties of the polymer nor its printability. Thus, the nanocomposite can be easily 3D-printed using a standard 3D printer and shows a purple color in transmission and a brownish color in reflection. Conclusion: This methodology can be used not only by artists, but also for studying the optical properties of nanoparticles or, for example, for the 3D fabrication of optical filters.

    Proefschrift over chinese kool wint coverprijs
    Sun, X. - \ 2019
    The influence of institutions on the climate change adaptive capacity of winegrowers in Utiel-Requena
    Kool, Eva ; Compés López, R. ; Werners, S.E. - \ 2018
    Revista Espanola de estudios agrosociales y pesqueros (2018)251. - ISSN 1575-1198 - p. 79 - 99.
    Climate change requires a high adaptive capacity from Utiel-Requena’s winegrowers, in which institutions play an important role. This research analyzes the influence of two specific institutions, the ‘Denominación de Origen Protegida’ and the irrigation communities, on the adaptive capacity of winegrowers in Utiel-Requena. Interviews were conducted and analyzed by using the Adaptive Capacity Framework consisting of 25 indicators. Results show that both institutions scored high on equity and clear board structures. Weaknesses are the low response to winegrowers’ needs, limited knowledge transfer, and lack of clear plans for extreme situations. Both institutions did not seem to acknowledge the importance of climate change adaptation and their role in enhancing it. Overall, the sector seems to lack engagement in terms of wine quality, technical support and stakeholder communication. The results imply that the area has little climate change awareness.
    Weg van het gif
    Lotz, Bert ; Kool, S. De; Tiktak, A. ; Messelink, G. - \ 2018
    Resultaten pilottest poeder actief kool
    Ruijven, J.P.M. van - \ 2018
    Mezensterfte door buxusmotbestrijding? : Verkennende studie van pesticidenbelasting bij jonge kool- en pimpelmezen
    Guldemond, A. ; Leendertse, P. ; Beek, Jeanne van; Hoftijser, E. ; Oers, C.H.J. - \ 2018
    Gewasbescherming 49 (2018)4/5/6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 140 - 145.
    Resultaten pilottest actief kool
    Ruijven, J.P.M. van - \ 2018
    Actieve kool voor verwijdering gewasbeschermingsmiddelen : uit lozingswater van de glastuinbouw
    Ruijven, J.P.M. ; Staaij, M. van der; Eveleens-Clark, B. ; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Koeman, N. ; Palmen, L. - \ 2018
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw rapport WPR-726) - 42
    Zuivering met actief kool is in potentie een interessante techniek voor toepassing op lozingswater van de glastuinbouw. Doel van het project was het ontwikkelen en testen van een simpele en robuuste installatie op basis van poeder actief kool (PAC), die kan concurreren met alternatieve zuiveringstechnieken die reeds op de markt zijn. Een benchmark voor kosten van de installatie is berekend met een nieuw ontwikkelde rekentool (gekoppeld aan het model waterstromen), die voor situaties van individuele telers de investerings- en jaarkosten van de beschikbare zuiveringsinstallaties kan vergelijken. Deze rekentool is ook online beschikbaar gemaakt voor telers. De ontworpen installatie bestaat uit een doseerunit voor PAC, een geroerd reactorvat, een doseerunit voor vlokmiddel en nafiltratie met een doekfilter. Voor drie doseringen en drie contacttijden is voor SAE Super en Pulsorb WP235 het zuiveringsrendement bepaald. Verhogen van contacttijd en dosering verhoogt het zuiveringsrendement. Het gewenste zuiveringsrendement van 95% werd niet voor alle werkzame stoffen gehaald. Daarnaast was de toegepaste nafiltratie niet effectief genoeg en heeft nog optimalisatie nodig. Als spinoff van het project is inmiddels een installatie van WaterQ op basis van PAC en ultrafiltratie goedgekeurd voor het zuiveren van glastuinbouw lozingswater---Water purification using activated carbon is potentially an interesting technology for the removal of plant protection products from greenhouse discharge water. Goal of this project was development and testing of a simple and robust powdered activated carbon installation (PAC), that is competitive with already available technologies. A newly developed tool (connected with the ‘model waterstromen’ ) is capable of calculating a benchmark for cost of purification equipment for individual practical situations. This tool is publicly available online for growers. The developed installation consists of a PAC dosing unit, a stirred reaction tank, a dosing unit for flocculation of chemicals and filtration with a paper band filter. The purification efficacy is measured with this installation for three dosages and three contact times for SAE Super and Pulsorb WP235 PAC. Increasing the contact time and dosage increased the purification efficacy. The minimal purification efficacy of 95% was not reached for all active ingredients. In addition to that, chosen filtration needs optimisation to achieve a reasonable efficacy for application in practice. Project partner WaterQ in the meantime achieved an approval for an installation with PAC and ultrafiltration for purification of greenhouse discharge water as a spin-off from this project
    Brassica Oleracea
    Bonnema, Guusje ; Verkerk, Ruud ; Beekwilder, Jules ; Bucher, Johan - \ 2018

    Broccoli, bloemkool, spruitjes, ze behoren tot de Brassica kool familie. Er bestaan allerlei mythes en traditionele koolfeesten rond deze groep waardevolle kolen. Zo worden al eeuwenlang koolbladeren gebruikt bij borstvoeding en staan ze bekend om hun antibacteriële eigenschappen. Maar deze kolen zijn ook befaamd vanwege hun lange geschiedenis van domesticatie. Waarom is dit gewas zo succesvol? Deze avond leren we van gerenommeerde koolnerds over de geschiedenis, DNA en muffe geur van kool.

    Verwijderen gewasbeschermingsmiddelen met actief kool
    Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Koeman-Stein, N. ; Palmen, Luc ; Boxhoorn, H. ; Blaak, H. ; Blok, J.J. de; Gelder, B. van; Schoenmakers, M. - \ 2017
    De vele gedaantes van Kool
    Bas, N. - \ 2017
    Bas N (2017). De vele gedaantes van Kool, Slowfood Convivium De Betuwe, Culemborg, 26 november 2017
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