Influence of the metabolic state during lactation on milk production in modern sows
Costermans, N.G.J. ; Soede, N.M. ; Middelkoop, A. ; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Zak, L.J. ; Knol, E.F. ; Keijer, J. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2020
Animal (2020). - ISSN 1751-7311
feed intake - metabolism - milk fat - milk protein - pig
Selection for prolificacy in sows has resulted in higher metabolic demands during lactation. In addition, modern sows have an increased genetic merit for leanness. Consequently, sow metabolism during lactation has changed, possibly affecting milk production and litter weight gain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactational feed intake on milk production and relations between mobilization of body tissues (adipose tissue or skeletal muscle) and milk production in modern sows with a different lactational feed intake. A total of 36 primiparous sows were used, which were either full-fed (6.5 kg/day) or restricted-fed (3.25 kg/day) during the last 2 weeks of a 24-day lactation. Restricted-fed sows had a lower milk fat percentage at weaning and a lower litter weight gain and estimated milk fat and protein production in the last week of lactation. Next, several relations between sow body condition (loss) and milk production variables were identified. Sow BW, loin muscle depth and backfat depth at parturition were positively related to milk fat production in the last week of lactation. In addition, milk fat production was related to the backfat depth loss while milk protein production was related to the loin muscle depth loss during lactation. Backfat depth and loin muscle depth at parturition were positively related to lactational backfat depth loss or muscle depth loss, respectively. Together, results suggest that sows which have more available resources during lactation, either from a higher amount of body tissues at parturition or from an increased feed intake during lactation, direct more energy toward milk production to support a higher litter weight gain. In addition, results show that the type of milk nutrients that sows produce (i.e. milk fat or milk protein) is highly related to the type of body tissues that are mobilized during lactation. Interestingly, relations between sow body condition and milk production were all independent of feed level during lactation. Sow management strategies to increase milk production and litter growth in modern sows may focus on improving sow body condition at the start of lactation or increasing feed intake during lactation.
Health expenditure of employees versus self-employed individuals; a 5 year study
Herber, Gerrie Cor ; Schipper, Maarten ; Koopmanschap, Marc ; Proper, Karin ; Lucht, Fons van der; Boshuizen, Hendriek ; Polder, Johan ; Uiters, Ellen - \ 2020
Health Economics (2020). - ISSN 1057-9230
employees - follow-up - health - health care expenditure - self-employment
It is unclear to what extent self-employed choose to become self-employed. This study aimed to compare the health care expenditures—as a proxy for health—of self-employed individuals in the year before they started their business, to that of employees. Differences by sex, age, and industry were studied. In total, 5,741,457 individuals aged 25–65 years who were listed in the tax data between 2010 and 2015 with data on their health insurance claims were included. Self-employed and employees were stratified according to sex, age, household position, personal income, region, and industry for each of the years covered. Weighted linear regression was used to compare health care expenditures in the preceding (year x–1) between self-employed and employees (in year x). Compared with employees, expenditures for hospital care, pharmaceutical care and mental health care were lower among self-employed in the year before they started their business. Differences were most pronounced for men, individuals ≥40 years and those working in the industry and energy sector, construction, financial institutions, and government and care. We conclude that healthy individuals are overrepresented among the self-employed, which is more pronounced in certain subgroups. Further qualitative research is needed to investigate the reasons why these subgroups are more likely to choose to become self-employed.
|The Water Land Roads Investment Programme of the NRO : An outline to support the formulation of Phase III (2020-2024)
Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Groen, Diederik van - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (Report WCDI 20-111) - 64 p.
|Sustainable Nutrition for All - Phase II : Mid-Term Review Report
Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Bakker, Sanne - \ 2020
Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (WCDI-19-090 ) - 72 p.
This report describes the mid-term review (MTR) of Phase II of the Sustainable Nutrition for All (SN4) project implemented in Uganda and Zambia. SN4A is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and implemented by SNV in partnership with Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (WCDI).
Consequences of negative energy balance on follicular development and oocyte quality in primiparous sows
Costermans, N.G.J. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Middelkoop, Anouschka ; Roelen, B.A.J. ; Schoevers, E.J. ; Tol, H.T.A. van; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Zhao, Yu ; Blokland, Marco ; Tricht, E.F. van; Zak, L.J. ; Keijer, J. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2020
Biology of Reproduction 102 (2020)2. - ISSN 0006-3363 - p. 388 - 398.
Metabolic demands of modern hybrid sows have increased over the years, which increases the chance that sows enter a substantial negative energy balance (NEB) during lactation. This NEB can influence the development of follicles and oocytes that will give rise to the next litter. To study effects of a lactational NEB on follicular development, we used 36 primiparous sows of which 18 were subjected to feed restriction (3.25 kg/day) and 18 were full-fed (6.5 kg/day) during the last 2 weeks of a 24.1 ± 0.3 day lactation. Feed restriction resulted in a 70% larger lactational body weight loss and 76% higher longissimus dorsi depth loss, but similar amounts of backfat loss compared to the full fed sows. These changes were accompanied by lower plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and higher plasma creatinine levels in the restricted sows from the last week of lactation onward. Ovaries were collected 48 h after weaning. Restricted sows had a lower average size of the 15 largest follicles (−26%) and cumulus–oocyte complexes showed less expansion after 22 h in vitro maturation (−26%). Less zygotes of restricted sows reached the metaphase stage 24 h after in vitro fertilization and showed a higher incidence of polyspermy (+89%). This shows that feed restriction had severe consequences on oocyte developmental competence. Follicular fluid of restricted sows had lower IGF1 (−56%) and steroid levels (e.g., β-estradiol, progestins, and androgens), which indicated that follicles of restricted sows were less competent to produce steroids and growth factors needed for oocytes to obtain full developmental competence.
Delta's under pressure : Workshop report
Klapwijk, C.J. ; Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Verhagen, A. ; Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Creusen, R.J.M. ; Verburg, Charlotte ; Vosman, B. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Research
Deltas Under Pressure - New Transition Pathways towards Resilient Food
Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Verburg, Charlotte ; Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Klapwijk, C.J. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Koopmanschap, E.M.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
Wageningen University and Research and various stakeholders propose new transition pathways towards resilient food systems in Deltas Under Pressure and develop tools to support these transitions. Essential elements of the food system will be integrated and combined, connecting field, farm, regional and national levels to increase future food security
|Mid-Term Review of the NRO funded Food Security Programme : Final report on the mid-term evaluation of the LWRM, SPS, Solar Energy and School Canteen projects
Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Groen, Diederik van - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation (WCDI-19-068 ) - 48 p.
Single transitions and persistence of unemployment are associated with poor health outcomes
Herber, Gerrie Cor ; Ruijsbroek, Annemarie ; Koopmanschap, Marc ; Proper, Karin ; Lucht, Fons Van Der; Boshuizen, Hendriek ; Polder, Johan ; Uiters, Ellen - \ 2019
BMC Public Health 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1471-2458
Economic recession - Health - Health related behavior - Longitudinal study - Transitions - Unemployment
Background: Although job loss has been associated with decline in health, the effect of long term unemployment is less clear and under-researched. Furthermore, the impact of an economic recession on this relationship is unclear. We investigated the associations of single transitions and persistence of unemployment with health. We subsequently examined whether these associations are affected by the latest recession, which began in 2008. Methods: In total, 57,911 participants from the Dutch Health Interview Survey who belonged to the labour force between 2004 and 2014 were included. Based on longitudinal tax registration data, single employment transitions between time point 1 (t1) and time point 2 (t2) and persistent unemployment (i.e. number of years individuals were unemployed) between t1 and time point 5 (t5) were defined. General and mental health, smoking and obesity were assessed at respectively time point 3 (t3) and time point 6 (t6). Logistic regression models were performed and interactions with recession indicators (year, annual gross domestic product estimates and regional unemployment rates) were tested. Results: Compared with individuals who stayed employed at t1 and t2, the likelihood of poor mental health at the subsequent year was significantly higher in those who became unemployed at t2. Persistent unemployment was associated with poor mental health, especially for those who were persistently unemployed for 5 years. Similar patterns, although less pronounced for smoking, were found for general health and obesity. Indicators of the economic recession did not modify these associations. Conclusions: Single transitions into unemployment and persistent unemployment are associated with poor mental and general health, obesity, and to a lesser extend smoking. Our study suggests that re-employment might be an important strategy to improve health of unemployed individuals. The relatively extensive Dutch social security system may explain that the economic recession did not modify these associations.
Follicular development of sows at weaning in relation to estimated breeding value for within-litter variation in piglet birth weight
Costermans, N.G.J. ; Teerds, K.J. ; Keijer, J. ; Knol, E.F. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Kemp, B. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2019
Animal 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 554 - 563.
lactation - litter uniformity - metabolism - reproduction - sows
In this study we aimed to identify possible causes of within-litter variation in piglet birth weight (birth weight variation) by studying follicular development of sows at weaning in relation to their estimated breeding value (EBV) for birth weight variation. In total, 29 multiparous sows (parity 3 to 5) were selected on their EBV for birth weight variation (SD in grams; High-EBV: 15.8±1.6, N=14 and Low-EBV: −24.7±1.5, N=15). The two groups of sows had similar litter sizes (15.7 v. 16.9). Within 24 h after parturition, piglets were cross-fostered to ensure 13 suckling piglets per sow. Sows weaned 12.8±1.0 and 12.7±1.0 piglets, respectively, at days 26.1±0.2 of lactation. Blood and ovaries were collected within 2 h after weaning. The right ovary was immediately frozen to assess average follicle size and percentage healthy follicles of the 15 largest follicles. The left ovary was used to assess the percentage morphologically healthy cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of the 15 largest follicles. To assess the metabolic state of the sows, body condition and the circulating metabolic markers insulin, IGF1, non-esterified fatty acid, creatinine, leptin, urea and fibroblast growth factor 21 were analysed at weaning. No significant differences were found in any of the measured follicular or metabolic parameters between High-EBV and Low-EBV. A higher weight loss during lactation was related to a lower percentage healthy COCs (β= −0.65, P=0.02). Serum creatinine, a marker for protein breakdown, was negatively related to average follicle size (β= −0.60, P=0.05). Backfat loss during lactation was related to a higher backfat thickness at parturition and to a higher average follicle size (β=0.36, P<0.001) at weaning. In conclusion, we hypothesise that modern hybrid sows with more backfat at the start of lactation are able to mobilise more energy from backfat during lactation and could thereby spare protein reserves to support follicular development.
|Cross-compliance Magazine : EU Twinning Project Harmonization and Cross Compliance
Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Rooij, L.L. de - \ 2018
Data from: Unraveling the causes of adaptive benefits of synonymous mutations in TEM-1 β-lactamase
Zwart, M.P. ; Schenk, M.F. ; Hwang, S. ; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B. ; Lange, N. de; Pol, Lion van de; Nga, Tran T.T. ; Szendro, Ivan G. ; Krug, Joachim ; Visser, J.A.G.M. de - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research
betalactamase - TEM-1 - resistance gene - synonymous mutations - Cefotaxime - fitness landscape - epistasis - bulk competition - Escherichia coli
While synonymous mutations were long thought to be without phenotypic consequences, there is growing evidence they can affect gene expression, protein folding and ultimately the fitness of an organism. In only a few cases have the mechanisms by which synonymous mutations affect the phenotype been elucidated. We previously identified 48 mutations in TEM-1 β-lactamase that increased resistance of Escherichia coli to cefotaxime, 10 of which were synonymous. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of synonymous mutations, we made a series of measurements for a panel containing the 10 synonymous together with 10 non-synonymous mutations as a reference. Whereas messenger levels were unaffected, we found that total and functional TEM protein levels were higher for 5 out of 10 synonymous mutations. These observations suggest that some of these mutations act on translation or a downstream process. Similar effects were observed for some small-benefit non-synonymous mutations, suggesting a similar causal mechanism. For the synonymous mutations, we found that the cost of resistance scales with TEM protein levels. A resistance landscape for four synonymous mutations revealed strong epistasis: None of the combinations of mutations exceeded the resistance of the largest-effect mutation and there were synthetically neutral combinations. By considering combined effects of these mutations, we could infer that functional TEM protein level is a multi-dimensional phenotype. These results suggest that synonymous mutations may have beneficial effects by increasing the expression of an enzyme with low substrate activity, which may be realized via multiple, yet unknown, post-transcriptional mechanisms
Capacity development for wetland management
Gevers, Ingrid ; Koopmanschap, Esther M.J. ; Irvine, Kenneth ; Finlayson, C.M. ; Dam, Anne A. van - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. 1935 - 1942.
Capacity development - Experiential learning - Stakeholder participation - Wetland management - Wise use
Despite increasing awareness of the importance of wetland ecosystem services and an increase in the number of countries with policies aimed at preventing degradation and destruction of wetlands, effective protection and restoration is often constrained by the limited capacity of governmental and non-governmental organizations responsible for wetland management. This article defines capacity development in terms of the knowledge, skills and attitudes of people, and highlights the levels at which capacity development takes place: Individual, organisational and institutional. Capacity development is presented as a long-term, integrated process of collaborative and experiential learning by all stakeholders. A number of structured steps in the capacity development process is outlined: Assessment, during which gaps in capacity are identified; vision development, which describes the future goal of the capacity development effort; strategy development, which focuses on the specific interventions needed to achieve the vision; action planning and implementation; evaluation of impact, sustainability, relevance and effectiveness; and monitoring of the progress made. The article concludes with some recent examples of wetland capacity development initiatives.
Unraveling the causes of adaptive benefits of synonymous mutations in TEM-1 β-lactamase
Zwart, Mark P. ; Schenk, Martijn F. ; Hwang, Sungmin ; Koopmanschap, Bertha ; Lange, Niek de; Pol, Lion van de; Nga, Tran T.T. ; Szendro, Ivan G. ; Krug, Joachim ; Visser, J.A.G.M. de - \ 2018
Heredity 121 (2018)5. - ISSN 0018-067X - p. 406 - 421.
While synonymous mutations were long thought to be without phenotypic consequences, there is growing evidence they can affect gene expression, protein folding, and ultimately the fitness of an organism. In only a few cases have the mechanisms by which synonymous mutations affect the phenotype been elucidated. We previously identified 48 mutations in TEM-1 β-lactamase that increased resistance of Escherichia coli to cefotaxime, 10 of which were synonymous. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of these synonymous mutations, we made a series of measurements for a panel containing the 10 synonymous together with 10 non-synonymous mutations as a reference. Whereas messenger levels were unaffected, we found that total and functional TEM protein levels were higher for 5 out of 10 synonymous mutations. These observations suggest that some of these mutations act on translation or a downstream process. Similar effects were observed for some small-benefit non-synonymous mutations, suggesting a similar causal mechanism. For the synonymous mutations, we found that the cost of resistance scales with TEM protein levels. A resistance landscape for four synonymous mutations revealed strong epistasis: none of the combinations of mutations exceeded the resistance of the largest-effect mutation and there were synthetically neutral combinations. By considering combined effects of these mutations, we could infer that functional TEM protein level is a multi-dimensional phenotype. These results suggest that synonymous mutations may have beneficial effects by increasing the expression of an enzyme with low substrate activity, which may be realized via multiple, yet unknown, post-transcriptional mechanisms.
Adaptive benefits from small mutation supplies in an antibiotic resistance enzyme
Salverda, Merijn L.M. ; Koomen, Jeroen ; Koopmanschap, Bertha ; Zwart, Mark P. ; Visser, J.A.G.M. De - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)48. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 12773 - 12778.
Adaptation - Antibiotic resistance - Experimental evolution - Fitness landscape - Mutation supply
Populations with large mutation supplies adapt via the “greedy” substitution of the fittest genotype available, leading to fast and repeatable short-term responses. At longer time scales, smaller mutation supplies may in theory lead to larger improvements when distant high-fitness genotypes more readily evolve from lower-fitness intermediates. Here we test for long-term adaptive benefits from small mutation supplies using in vitro evolution of an antibiotic-degrading enzyme in the presence of a novel antibiotic. Consistent with predictions, large mutant libraries cause rapid initial adaptation via the substitution of cohorts of mutations, but show later deceleration and convergence. Smaller libraries show on average smaller initial, but also more variable, improvements, with two lines yielding alleles with exceptionally high resistance levels. These two alleles share three mutations with the large-library alleles, which are known from previous work, but also have unique mutations. Replay evolution experiments and analyses of the adaptive landscape of the enzyme suggest that the benefit resulted from a combination of avoiding mutational cohorts leading to local peaks and chance. Our results demonstrate adaptive benefits from limited mutation supplies on a rugged fitness landscape, which has implications for artificial selection protocols in biotechnology and argues for a better understanding of mutation supplies in clinical settings.
Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts
Langendijk, P. ; Bouwman, E.G. ; Chen, T. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Soede, N.M. - \ 2017
Reproduction Fertility and Development 29 (2017)7. - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 1349 - 1355.
fasting - LH - pigs - pregnancy
The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n = 11) or fully fed throughout (n = 10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11 in samples taken from blood vessels draining an ovary. Ultrasonographic measurements of the size of the corpora lutea did not show any effect of fasting either. However, fasted gilts had 10 to 30 % lower systemic progesterone from Day 12 through Day 15 after conception (P < 0.05). All gilts farrowed, but fasted gilts had fewer born piglets than fully fed gilts (8.8 ± 0.8 vs 10.9 ± 0.5 respectively; P < 0.05). In conclusion, fasting during embryo elongation can compromise embryonic survival by affecting ovarian function in the days after fasting, without having an immediate effect on LH secretion and progesterone output by the ovaries.
Drivers of Growth : A strategic plan for Human, Social and Financial Investments in Inclusive Food and Agribusiness Security in the occupied Palestinian Territories
Groen, Diederik van; Koopmanschap, E.M.J. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation - 75
This report aims to provide the Netherlands Representative Office (NRO) in the occupied Palestine Territories an innovative proposition to renew their current leading development role in enhancing Food Security in both the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The report focuses particularly on an Inclusive Food and Agribusiness Security strategy that offers systemic support to the development of (i) agri- and food business, from micro and small to industrial levels; on the basis of (ii) sustainable livelihood and business conditions in an (iii) enabling market, services and institutional environment. The authors especially highlight other levels of human, social and financial development investments.
Towards Inclusive Food and Agribusiness Security in the occupied Palestinian Territories : Specific Terms of References for the implementation of NRO’s Inclusive Food and Agribusiness Security Programme
Groen, Diederik van; Koopmanschap, E.M.J. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI 16-015) - 90
This report forms an addition to the report “Drivers of Growth” (Groen, D. van and Koopmanschap, E.M.J, 2015) by complementing it with two specific Terms of References (ToRs) for the implementation of NRO’s Inclusive Food and Agribusiness Security Programme. The ToRs are entitled: 1. Inclusive Access to and Sustainable Management of Land and Water Resources (Appendix 6) and 2. Development and Reform of Agriculture and Food Markets, Value Chains and Producers’ Organisations
|Discussion Paper : To guide future WWF work on freshwater governance
Brouwer, J.H. ; Koopmanschap, E.M.J. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation - 40 p.
Effects of a high carbohydrate diet and arginine supplementation during the rearing period of gilts on osteochondrosis prevalence at slaughter
Koning, D.B. de; Laurenssen, B.F.A. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Grevenhof, E.M. van; Weeren, P.R. van; Hazeleger, W. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2016
Livestock Science 188 (2016). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 91 - 102.
Arginine - Carbohydrate - Fat diet - Gilts - Osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis (OC) is a consequence of necrotic growth cartilage formation early in life and suggested to be associated with lameness and premature culling of sows. Higher insulin, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with increased OC in horses and are affected by carbohydrates. If dietary composition can affect OC through metabolic parameters in sows, it could be a tool in practice to reduce OC prevalence. This study examined if OC prevalence in rearing gilts can be influenced by dietary carbohydrates and/or arginine by affecting IGF-1, insulin, glucose, and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Gilts (n=212; Dutch Large White x Dutch Landrace) were acquired after weaning (4 weeks of age). At 6 weeks of age, gilts were subjected to a 2×2 factorial treatment design of dietary carbohydrate and arginine level scale fed at pen level. Carbohydrate level consisted of 12.5% cornstarch and 12.5% dextrose added to a basal diet (C+) versus an isocaloric diet in which cornstarch and dextrose were replaced with 8.9% soya bean oil (C-). Arginine supplementation consisted of 0.8% arginine supplemented to a basal diet (A+) versus 1.64% alanine as the isonitrogenous control (A-). At 24 weeks of age, blood samples of in total 34 gilts around feeding were taken and assessed for insulin, glucose, IGF-1, and NO levels. After slaughter at 25 weeks of age, OC was scored on the elbow, knee, and hock joints. Gilts in the C- treatment had higher glucose and insulin levels 90 min after feeding onwards and higher IGF-1 levels than gilts in the C+ treatment (P