Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Ecotourism and conservation under COVID-19 and beyond
    Fletcher, Robert ; Büscher, B.E. ; Koot, S.P. ; Massarella, Kate - \ 2020
    ATLAS Tourism and Leisure Review 2020 (2020)2. - ISSN 2468-6719 - p. 42 - 50.
    ‘Close the tap’: COVID-19 and the need for convivial conservation
    Fletcher, Robert ; Büscher, B.E. ; Koot, S.P. ; Massarella, Kate - \ 2020
    Journal of Australian Political Economy 85 (2020). - ISSN 0156-5826 - p. 200 - 211.
    Linking sensory and proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry analyses for the assessment of melon fruit (Cucumis melo L.) quality traits
    Bianchi, Tiago ; Guerrero, Luis ; Weesepoel, Yannick ; Argyris, Jason ; Koot, Alex ; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta ; Garcia-Mas, Jordi ; Ruth, Saskia van; Hortós, Maria - \ 2020
    European Food Research and Technology 246 (2020). - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 1439 - 1457.
    Flavor - Melon fruit - Odor - PTR–MS - Sensory analysis - Volatile organic compounds

    Sixty-seven samples of ten melon types (Cucumis melo L.) were evaluated to determine the relationship between their quality traits: sensory attributes, pH, soluble solids, and volatile organic compounds. Fruits from the cantalupensis, conomon, dudaim, inodorus, and momordica cultivar groups were analyzed. The sensory profiles were assessed using ten attributes covering odor, flavor, and taste characteristics, whereas the volatile profiles were derived by proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry. Fruits from the cantalupensis and inodorus cultivars showed an opposite pattern for several quality traits. Fruits from the dudaim cultivar were more related to the cantalupensis, whereas conomon and momordica showed an intermediate behavior between inodorus and cantalupensis. The attributes of odor and flavor intensity, ripe fruit odor, fermentative odor, and fermentative flavor correlated positively to C3–C9 esters (r = 0.43–0.73; p ≤ 0.01). Positive correlations were also observed for several alcohols (r = 0.36–0.82; p ≤ 0.05), including methanol, ethanol, and diol alcohols, as well as for several aldehydes (r = 0.43–0.85; p ≤ 0.01), such as acetaldehyde, butanal, methyl butanal, heptanal, and decanal. The attributes mentioned above were negatively correlated with two C9 aldehydes, 2,6-nonadienal and nonenal (r = − 0.45 to − 0.62; p ≤ 0.01), whereas sweetness was negatively correlated with two C6 green leaf volatiles, hexenal and 3-hexenol (r = − 0.50; − 0.67; p ≤ 0.001). The melon fruits presented distinct differences in the quality traits evaluated. These results provide information for the development of new cultivars with characteristic taste combinations without compromising other desirable fruit quality traits.

    Science for Success—A Conflict of Interest? Researcher Position and Reflexivity in Socio-Ecological Research for CBNRM in Namibia
    Koot, Stasja ; Hebinck, Paul ; Sullivan, Sian - \ 2020
    Society & Natural Resources (2020). - ISSN 0894-1920
    CBNRM - conflict of interest - critical discourse analysis - methodology - Namibia - objectivity - professionals - reflexivity - researcher position

    This paper emphasizes the importance of researcher position and reflexivity for professionals in the ecological and development sciences. We draw on critical discourse analysis (CDA) to analyze a selection of scientific papers written by Namibian Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) professionals and their relationships with public discourse regarding this conservation and development program. These papers mainly show “success” whilst disregarding “failure” of elements in the program that elsewhere are highly criticized (especially trophy hunting and ecotourism). In addition, they seem to disregard questions concerning researchers’ conflicts of interest that bear on the papers’ “objectivity.” We argue that such positions beg more transparency and epistemological accountability. In particular, we propose greater disclosure and reflexivity regarding researcher positioning as an important methodological response for illuminating when and how researchers have an interest in specific outcomes of their research, so as to enhance interpretation of the knowledge produced by such research.

    State paternalism and institutional degradation at Treesleeper Eco-camp: Community-based tourism and the loss of sovereignty among Bushmen in Namibia
    Koot, Stasja ; Ingram, Verina Jane ; Bijsterbosch, Mariska - \ 2020
    Development Southern Africa 37 (2020)3. - ISSN 0376-835X - p. 432 - 445.
    Bushmen - Community-based tourism - institutional design principles - Namibia - state paternalism

    The Namibian government promotes community-based tourism (CBT) as market-based development. At Treesleeper Eco-camp, a CBT-project among marginalised Hai//om and !Xun Bushmen (San), we investigate how Bushmen's historically developed paternalist relations shape contemporary local institutional processes. Institutional design principles, seen as prerequisites for stable and robust institutions (norms, rules and regulations), and thus successful CBT, are used to analyse local changes of the project in relation to a government grant. Ironically, after the grant, Treesleeper generated less income and the consequent ‘upgrade’ intensified conflicts. This study shows that community control, ownership and participation are key factors for successful CBT-projects, but currently the state has obstructed these, just as various other ‘superior’ actors have also done (throughout history) in relation to ‘inferior’ Bushmen. We argue that paternalist ideologies perpetuate today in the Bushmen's relation with the state, leading to weaker institutions locally through dispossession of their sovereignty.

    Popular Philanthrocapitalism? The Potential and Pitfalls of Online Empowerment in “Free” Nature 2.0 Initiatives
    Koot, Stasja ; Fletcher, Robert - \ 2020
    Environmental Communication 14 (2020)3. - ISSN 1752-4032 - p. 287 - 299.
    commodification - depoliticization - Empowerment - nature 2.0 - philanthrocapitalism - web 2.0

    This article investigates assertions that new philanthropic web 2.0 initiatives can empower Internet users to further social and environmental change. It focuses on two ostensibly “free” web 2.0 initiatives aimed at nature conservation: “Greenvolved” and “Safari Challenge Zoo Adventure.” With Greenvolved, clicking on one’s favorite projects is supposed to support conservation initiatives whereas in Safari Challenge users interact through gaming on the virtual African savannahs to conserve online nature, thereby supporting various offline humanitarian projects. Drawing on discussions of “philanthrocapitalism” and “nature 2.0,” our analysis demonstrates that such “popular philanthrocapitalist” initiatives do not support empowering collective action but instead depoliticize and commodify environmental activism. Such initiatives thereby allow neoliberal capitalism to further extend its reach under the pretense of empowering those whom it marginalizes.

    Belonging, indigeneity, land and nature in southern africa under neoliberal capitalism : An overview
    Koot, Stasja ; Hitchcock, Robert ; Gressier, Catie - \ 2019
    Journal of Southern African Studies 45 (2019)2. - ISSN 0305-7070 - p. 341 - 355.
    Autoethnography and power in a tourism researcher position: A self-reflexive exploration of unawareness, memories and paternalism among Namibian Bushmen
    Koot, S.P. - \ 2019
    In: Tourism Ethnographies: Ethics, Methods, Application and Reflexivity / Andrews, Hazel, Jimura, Takamitsu, Dixon, Laura, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9781138061767 - p. 52 - 66.
    A film review by Stasja Koot of Kasbe, J. (dir.) 'When Lambs Become Lions'
    Koot, S.P. - \ 2019
    Journal of Political Ecology: case studies in history and society 26 (2019)1. - ISSN 1073-0451
    In Groesbeek groeit de vegaburger van morgen
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
    Hoe groen is de vegaburger?
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2019
    Stikstof uit veeteelt? Deze machine lost het probleem op
    Melse, R.W. - \ 2019
    Hoe erg is het stikstofprobleem?
    Vries, W. de - \ 2019
    Giving Land (Back)? The Meaning of Land in the Indigenous Politics of the South Kalahari Bushmen Land Claim, South Africa
    Koot, Stasja ; Büscher, Bram - \ 2019
    Journal of Southern African Studies 45 (2019)2. - ISSN 0305-7070 - p. 357 - 374.
    Bushmen - dwelling perspective - indigeneity - Kgalagadi - land claim - South Africa - ≠Khomani

    In this article, we analyse the land claim of the South Kalahari Bushmen (≠Khomani) to reflect critically on the South African land restitution process in relation to their contemporary marginalised socio-economic situation. South Kalahari Bushmen were gradually displaced between the 1930s and 1970s and, after apartheid, they were reinstated as landowners in 1999. This does not mean, however, that the historical injustice of land dispossession is now solved. We argue that this can be explained by theoretically comparing a genealogical and a relational approach (based on so-called ‘building’ and ‘dwelling’ world views/ontologies, respectively) on land as different ways of looking at the claim. The genealogical model often used by advocates (non-governmental organisations [NGOs], governments, some anthropologists and donors) of ‘indigenous’ peoples’ rights generally overlooks a crucial element that becomes apparent when looking at the claim from a relational perspective, namely that the meaning of the regained land has changed; it is not the same as the environment that was taken away. Moreover, the people from whom the land was taken are not the same as those to whom it is returned. We conclude that the dominant focus on giving land ‘back’ to previously dispossessed peoples in South Africa needs to account for the ways in which different world views influence the nature of land claims and consequent developments on the land afterwards; this relates to ideal-types of world views that in practice always blend into more concrete, worldly politics, which, in this case, happens especially around ideas of ‘indigeneity’.

    Immaterial Indigenous Modernities in the Struggle against Illegal Fencing in the N≠a Jaqna Conservancy, Namibia: Genealogical Ancestry and ‘San-ness’ in a ‘Traditional Community’
    Wulp, Christa van der; Koot, Stasja - \ 2019
    Journal of Southern African Studies 45 (2019)2. - ISSN 0305-7070 - p. 375 - 392.
    Bushmen - fences - indigeneity - indigenous modernities - land conflict - Namibia - privatisation - San

    For several years, livestock farmers from different parts of Namibia have settled in the N≠a Jaqna Conservancy–an area mostly inhabited by San (Bushmen)–and have illegally erected fences to keep livestock. As a result of this encroachment, communal land in N≠a Jaqna has become de facto privatised. In response, the local San present themselves as the ‘indigenous’ inhabitants, even though many of them do not originate from the area. They have mobilised the Conservancy as their legal entity–including in a court case–despite Namibia’s lack of a legal framework for the recognition and enforcement of global indigenous rights. We analyse their strategic usage of ‘traditional community’, which is a legal term in Namibia, in this land politics. To this aim, we use the four core pillars (characteristics) of the global concept of ‘indigeneity’, namely genealogical ancestry, cultural difference (in this case ‘San-ness’), non-dominance and self-ascription, with specific emphasis on the first two. Whereas genealogical ancestry appears to be a ‘weak’ argument for the San at first glance, cultural difference (supported by non-dominance and self-ascription) has proven crucial to winning the court case. We show that the use of ‘traditional community’ enables these four pillars to play an important role in defining who has access to the land and its resources. As such, we argue, traditional community and indigeneity (even though the latter is not formally acknowledged) provide the San of the N≠a Jaqna Conservancy with ‘immaterial indigenous modernities’: modern values or ideas in society that can be used strategically by local, marginalised groups to reach political goals.

    In the way: Perpetuating land dispossession of the indigenous Hai//om and the collective action lawsuit for etosha national park and mangetti west, Namibia
    Koot, Stasja ; Hitchcock, Robert - \ 2019
    Nomadic Peoples 23 (2019)1. - ISSN 0822-7942 - p. 55 - 77.
    Etosha - Hai//om San - Indigenous peoples - Land - Namibia

    As former mobile foraging peoples, the indigenous Hai//om San of Namibia lost most of their land - including Etosha National Park and Mangetti West - to other groups and the state in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. After independence (1990), the government redistributed some of this land to various expropriated groups. In the following overview, we delve into this complex history to argue that the recent decision by the Hai//om (2015) to file a collective action lawsuit against the government of Namibia over Etosha and Mangetti West must be seen in a context of ongoing, often subtle, processes of land dispossession simultaneously taking place as a result of marginalisation and structural disempowerment.

    The Limits of Economic Benefits: Adding Social Affordances to the Analysis of Trophy Hunting of the Khwe and Ju/’hoansi in Namibian Community-Based Natural Resource Management
    Koot, Stasja - \ 2019
    Society & Natural Resources 32 (2019)4. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 417 - 433.
    Bushmen - Bwabwata National Park - CBNRM - economic benefits - Namibia - Nyae Nyae Conservancy - social affordance - trophy hunting

    In the global neoliberal ecological discourse, trophy hunting proponents often articulate the economic benefits it creates for local communities, especially through jobs and meat. Trophy hunting revenues are also crucial to support the overall operational costs of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). The aim of this paper is to show that this rather simplified dominant discourse, based only on “benefits”, sells short the local realities of the Khwe and Ju/’hoansi Bushmen (San) in the Bwabwata National Park and the Nyae Nyae Conservancy, Namibia, respectively. Building on Gibson, I use the concept of “social affordances” as an addition to economic benefits. This leads me to argue for an expansion of the debate beyond the limits of economic benefits to the human domain, to better understand the multiple experiences, perceptions, power relations and meanings (for good and ill) of local actors on trophy hunting and its main players.

    Speaking Power to “Post-Truth”: Critical Political Ecology and the New Authoritarianism
    Neimark, Benjamin ; Childs, John ; Nightingale, Andrea J. ; Cavanagh, Connor Joseph ; Sullivan, Sian ; Benjaminsen, Tor A. ; Batterbury, Simon ; Koot, Stasja ; Harcourt, Wendy - \ 2019
    Annals of the American Association of Geographers 109 (2019)2. - ISSN 2469-4452 - p. 613 - 623.

    Given a history in political ecology of challenging hegemonic “scientific” narratives concerning environmental problems, the current political moment presents a potent conundrum: how to (continue to) critically engage with narratives of environmental change while confronting the “populist” promotion of “alternative facts.” We ask how political ecologists might situate themselves vis-à-vis the presently growing power of contemporary authoritarian forms, highlighting how the latter operates through sociopolitical domains and beyond-human natures. We argue for a clear and conscious strategy of speaking power to post-truth, to enable two things. The first is to come to terms with an internal paradox of addressing those seeking to obfuscate or deny environmental degradation and social injustice, while retaining political ecology’s own historical critique of the privileged role of Western science and expert knowledge in determining dominant forms of environmental governance. This involves understanding post-truth, and its twin pillars of alternative facts and fake news, as operating politically by those regimes looking to shore up power, rather than as embodying a coherent mode of ontological reasoning regarding the nature of reality. Second, we differentiate post-truth from analyses affirming diversity in both knowledge and reality (i.e., epistemology and ontology, respectively) regarding the drivers of environmental change. This enables a critical confrontation of contemporary authoritarianism and still allows for a relevant and accessible political ecology that engages with marginalized populations likely to suffer most from the proliferation of post-truth politics. Key Words: authoritarianism, environmental policy, political ecology, post-truth, science.

    The Bushman Brand in Southern African Tourism: An Indigenous Modernity in a Neoliberal Political Economy
    Koot, S.P. - \ 2018
    Senri Ethnological Studies 99 (2018). - p. 231 - 250.
    Whiteness and nature conservation in Zimbabwe : Yuka Suzuki, The Nature of Whiteness: Race, Animals, and Nation in Zimbabwe (Seattle and London, University of Washington Press, 2017), xiv + 212 pp., hardback, US$90.00, ISBN 978-0-29599953-1; paperback, US$ 30.00, ISBN 978-0-29599954-8.
    Koot, Stasja - \ 2018
    Journal of Southern African Studies 44 (2018)4. - ISSN 0305-7070 - p. 757 - 758.
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