Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Corrigendum to ‘An urban climate assessment and management tool for combined heat and air quality judgements at neighbourhood scale’
    Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Klompmaker, Jochem O. ; Groen, Ronald J.A. ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. - \ 2021
    Resources, Conservation and Recycling 166 (2021). - ISSN 0921-3449

    The authors regret that erroneously Sytse Koopmans MSc, was not listed as co-author in the original paper. Sytse Koopmans has introduced the LCZ-control in Figure 1, and performed the WRF runs presented in Fig 3. These model runs are also the basis for the analysis of Fig. 5 and the further development of the urban climate assessment and management tool. Therefore we would like to add him as co-author to this paper. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

    Twee jaar ervaring met Klimaatslim Bos- en Natuurbeheer in Nederland : Resultaten van de klimaatenveloppen Bos, Natuur en Hout 2018 en 2019
    Lerink, Bas ; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan ; Clerkx, Sandra ; Copini, Paul ; Veraart, Jeroen ; Ouden, Jan den; Sass-Klaassen, Ute ; Kistenkas, Fred ; Kruijt, Bart ; Boosten, Martijn ; Kremers, Jasperina ; Reichgelt, Anne ; Penninkhof, Joyce ; Oldenburger, Jan ; Snoep, Martijn ; Hekhuis, Harrie ; Groot, Casper de; Koopmans, Gerard ; Lindenbergh, Dennis ; Delforterie, Wouter ; Lokin, Vincent ; Gaast, Wytze van der; Vertegaal, Paul ; Enthoven, Guido ; Groot, Daan ; Brunsveld, Mark ; Groenendijk, Simone ; Rombouts, Piet ; Buiter, Marc ; Corten, Irma ; Klaassen, Rene ; Munck, Eric de; Heuvel, Paul van den; Borgman, David ; Derksen, Peter ; Korven, Ton van; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 3043) - 57
    The Dutch Climate Agreement lists an ambition for an additional CO2-sequestration of 0.4-0.8 Mton/yr in forest and nature in 2030. Experience with measures in climate smart forest and nature area management is necessary to realise this ambition. Therefore, the pilots of the Climate Envelope Forest, Nature and Wood have been carried out in 2018 and 2019. The aim of the pilots is to fill an online ‘Toolbox’, where managers, policy makers and other parties involved can find information on climate smart forest and nature area management. Furthermore, the experiences from the pilots form the basis for the sector ‘Landuse’ within the Dutch Climate Agreement, identifying and bridging existing knowledge gaps. This report describes results and experiences from the pilots of the climate envelopes and gives a future perspective.
    Bodem & Klimaat Netwerk – Akkerbouw: voortgangsrapportage april 2020
    Heesmans, Hanneke ; Specken, Johan ; Verstand, Daan ; Opheusden, Mieke van; Timmermans, Bart ; Slier, Thalisa ; Heupink, Dennis ; Westerhof, Henk ; Colombijn-van der Wende, Karola ; Janmaat, Leen ; Koopmans, Chris - \ 2020
    Bunnik : Louis Bolk Instituut - 50
    Evaluatie van maatregelen voor het vastleggen van koolstof in minerale gronden 2019-2023 : Voortgangsrapportage 2020
    Koopmans, Chris ; Timmermans, Bart ; Haan, Janjo de; Opheusden, Mieke van; Selin Noren, Isabella ; Slier, Thalisa ; Wagenaar, Jan Paul - \ 2020
    Bunnik : Louis Bolk Instituut - 50
    Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on mink farms between humans and mink and back to humans
    Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Nieuwenhuijse, David F. ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Munger, Emmanuelle ; Molenkamp, Richard ; Spek, Arco Van Der; Tolsma, Paulien ; Rietveld, Ariene ; Brouwer, Miranda ; Bouwmeester-vincken, Noortje ; Harders, Frank ; Hakze-van Der Honing, Renate ; Wegdam-blans, Marjolein C.A. ; Bouwstra, Ruth J. ; Geurts van Kessel, Corine ; Eijk, Annemiek A. Van Der; Velkers, Francisca C. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, Wim H.M. Van Der; Koopmans, Marion P.G. - \ 2020
    Science (2020). - ISSN 0036-8075
    animal welfare - animal production - animal health
    Animal experiments have shown that non-human primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits and bats can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation using whole genome sequencing of outbreaks on 16 mink farms and the humans living or working on these farms. We conclude that the virus was initially introduced from humans and has since evolved, most likely reflecting widespread circulation among mink in the beginning of the infection period several weeks prior to detection. Despite enhanced biosecurity, early warning surveillance and immediate culling of infected farms, transmission occurred between mink farms in three big transmission clusters with unknown modes of transmission. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the tested mink farm residents, employees and/or contacts had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Where whole genomes were available, these persons were infected with strains with an animal sequence signature, providing evidence of animal to human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within mink farms.
    Detection of west nile virus in a common whitethroat (curruca communis) and culex mosquitoes in the Netherlands, 2020
    Sikkema, Reina S. ; Schrama, Maarten ; Berg, Tijs Van Den; Morren, Jolien ; Munger, Emmanuelle ; Krol, Louie ; DerBeek, Jordy G. Van; Blom, Rody ; Chestakova, Irina ; Linden, Anne Van Der; Boter, Marjan ; Mastrigt, Tjomme Van; Molenkamp, Richard ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Brand, Judith M.A. Van Den; Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Koopmans, Marion P.G. ; Jeugd, Henk van der - \ 2020
    Eurosurveillance 25 (2020)40. - ISSN 1025-496X - p. 1 - 6.

    On 22 August, a common whitethroat in the Netherlands tested positive for West Nile virus lineage 2. The same bird had tested negative in spring. Subsequent testing of Culex mosquitoes collected in August and early September in the same location generated two of 44 positive mosquito pools, providing first evidence for enzootic transmission in the Netherlands. Sequences generated from the positive mosquito pools clustered with sequences that originate from Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.

    Assessing the Reactive Surface Area of Soils and the Association of Soil Organic Carbon with Natural Oxide Nanoparticles Using Ferrihydrite as Proxy
    Mendez, Juan C. ; Hiemstra, Tjisse ; Koopmans, Gerwin F. - \ 2020
    Environmental Science and Technology 54 (2020)19. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 11990 - 12000.

    Assessment of the surface reactivity of natural metal-(hydr)oxide nanoparticles is necessary for predicting ion adsorption phenomena in soils using surface complexation modeling. Here, we describe how the equilibrium concentrations of PO4, obtained with 0.5 M NaHCO3 extractions at different solution-to-soil ratios, can be interpreted with a state-of-the-art ion adsorption model for ferrihydrite to assess the reactive surface area (RSA) of agricultural top soils. Simultaneously, the method reveals the fraction of reversibly adsorbed soil PO4 (R-PO4). The applied ion-probing methodology shows that ferrihydrite is a better proxy than goethite for consistently assessing RSA and R-PO4. The R-PO4 pool agrees well with ammonium oxalate (AO)-extractable phosphorus, but only if measured as orthophosphate. The RSA varied between ∼2 and 20 m2/g soil. The corresponding specific surface area (SSA) of the natural metal-(hydr)oxide fraction is ∼350-1400 m2/g, illustrating that this property is highly variable and cannot be represented by a single value based on the AO-extractable oxide content. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content of our top soils increases linearly not only with the increase in RSA but remarkably also with the increase in mean particle size (1.5-5 nm). To explain these observations, we present a structural model for organo-mineral associations based on the coordination of SOC particles to metal-(hydr)oxide cores.

    Towards optimal use of phosphorus fertiliser
    Ros, Mart B.H. ; Koopmans, Gerwin F. ; Groenigen, Kees Jan van; Abalos, Diego ; Oenema, Oene ; Vos, Hannah M.J. ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Because phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting nutrients in agricultural systems, P fertilisation is essential to feed the world. However, declining P reserves demand far more effective use of this crucial resource. Here, we use meta-analysis to synthesize yield responses to P fertilisation in grasslands, the most common type of agricultural land, to identify under which conditions P fertilisation is most effective. Yield responses to P fertilisation were 40–100% higher in (a) tropical vs temperate regions; (b) grass/legume mixtures vs grass monocultures; and (c) soil pH of 5–6 vs other pHs. The agronomic efficiency of P fertilisation decreased for greater P application rates. Moreover, soils with low P availability reacted disproportionately strong to fertilisation. Hence, low fertiliser application rates to P-deficient soils result in stronger absolute yield benefits than high rates applied to soils with a higher P status. Overall, our results suggest that optimising P fertiliser use is key to sustainable intensification of agricultural systems.

    Spatial risk analysis for the introduction and circulation of six arboviruses in the Netherlands
    Esser, Helen Joan ; Liefting, Yorick ; Ibáñez-Justicia, Adolfo ; Jeugd, Henk van der; Turnhout, Chris A.M. Van; Stroo, Arjan ; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M. ; Koopmans, Marion P.G. ; Boer, Willem Fred de - \ 2020
    Parasites & Vectors 13 (2020). - ISSN 1756-3305
    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus - Geographic Information System - Japanese encephalitis virus - Louping-ill virus - Rift Valley fever virus - Risk mapping - Tick-borne encephalitis virus - Vector-borne diseases - West Nile virus

    Background: Arboviruses are a growing public health concern in Europe, with both endemic and exotic arboviruses expected to spread further into novel areas in the next decades. Predicting where future outbreaks will occur is a major challenge, particularly for regions where these arboviruses are not endemic. Spatial modelling of ecological risk factors for arbovirus circulation can help identify areas of potential emergence. Moreover, combining hazard maps of different arboviruses may facilitate a cost-efficient, targeted multiplex-surveillance strategy in areas where virus transmission is most likely. Here, we developed predictive hazard maps for the introduction and/or establishment of six arboviruses that were previously prioritized for the Netherlands: West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, louping-ill virus and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. Methods: Our spatial model included ecological risk factors that were identified as relevant for these arboviruses by an earlier systematic review, including abiotic conditions, vector abundance, and host availability. We used geographic information system (GIS)-based tools and geostatistical analyses to model spatially continuous datasets on these risk factors to identify regions in the Netherlands with suitable ecological conditions for arbovirus introduction and establishment. Results: The resulting hazard maps show that there is spatial clustering of areas with either a relatively low or relatively high environmental suitability for arbovirus circulation. Moreover, there was some overlap in high-hazard areas for virus introduction and/or establishment, particularly in the southern part of the country. Conclusions: The similarities in environmental suitability for some of the arboviruses provide opportunities for targeted sampling of vectors and/or sentinel hosts in these potential hotspots of emergence, thereby increasing the efficient use of limited resources for surveillance.[Figure not available: See fulltext.].

    Setting a baseline for global urban virome surveillance in sewage
    Nieuwenhuijse, David F. ; Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Phan, My V.T. ; Hendriksen, Rene S. ; Bego, Artan ; Rees, Catherine ; Neilson, Elizabeth Heather ; Coventry, Kris ; Collignon, Peter ; Allerberger, Franz ; Rahube, Teddie O. ; Oliveira, Guilherme ; Ivanov, Ivan ; Sopheak, Thet ; Vuthy, Yith ; Yost, Christopher K. ; Tabo, Djim Adjim ; Cuadros-Orellana, Sara ; Ke, Changwen ; Zheng, Huanying ; Baisheng, Li ; Jiao, Xiaoyang ; Donado-Godoy, Pilar ; Coulibaly, Kalpy Julien ; Hrenovic, Jasna ; Jergović, Matijana ; Karpíšková, Renáta ; Elsborg, Bodil ; Legesse, Mengistu ; Eguale, Tadesse ; Heikinheimo, Annamari ; Villacis, Jose Eduardo ; Sanneh, Bakary ; Malania, Lile ; Nitsche, Andreas ; Brinkmann, Annika ; Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia ; Kocsis, Bela ; Solymosi, Norbert ; Thorsteinsdottir, Thorunn R. ; Hatha, Abdulla Mohamed ; Alebouyeh, Masoud ; Morris, Dearbhaile ; O’Connor, Louise ; Cormican, Martin ; Moran-Gilad, Jacob ; Passel, Mark van; Schans, Milou G.M. van de; Zuidema, Tina ; Koopmans, Marion P.G. - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    The rapid development of megacities, and their growing connectedness across the world is becoming a distinct driver for emerging disease outbreaks. Early detection of unusual disease emergence and spread should therefore include such cities as part of risk-based surveillance. A catch-all metagenomic sequencing approach of urban sewage could potentially provide an unbiased insight into the dynamics of viral pathogens circulating in a community irrespective of access to care, a potential which already has been proven for the surveillance of poliovirus. Here, we present a detailed characterization of sewage viromes from a snapshot of 81 high density urban areas across the globe, including in-depth assessment of potential biases, as a proof of concept for catch-all viral pathogen surveillance. We show the ability to detect a wide range of viruses and geographical and seasonal differences for specific viral groups. Our findings offer a cross-sectional baseline for further research in viral surveillance from urban sewage samples and place previous studies in a global perspective.

    Eindrapportage SARS-CoV-2 bij besmette nertsenbedrijven
    Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Vreman, S. ; Honing-Hakze, R.W. van der; Harders, F.L. ; Tacken, M.G.J. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Hulst, M.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Oude Munnink, B.B. ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Smit, Lidwien ; Rooij, M. de; Stegeman, Arjan - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research - 14 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - mink - animal health - animal diseases - Coronavirus
    Modelling urban meteorology with increasing refinements for the complex morphology of a typical Chinese city (Xi'an)
    Zhang, Xi ; Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Zhou, Dian ; Ronda, Reinder J. ; Duan, Chengjiang ; Koopmans, Sytse ; Holtslag, Albert A.M. - \ 2020
    Building and Environment 182 (2020). - ISSN 0360-1323
    National urban database and access portal tool (NUDAPT) approach - Single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) - Urban canopy parameters (UCPs) - Urban heat island (UHI) - Weather research and forecasting model (WRF)

    Urban areas are vulnerable to intensive heatwave periods. In order to understand heat stress in cities, the single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) coupled with the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) have been widely used to quantify and forecast the urban climate. However, the model performance in WRF/SLUCM is limited by the coarse classification of urban canopy parameters (UCPs), and further improvements may require great effort. Therefore, this study was a new attempt at organizing the gridded UCPs in the ‘National Urban Database and Access Portal Tool (NUDAPT) approach’ and exploring its application in the WRF/SLUCM model in four simulations with contrasting UCP configurations. The model performances were evaluated for a heatwave period in 2018 in the typical Chinese city of Xi'an, using a near-surface observational network consisting of 39 meteorological stations in various urban spatial categories. We found that the increased accuracy in UCPs brought about gradual and overall improvements in the urban heat island effect (UHI) and air temperature (Ta), and had relatively slight effects on absolute humidity (ρν) and wind speed (WP). Furthermore, the station-to-station bias analyses indicated that optimization efficiency varied among urban spatial categories. Areas with an open form or areas densely covered with vegetation showed constant sensitivity to the increasing refinements of UCPs. Input of the gridded and multi-dimensional descriptions of urban canyon geometry contributed to more accurate results in dense urban areas and areas with mixed and inhomogeneous morphology.

    Clinical and Pathological Findings in SARS-CoV-2 Disease Outbreaks in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)
    Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Zwart, Rob ; Rond, Jan de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der - \ 2020
    Veterinary Pathology 57 (2020)5. - ISSN 0300-9858 - p. 653 - 657.
    COVID-19 - mink - pneumonia - respiratory disease - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - zoonoses

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, caused respiratory disease outbreaks with increased mortality in 4 mink farms in the Netherlands. The most striking postmortem finding was an acute interstitial pneumonia, which was found in nearly all examined mink that died at the peak of the outbreaks. Acute alveolar damage was a consistent histopathological finding in mink that died with pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung. Clinically, the outbreaks lasted for about 4 weeks but some animals were still polymerase chain reaction–positive for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs after clinical signs had disappeared. This is the first report of the clinical and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms.

    A standardized Physical Equivalent Temperature urban heat map at 1-m spatial resolution to facilitate climate stress tests in the Netherlands
    Koopmans, S. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2020
    Building and Environment 181 (2020). - ISSN 0360-1323
    Climate scenario - GIS - Heat map - Physiological equivalent temperature - The Netherlands - Urban climate - Urban heat island - Urban planning

    In the Netherlands, municipalities and other sub-national governments have to conduct climate stress tests to examine the societal impact of heat load by citizens. So far, these parties have been hindered by the abundance of contrasting urban heat maps produced with different metrics and methods by different agencies. To unify the stress tests, we present a methodology for a standardized urban heat map at 1-m spatial resolution by selecting the Physical Equivalent Temperature (PET) as metric for heat stress. First we present an empirical regression model for PET, based on a variety of weather data and street configurations in the human thermal energy balance model Rayman. Thereafter, this empirical PET-model is evaluated for the midsized town Wageningen (the Netherlands). Meteorological observations taken at a nearby reference site and straightforward geographical data have been used as model input. Also, established methods were applied and elaborated to account for the urban heat island effect and wind speed reduction in the city. The presented method is validated against bike traverse observations of PET. Wind speed is the most challenging feature to map, due to its unsteady and local behaviour in cities. As a result, an afternoon averaged PET heat map is demonstrated as standard for an extreme heat day (1:1000 summer half year days), and a cumulative exceedance PET heat map for a representative year. Furthermore, a heat map is projected for 2050 according a warm climate change scenario.

    SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020
    Oreshkova, Nadia ; Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Harders, Frank ; Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Gerhards, Nora ; Tolsma, Paulien ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Sikkema, Reina S. ; Tacken, Mirriam G.J. ; Rooij, Myrna M.T. de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Engelsma, Marc Y. ; Bruschke, Christianne J.M. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der; Stegeman, Arjan - \ 2020
    Eurosurveillance 25 (2020)23. - ISSN 1025-496X
    interstitial pneumonia - mink - SARS-CoV-2 - transmission

    Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.

    The invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus found in the Netherlands can experimentally transmit Zika virus and Usutu virus
    Abbo, Sandra R. ; Visser, Tessa M. ; Wang, Haidong ; Göertz, Giel P. ; Fros, Jelke J. ; Abma-henkens, Marleen H.C. ; Geertsema, Corinne ; Vogels, Chantal B.F. ; Koopmans, Marion P.G. ; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M. ; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja ; Hall, Roy A. ; Oers, Monique M. Van; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Pijlman, Gorben P. - \ 2020
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 14 (2020)4. - ISSN 1935-2727 - 22 p.
    Background - The Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus is invading Europe and was first discovered in Lelystad, the Netherlands in 2013, where it has established a permanent population. In this study, we investigated the vector competence of Ae. japonicus from the Netherlands for the emerging Zika virus (ZIKV) and zoonotic Usutu virus (USUV). ZIKV causes severe congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. USUV is closely related to West Nile virus, has recently spread throughout Europe and is causing mass mortality of birds. USUV infection in humans can result in clinical manifestations ranging from mild disease to severe neurological impairments.
    Methodology/Principal findings - In our study, field-collected Ae. japonicus females received an infectious blood meal with ZIKV or USUV by droplet feeding. After 14 days at 28°C, 3% of the ZIKV-blood fed mosquitoes and 13% of the USUV-blood fed mosquitoes showed virus-positive saliva, indicating that Ae. japonicus can transmit both viruses. To investigate the effect of the mosquito midgut barrier on virus transmission, female mosquitoes were intrathoracically injected with ZIKV or USUV. Of the injected mosquitoes, 96% (ZIKV) and 88% (USUV) showed virus-positive saliva after 14 days at 28°C. This indicates that ZIKV and USUV can efficiently replicate in Ae. japonicus but that a strong midgut barrier is normally restricting virus dissemination. Small RNA deep sequencing of orally infected mosquitoes confirmed active replication of ZIKV and USUV, as demonstrated by potent small interfering RNA responses against both viruses. Additionally, de novo small RNA assembly revealed the presence of a novel narnavirus in Ae. japonicus.
    Conclusions/Significance - Given that Ae. japonicus can experimentally transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) like ZIKV and USUV and is currently expanding its territories, we should consider this mosquito as a potential vector for arboviral diseases in Europe
    Use of iron oxide nanoparticles for immobilizing phosphorus in-situ : Increase in soil reactive surface area and effect on soluble phosphorus
    Koopmans, G.F. ; Hiemstra, T. ; Vaseur, C. ; Chardon, W.J. ; Voegelin, A. ; Groenenberg, J.E. - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 711 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Immobilization - Iron oxide sludge - Particle size - Phosphate - Siliceous ferrihydrite - Specific surface area

    Phosphorus (P) immobilization has potential for reducing diffuse P losses from legacy P soils to surface waters and for regenerating low-nutrient ecosystems with a high plant species richness. Here, P immobilization with iron oxide sludge application was investigated in a field trial on a noncalcareous sandy soil. The sludge applied is a water treatment residual produced from raw groundwater by Fe(II) oxidation. Siliceous ferrihydrite (Fh) is the major Fe oxide type in the sludge. The reactive surface area assessed with an adapted probe ion method is 211–304 m2 g−1 for the Fe oxides in the sludge, equivalent to a spherical particle diameter of ~6–8 nm. This size is much larger than the primary Fh particle size (~2 nm) observed with transmission electron microscopy. This can be attributed to aggregation initiated by silicate adsorption. The surface area of the indigenous metal oxide particles in the field trial soils is much higher (~1100 m2 g−1), pointing to the presence of ultra-small oxide particles (2.3 ± 0.4 nm). The initial soil surface area was 5.4 m2 g−1 and increased linearly with sludge application up to a maximum of 12.9 m2 g−1 when 27 g Fe oxides per kg soil was added. In case of a lower addition (~10–15 g Fe oxides per kg soil), a 10-fold reduction in the phosphate (P-PO4) concentration in 0.01 M CaCl2 soil extracts to 0.3 µM was possible. The adapted probe ion method is a valuable tool for quantifying changes in the soil surface area when amending soil with Fe oxide-containing materials. This information is important for mechanistically predicting the reduction in the P-PO4 solubility when such materials are used for immobilizing P in legacy P soils with a low P-PO4 adsorption capacity but with a high surface loading.

    Faeces as a novel material to estimate lyssavirus prevalence in bat populations
    Begeman, Lineke ; Kooi, Bart ; Weezep, E. van; De Bildt, Marco W.G. Van; Reusken, Chantal ; Lina, P.H.C. ; Koopmans, Marion P.G. ; Brand, Judith ; Kuiken, Thijs - \ 2020
    Zoonoses and Public Health 67 (2020)2. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 198 - 202.
    Rabies is caused by infection with a lyssavirus. Bat rabies is of concern for both public health and bat conservation. The current method for lyssavirus prevalence studies in bat populations is by oral swabbing, which is invasive for the bats, dangerous for handlers, time‐consuming and expensive. In many situations, such sampling is not feasible, and hence, our understanding of epidemiology of bat rabies is limited. Faeces are usually easy to collect from bat colonies without disturbing the bats and thus could be a practical and feasible material for lyssavirus prevalence studies. To further explore this idea, we performed virological analysis on faecal pellets and oral swabs of seven serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) that were positive for European bat 1 lyssavirus in the brain. We also performed immunohistochemical and virological analyses on digestive tract samples of these bats to determine potential sources of lyssavirus in the faeces. We found that lyssavirus detection by RT‐qPCR was nearly as sensitive in faecal pellets (6/7 bats positive, 86%) as in oral swabs (7/7 bats positive, 100%). The likely source of lyssavirus in the faeces was virus excreted into the oral cavity from the salivary glands (5/6 bats positive by immunohistochemistry and RT‐qPCR) or tongue (3/4 bats positive by immunohistochemistry) and swallowed with saliva. Virus could not be isolated from any of the seven faecal pellets, suggesting the lyssavirus detected in faeces is not infectious. Lyssavirus detection in the majority of faecal pellets of infected bats shows that this novel material should be further explored for lyssavirus prevalence studies in bats
    Amino acid requirements in relation to health status in growing and finishing pigs
    Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Koopmans, S.J. ; Jansman, A.J.M. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1168) - 73
    Bittergourd fruit & waste, pig trial
    Koopmans, Sietse Jan - \ 2019
    Presentation for project Green Health Solutions, Europees Fonds voor regionale ontwikkeling.
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