Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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'Bestrijding eikenprocessierups is succes'
Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2019
Promoting Social Accountability for Equitable Fisheries Within Beach Management Units in Lake Victoria (Kenya)
Etiegni, Christine ; Kooy, Michelle ; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2019
Conservation and Society 17 (2019)1. - ISSN 0972-4923 - p. 63 - 72.
accountability, co-management, decentralisation, fisheries, power, Lake Victoria, Kenya
The decentralisation of resource management through co-management assumes that the devolution of power benefits resource users. This assumption is often premised on the democratic election of leaders within resource user organisations. In this article, we investigate the validity of co-management assumptions about who benefits from a devolution of decision-making power through a case study analysis of political equity in fisherfolk organisations of Beach Management Units (BMUs) in Lake Victoria (Kenya). From the analysis of the distribution of political power, we identify how, where, and for whom greater accountability can work to address the current political inertia of fisherfolk, who form a majority of the BMU membership. We also identify the relationships between the empowerment of fisherfolk, the accountability of the BMU leaders, and the distribution of political power determining decision making in co-management. We conclude with identifying how other mechanisms of social accountability beyond elections can improve accountability of elected leaders of resource users for improved co-management outcomes.
Introduction: Exclusion and Struggles for Co-Decision : from Part III - Exclusion and Struggles for Co-Decision
Vos, J.M.C. ; Perreault, Tom ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, R., Perreault, T., Vos, J., Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 188 - 192.
Water justice is often sought in “good water governance.” Yet, what “good governance” means is not something that can be straightforwardly decided or linearly implemented: different stakeholders hold different power positions, have conflicting interests and deploy different valuation languages regarding water, land and livelihoods. Deliberative policy-making processes, including local communities’ participation in decision-making, are often presented as the tool to help craft inclusive, democratic water governance arrangements. However, here, a fundamental but commonly neglected or actively suppressed question is, “who participates in whose project”? Although water governance is about institutional configurations, regulations and policy-making and implementation, it is also about capabilities, powers and social struggle over access to resources, setting the agenda and discursively framing problems. Water justice, then, is not something that can easily be crafted through tinkering with governance arrangements, but requires struggles and continuous renegotiation as part of larger battles for justice and democracy. Water injustices often imply exclusion of vulnerable groups from access to clean water and affordable services, but also from representation in water-control decision-making. This exclusion can be based on gender, race, caste, class, ethnicity, religion, or political affiliation. Maria Rusca, Cecilia Alda-Vidal, and Michelle Kooy (Chapter 11) provide clear examples of this in their chapter on drinking water in Kampala. Joyeeta Gupta (Chapter 14) contends that privatizing irrigation water services may often exclude smallholders. Climate Justice Climate change also causes major distributive injustices. Droughts and floods tend to affect the poor more severely than the relatively rich (Adger, 2001; Ikeme, 2003; IPCC 2014; Ribot, 2010; Schneider and Lane, 2006). Skewed vulnerabilities in relation to effects of climate change lead to asymmetrical impacts (Gardiner and Hartzell-Nichols, 2012). This is even more unfair and imbalanced considering that the poor’s share in emission of greenhouse gases is much less than the gigantic emissions by the rich. A report commissioned by the World Bank (2008) estimates the impacted populations killed or left homeless per region by seven common chronic and sudden disasters that are increasingly related to climate change: droughts, extreme temperatures, floods, landslides, tidal surges and wind storms. Already millions of people are affected by floods in Southern and Eastern Asia and droughts in South America, South Asia and East Africa. Likewise, health effects of climate change affect the poor disproportionally (Costello et al., 2009)
Socio-hydrology and hydrosocial analysis: toward dialogues across disciplines
Wesselink, Anna ; Kooy, Michelle ; Warner, Jeroen - \ 2017
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 4 (2017)2. - ISSN 2049-1948
In this study, we review the ways in which water has recently been conceptualized by both natural and social scientists as either hydro-social or socio-hydrological. We do this in order to discuss whether and how they can be compatible, in order to enable dialogue across disciplines that seek to address the ecological and social challenges related to the complex human/water interactions. Through our review, we document the emergence of these specific terminologies, identify how these terms—and the conceptualizations they represent—relate to each other, and suggest what opportunities there are for building further interdisciplinary approaches to understanding water and society. Specifically, we review the recent rise in socio-hydrology amongst natural scientists/hydrologists to put this in discussion with a much longer tradition in social sciences of seeing water as both natural and social. We identify what the paradigms are in both conceptualizations in order to assess what their respective focus is, and what they omit. Our purpose is not to judge competing claims. Rather we want to assess the knowledge claims made in both paradigms: what can we learn when we employ these different approaches, what different rationales for action do they suggest, and what scope exists for collaboration. We conclude that there is scope in combining both approaches without a need to antagonistically question their respective fundamental assumptions, and playing to the strengths of each: the rich case study narratives produced by hydrosocial research can be the basis for the conceptual and quantitative modeling of socio-hydrology.
Effects of N fertilization on trichome density, leaf size and artemisinin production in artemisia annua leaves
Bilkova, I. ; Kjaer, A. ; Kooy, F. van der; Lommen, W.J.M. - \ 2016
Acta Horticulturae 1125 (2016). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 369 - 375.
Glandular trichomes - Leaf area - Malaria - Microscopy - Nitrogen - Trichomes

Artemisia annua is currently the only economically viable source of the antimalarial compound artemisinin. Synthesis of artemisinin takes place in glandular trichomes, primarily on the leaves from where artemisinin is extracted. It is not well understood why yields and concentrations of artemisinin vary across crops in relation to external conditions and agricultural practices. We therefore studied the diverse processes underlying artemisinin synthesis in A. annua crops, focussing on effects of |nitrogen fertilization on processes involved in formation of leaves and trichomes, and production of artemisinin in the individual leaves. In two field experiments, effects of nitrogen application levels (0, 75, 175, 400 kg N ha-1) on leaves from a selected position at the main stem and a primary branch were studied. Measurements during part of the life cycle of the leaves included: area and dry weight per leaf, trichome density on the abaxial (lower) leaf side, trichome size, and artemisinin concentration. Results showed that effects of N fertilization were generally small, but in line with the hypothesis that at low N levels individual leaves remain smaller but have higher trichome densities. These trends were especially clear in the branch leaves. The total |number of trichomes per leaf usually increased with increase in N application up to at least 175 kg N ha-1. Within a leaf position, effects of N application on artemisinin concentration in the leaf dry mass were similar to effects on percentage of leaf area covered by trichomes. The total quantity of artemisinin produced per (abaxial) trichome varied, but seemed to decrease linearly with increase in N level. There were no systematic linear or quadratic responses to N application in the total quantity of artemisinin per leaf. The reduction in artemisinin concentration in the leaf mass at higher N levels was therefore caused by increased dry weights per leaf.

Development for Children, or Children for Development? Examining Children's Participation in School-Led Total Sanitation Programmes
Joshi, Deepa ; Kooy, Michelle ; Ouden, Vincent van den - \ 2016
Development and Change 47 (2016)5. - ISSN 0012-155X - p. 1125 - 1145.

The Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach is said to have radically revolutionized a poorly performing sanitation sector. The claims of CLTS programmes successfully stopping practices of open defecation have only recently begun to be critically reviewed: scholars and practitioners are questioning the sustainability and scrutinizing the participatory nature of this approach. This article builds on these analyses to draw attention to the School-Led Total Sanitation (SLTS) programme which promotes the role of children as sanitation change agents to ‘trigger’ a shift of behaviour in their peers and elders in school and surrounding environments. The article reviews the active role of children in SLTS in the context of how ‘participation’ is structured in demand-led sanitation approaches, as well as in relation to children's rights to participation in developmental projects in general. Reviewing the arguments supporting SLTS in practitioner literature and drawing on observations from SLTS case studies in Ghana, the authors notice a significant contradiction in the concept of children's participation as premised in SLTS initiatives and as outlined in the child rights agenda. These findings expose inherent tensions in SLTS between children's rights, participation and the role of children as sanitation change agents. They build on existing critiques of participation as coercion within demand-led sanitation approaches that have ‘gone global’.

Effecten van militaire en civiele helikopters op vogels op het Kooijhoekschor
Smit, C.J. ; Schermer, D.S. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport C156/15) - 111
vogels - helikopters - militaire activiteiten - diergedrag - invloeden - menselijke invloed - noord-holland - birds - helicopters - military activities - animal behaviour - influences - human impact
Het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy en de civiele medegebruiker van het vliegveld, Den Helder Airport, zijn gelegen op korte afstand van de Waddenzee. Bij de nadering of bij het vertrek van het vliegveld moet, afhankelijk van de windrichting, in de helft van de gevallen op relatief geringe hoogte over de Waddenzee worden gevlogen. Het vliegveld wordt vooral gebruikt ten behoeve van helikopterverkeer. Den Helder Airport gebruikt het vliegveld vooral voor het vervoer van offshore-arbeiders van en naar olie- en gasplatforms op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. De groep Maritieme Helikopters is de belangrijkste gebruiker vanuit het Ministerie van Defensie. De 12 hier gestationeerde NH90 helikopters hebben De Kooy als thuisbasis. Ook het onderhoud aan deze helikopters vindt hier plaats. Het vliegkamp wordt vooral gebruikt voor trainingsvluchten. De effecten van de uitbreiding van civiel helikopterverkeer op vogels zijn de afgelopen jaren gemonitord. Tijdens deze onderzoeken zijn ook steeds de effecten van militair vliegverkeer meegenomen. Er is na 2006 echter vrijwel geen onderzoek uitgevoerd op de minder intensief gebruikte aan- en afvliegroute via het Kooijhoekschor. Doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven deelonderzoek was de effecten van militair vliegverkeer op deze route nauwkeuriger in kaart te brengen en te actualiseren. Primaire doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven onderzoek was het bepalen van het effect van vliegbewegingen met militaire helikopters op wad- en watervogels op de locatie Kooijhoekschor, gelegen aan de rand van het Balgzand, ten zuidoosten van het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy. Daarbij is vooral gekeken of overvliegende helikopters vogels doen opvliegen, hoe vaak dit gebeurt en beoordeeld of dit wellicht negatieve effecten voor vogels kan hebben.
Survey van watervogels in het Malzwin, 2013 - 2014
Smit, C.J. ; Meijboom, A. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C101/15) - 47
watervogels - vogels - karteringen - waddenzee - militaire gebieden - waterfowl - birds - surveys - wadden sea - military areas
Het Ministerie van Defensie streeft ernaar dat militaire activiteiten in het Waddengebied een zo gering mogelijk effect op natuurwaarden hebben. Dit geldt ook voor oefeningen met militaire helikopters in de omgeving van Marinevliegkamp De Kooy. Door het Ministerie wordt dan ook gezocht naar mogelijkheden om de noodzakelijk geachte activiteiten te concentreren in een relatief beschut gelegen gebied waar effecten op natuurwaarden zo klein mogelijk zijn. Eén van deze gebieden is een locatie in het Malzwin, ten noorden van het Balgzand. In deze rapportage wordt aan de hand van een reeks maandelijkse tellingen aangegeven welke vogelsoorten in welke aantallen in dit gebied aanwezig zijn.
Kinetic and structural analysis of two transferase domains inPasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase
Kooy, F.K. ; Beeftink, H.H. ; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Tramper, J. ; Eggink, G. ; Boeriu, C.G. - \ 2014
Journal of Molecular Catalysis. B, Enzymatic 102 (2014). - ISSN 1381-1177 - p. 138 - 145.
blood-group-b - enzymological characterization - conformational-changes - n-acetylglucosamine - crystal-structure - group-a - glycosyltransferase - polypeptide - mechanism - substrate
Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS) encompasses two transferase domains that elongatea growing hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharide chain by addition of either GlcNAc or GlcUA residues froma corresponding UDP-sugar. Initial velocity studies of single-step elongations were conducted for bothdomains by independently varying the concentrations of the HA oligosaccharide and the UDP-sugar.Two-substrate models were discriminated by their goodness-of-fit parameters and by dead-end inhi-bition studies. A mechanistic shift from a steady-state ordered bi-bi to rapid equilibrium ordered bi-bimechanism was observed at the NAc-site between the HA6and HA8elongation. This shift was invokedby a minor reduction in turnover number kcat. Both NAc- and UA-transferase domains follow a sequentialkinetic mechanism, most likely an ordered one in which the UDP-sugar donor binds first, followed bythe HA oligosaccharide. After transfer of the sugar moiety, both products are released, first the elongatedHA oligosaccharide and then the UDP sugar. This mechanism was visualized with a structural model ofPmHAS that presented two flexible loops, one in each transferase domain; these loops form a bridgeabove the active site.
Production methods for hyaluronan
Boeriu, C.G. ; Springer, J. ; Kooy, F.K. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Eggink, G. - \ 2013
International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry 2013 (2013). - ISSN 1687-9341 - 14 p.
Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide with multiple functions in the human body being involved in creating flexible and protective layers in tissues and in many signalling pathways during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Hyaluronan is an important component of active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of, for example, arthritis and osteoarthritis, and its commercial value far exceeds that of other microbial extracellular polysaccharides. Traditionally hyaluronan is extracted from animal waste which is a well-established process now. However, biotechnological synthesis of biopolymers provides a wealth of new possibilities. Therefore, genetic/metabolic engineering has been applied in the area of tailor-made hyaluronan synthesis. Another approach is the controlled artificial (in vitro) synthesis of hyaluronan by enzymes. Advantage of using microbial and enzymatic synthesis for hyaluronan production is the simpler downstream processing and a reduced risk of viral contamination. In this paper an overview of the different methods used to produce hyaluronan is presented. Emphasis is on the advancements made in the field of the synthesis of bioengineered hyaluronan.
Structural and functional evidence for two separate oligosaccharide binding sites of Pasteurellamultocida hyaluronan synthase
Kooy, F.K. ; Beeftink, H.H. ; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Tramper, J. ; Eggink, G. ; Boeriu, C.G. - \ 2013
Advances in Enzyme Research 1 (2013)4. - ISSN 2328-4846 - p. 97 - 111.
Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS) is a bi-functional glycosyltransferase, containing a ß1,3-glucuronyltransferase and ß1,4-N-acetylglucosaminetransferase domain. PmHAS catalyzes the elongation of hyaluronan (HA) through the sequential addition of single monosaccharides to the non-reducing end of the hyaluronan chain. Research is focused on the relation between the length of the HA oligo- saccharide and the single-step elongation ki- netics from HA4 up to HA9. It was found that the turnover number kcat increased with length to maximum values of 11 and 14 s-1 for NAc- and UA-transfer, respectively. Interestingly, the spe- cificity constant kcat/KM increased with polymer length from HA5 to HA7 to a value of 44 mM-1·s-1, indicating an oligosaccharide binding site with increasing specificity towards a heptasaccha- ride at the UA domain. The value of kcat/KM re- mained moderately constant around 8 mM-1·s-1 for HA4, HA6, and HA8, indicating a binding site with significantly lower binding specificity at the NAc domain than at the UA domain. These find- ings are further corroborated by a structural homology model of PmHAS, revealing two dis- tinct sites for binding of oligosaccharides of different sizes, one in each transferase domain. Structural alignment studies between PmHAS and glycosyltransferases of the GT-A fold showed significant similarity in the binding of the UDP-sugars and the orientation of the ac- ceptor substrate. These similarities in substrate orientation in the active site and in essential amino acid residues involved in substrate bind- ing were utilized to localize the two HA oligo- saccharide binding sites.
Monitoring van effecten van vliegbewegingen bij Den Helder Airport in 2011. Met aanvullende waarnemingen in een vergelijkbare situatie op Borkum
Smit, C.J. - \ 2012
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C109/12) - 41
vogels - helikopters - luchttransport - milieueffect - natura 2000 - waddenzee - noord-holland - birds - helicopters - air transport - environmental impact - wadden sea
Naar aanleiding van verzoeken tot uitbreiding van het aantal vliegbewegingen met civiele helikopters van en naar Den Helder Airport is in 2003 en 2004 onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de mogelijke effecten van deze vliegbewegingen. Dit onderzoek was nodig omdat een deel van de vliegbewegingen, bij de nadering of bij het vertrek van vliegveld De Kooy, op vrij geringe hoogte wordt uitgevoerd boven het Natura 2000 gebied Waddenzee. De uitgevoerde waarnemingen in 2011 concentreerden zich op de omgeving van het Kuitje, het deel van het Balgzand waar de meeste vliegbewegingen plaatsvinden en waar ook het vaakst effecten van vliegbewegingen zijn waargenomen.
Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides
Kooy, F.K. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Eggink; Hans Tramper, co-promotor(en): Carmen Boeriu. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856481 - 174
hyaluronzuur - derivaten - oligosacchariden - polysacchariden - industriële microbiologie - industriële enzymen - hyaluronic acid - derivatives - oligosaccharides - polysaccharides - industrial microbiology - industrial enzymes
Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of hyaluronan, there are multiple applications already in use or in development, such as supplementation of fluid in eyes and joints, cosmetic tissue augmentation, enhancing wound healing, tissue engineering, cancer treatment, controlled drug release and targeted drug delivery. State-of-the-art hyaluronan production techniques include bacterial fermentation to produce long hyaluronan polymers with a small chain length distribution and in vitro enzymatic systems to produce hyaluronan oligosaccharides of one chain length. Both production strategies make use of hyaluronan synthase (HAS), an enzyme that elongates UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) into hyaluronan.

The main question in hyaluronan production today is how the chain length of the products can be controlled. Since most production processes use hyaluronan synthases, the aim of this thesis was to elucidate the polymerization mechanism of Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS) from a biochemical point of view. In addition, the acquired knowledge is used for improving the control on hyaluronan chain length in polymerization reactions using PmHAS. Valuable information important for production processes on the intrinsic properties of the enzyme, such as substrate affinity, can be obtained by kinetic studies using single-step elongations. Kinetic studies also provide insights on how polymerization is achieved and, combined with structural studies, the identification of amino acid residues that are important for polymerization. This knowledge can be used for improving the hyaluronan synthesis performance of the enzyme.

Kinetic studies require purified substrates in quantities of mg-scale. Hyaluronan (HA) oligosaccharides were obtained through stepwise hyaluronan cleavage using hyaluronidase and consecutive separation of the reaction mixture by flash-chromatography (Chapter 2). The enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized by experimental design studies with pH, enzyme concentration and reaction time as parameters. Empirical models were developed for the yield of each individual target HA oligosaccharide using the results from a central composite design. Selective production of short HA oligomers (HA ≤ 10) or longer oligosaccharides (HA > 10) was made possible through implementation of the reaction conditions indicated by the empirical models. Separated HA oligomers were characterized by a combination of anion exchange chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with time-off-flight analysis. Using these techniques, the desired quantities of purified target HA oligosaccharides (n = 4, 6, 8 and 10) were obtained and used in further studies.

Besides the single-step elongations assessed in kinetic studies, full polymerization studies with both UDP-sugars available were used to investigate the influence of substrate concentrations on the chain length distribution of the hyaluronan products. In order to quantify all oligosaccharides formed during PmHAS polymerization in μl-scale reactions, HA templates consisting of a fluorophore-labeled HA tetrasaccharide (HA4) were generated (Chapter 3). A fast, simple and sensitive assay was developed based on fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) that was used for quantification and characterization of PmHAS polymerization products.

The individual β1,3-glucuronyl-transferase (UA-transferase) and β1,4-N-acetylglucosamine-transferase (NAc-transferase) activities of PmHAS were investigated separately using kinetic studies, where the reaction of an HA oligosaccharide was followed with, respectively, UDP-GlcUA or UDP-GlcNAc in single-step elongations. In Chapter 4, the influence of HA oligosaccharide length (n = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) on the polymerization reaction was investigated by one-substrate kinetics, varying only the HA oligosaccharide concentration at saturating UDP-sugar concentration. These reactions followed Michaelis Menten kinetics, although HA oligosaccharides may become inhibiting at elevated concentrations above 6 mM. The observed kcat values increased with increasing HA oligosaccharide length to a constant value at HA6 and HA7. The specificity constant kcat/Km values for HA oligosaccharides in the UA-transferase domain increased at increasing oligosaccharide length, whereas in the NAc-transferase domain kcat/Km values were constant at a low value. This indicates that there are two separate oligosaccharide binding sites of different lengths, one in each transferase domain of PmHAS. In Chapter 4, it was demonstrated that the chain-lenght distribution in PmHAS polymerization reactions can be decreased, and thus improved, by using saturating concentrations of both HA oligosaccharides and UDP-sugars.

Chapter 5 describes two-substrate kinetic studies, where in single-step elongations both HA oligosaccharide and one of the UDP-sugars were varied, to investigate the polymerization mechanism of each individual transferase domain in PmHAS. Dead-end inhibition studies and goodness-of-fit parameters were used to distinguish between two-substrate models. From this analysis follows that both transferase domains elongate the UDP-sugar through a sequential mechanism, which is most likely an ordered one. In this proposed mechanism, the UDP-sugar is first bound followed by binding of the HA oligosaccharide, after which first the elongated HA oligosaccharide and then UDP is released. Large differences between Km values for UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcUA, also found in Class I HAS enzymes, suggest that UDP-GlcNAc concentration is involved in the regulation of HAS activity and thus the chain length of hyaluronan products.

Structural studies were used to evaluate the results obtained with kinetic studies. In Chapter 4, a structural homology model of PmHAS was built based on crystal structure K4CP chondroitin polymerase in E. coli, which has a high sequence identity of 62% and high sequence homology of 78% with PmHAS. The active sites of PmHAS are structurally related to other glycosyltransferases and this provided information on where the oligosaccharide binding sites could be located. These putative oligosaccharide binding sites differ in size, as was predicted by kinetic studies (Chapter 4). Furthermore, structural similarities between PmHAS, α1,3-galactosyltransferase (α3GT) and β1,4-galactosyltransferase (β4Gal-T1) demonstrated that PmHAS contains in each transferase domain one flexible loop that forms a bridge over the active site. In crystal structures of α3GT and β4Gal-T1, these flexible loops have been shown to change conformation upon binding the UDP-sugar. Based on similarities in kinetic mechanisms and structures between PmHAS, α3GT and β4Gal-T1, it is likely that the flexible loops in PmHAS follow a similar conformational change, which makes the proposed ordered mechanism the only possible mechanism (Chapter 5).

In Chapter 6, the knowledge on the PmHAS polymerization mechanism gained in earlier chapters is reviewed and used to create new insights in the polymerization mechanism of Class I HAS enzymes. Both Class I HASs and PmHAS are used in hyaluronan production, and, therefore, the differences and similarities are discussed in Chapter 6. During hyaluronan production, there are many different aspects, such as intrinsic properties of the enzyme, cell metabolism and fermentation reaction conditions, that influence hyaluronan chain length and yield (Chapter 6). Moreover, hyaluronan production systems that are able to produce hyaluronan of desired length are discussed in Chapter 6 and a personal view of how these systems can be improved is presented.
In vitro synthesis of heparosan using recombinant Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2
Chavaroche, A.A.E. ; Springer, J. ; Kooy, F.K. ; Boeriu, C.G. ; Eggink, G. - \ 2010
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 85 (2010)6. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 1881 - 1891.
molecular-weight heparins - hyaluronan synthase - chemoenzymatic synthesis - capsular polysaccharide - identification - streptococcus - biosynthesis - acid - glycosyltransferases - polymers
In vertebrates and bacteria, heparosan the precursor of heparin is synthesized by glycosyltransferases via the stepwise addition of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and UDP-glucuronic acid. As heparin-like molecules represent a great interest in the pharmaceutical area, the cryptic Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase PmHS2 found to catalyze heparosan synthesis using substrate analogs has been studied. In this paper, we report an efficient way to purify PmHS2 and to maintain its activity stable during 6 months storage at -80¿°C using His-tag purification and a desalting step. In the presence of 1 mM of each nucleotide sugar, purified PmHS2 synthesized polymers up to an average molecular weight of 130 kDa. With 5 mM of UDP-GlcUA and 5 mM of UDP-GlcNAc, an optimal specific activity, from 3 to 6 h of incubation, was found to be about 0.145 nmol/µg/min, and polymers up to an average of 102 kDa were synthesized in 24 h. In this study, we show that the chain length distribution of heparosan polymers can be controlled by change of the initial nucleotide sugar concentration. It was observed that low substrate concentration favors the formation of high molecular weight heparosan polymer with a low polydispersity while high substrate concentration did the opposite. Similarities in the polymerization mechanism between PmHS2, PmHS1, and PmHAS are discussed
Quantification and characterization of enzymatically produced hyaluronan with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis
Kooy, F.K. ; Muyuan Ma, ; Beeftink, H.H. ; Eggink, G. ; Tramper, J. ; Boeriu, C.G. - \ 2009
Analytical Biochemistry 384 (2009)2. - ISSN 0003-2697 - p. 329 - 336.
polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis - synthase - oligosaccharides - microanalysis - acid - fragments - sulfate - assay - face
Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide with high-potential medical applications, depending on the chain length and the chain length distribution. Special interest goes to homogeneous HA oligosaccharides, which can be enzymatically produced using Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS). We have developed a sensitive, simple, and fast method, based on fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE), for characterization and quantification of polymerization products. A chromatographic pure fluorescent template was synthesized from HA tetrasaccharide (HA4) and 2-aminobenzoic acid. HA4-fluor and HA4 were used as template for PmHAS-mediated polymerization of nucleotide sugars. All products, fluorescent and nonfluorescent, were analyzed with gel electrophoresis and quantified using lane densitometry. Comparison of HA4- and HA4-fluor-derived polymers showed that the fluorophore did not negatively influence the PmHAS-mediated polymerization. Only even-numbered oligosaccharide products were observed using HA4-fluor or HA4 as template. The fluorophore intensity was linearly related to its concentration, and the limit of detection was determined to be 7.4 pmol per product band. With this assay, we can now differentiate oligosaccharides of size range DP2 (degree of polymerization 2) to approximately DP400, monitor the progress of polymerization reactions, and measure subtle differences in polymerization rate. Quantifying polymerization products enables us to study the influence of experimental conditions on HA synthesis
Family in modern city environment 1967
Kooy, G.A. ; Kloeze, J.W. te - \ 2007
sociology - family life
Contacts with relatives / visiting parents, parents-in-law, brothers and sisters / financial support of parents and parents-in-law / opinion on relatives, being excessively fond of relatives, asking relatives for help / importance of friends / mothers-in-law. Background variables: basic characteristics/ place of birth/ residence/ household characteristics/ characteristics of parental family/household/ occupation/employment/ education/ religion/ consumption of durables
Marriage in the Netherlands, 1967
Kooy, G.A. - \ 2007
sociology - family life - interpersonal relations - religion - work - sexual behaviour - marriage
Detailed background data on marriage and family / religion and occupation / satisfaction with job / household and mutual friends / perceptions of partner / personal worries / relationships with mutual friends / self description / personal problems / opinions on financial matters / socio-cultural and recreational activities of both partners / sexual relationship / relations with family / mutual relationship and the solving of mutual problems / reasons for divorce. Background variables: basic characteristics/ residence/ household characteristics/ occupation/employment/ education/ social class/ religion
Development of two assays to measure hyaluronan synthase activity
Kooy, F.K. ; Ma, M. ; Beeftink, H.H. ; Eggink, G. ; Boeriu, C.G. - \ 2007
Controlled enzymatic production of oligosaccharide templates for hyaluronan synthesis
Boeriu, C.G. ; Boswinkel, G. ; Kooy, F.K. ; Boer, E. - \ 2007
Controlled biosynthesis of glycoseaminoglycan polymers
Kooy, F.K. ; Beeftink, H.H. ; Boeriu, C.G. ; Eggink, G. ; Tramper, J. - \ 2006
In: 11th Netherlands Biotechnology Congress "Colourful Biotechnology: Red, White and Blue" , Ede, The Netherlands, 16-17 March 2006. - Ede : - p. 122 - 122.
Natural variation in toxicity of wheat: potential for selection of nontoxic varieties for celiac disease patients
Spaenij-Dekking, L. ; Kooy-Winkelaar, Y. ; Veelen, P. van; Drijfhout, J.W. ; Jonker, H.H. ; Soest, L.J.M. van; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Bosch, H.J. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Koning, F. de - \ 2005
Gastroenterology 129 (2005)3. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 797 - 806.
t-cell recognition - tissue transglutaminase - prolyl endopeptidase - gliadin peptides - interferon-gamma - cereal toxicity - alpha-gliadin - in-vivo - gluten - epitopes
Background & Aims: Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal disorder caused by T-cell responses to peptides derived from the gluten proteins present in wheat. Such peptides have been found both in the gliadin and glutenin proteins in gluten. The only cure for CD is a lifelong gluten-free diet. It is unknown, however, if all wheat varieties are equally harmful for patients. We investigated whether wheat varieties exist with a natural low number of T-cell¿stimulatory epitopes. Methods: Gluten proteins present in public databases were analyzed for the presence of T-cell¿stimulatory sequences. In addition, wheat accessions from diploid (AA, SS/BB, and DD genomes), tetraploid (AABB), and hexaploid (AABBDD) Triticum species were tested for the presence of T-cell¿stimulatory epitopes in gliadins and glutenins by both T-cell and monoclonal antibody¿based assays. Results: The database analysis readily identified gluten proteins that lack 1 or more of the known T-cell¿stimulatory sequences. Moreover, both the T-cell¿ and antibody-based assays showed that a large variation exists in the amount of T-cell¿stimulatory peptides present in the wheat accessions. Conclusions: Sufficient genetic variation is present to endeavor the selection of wheat accessions that contain low amounts of T-cell¿stimulatory sequences. Such materials may be used to select and breed wheat varieties suitable for consumption by CD patients, contributing to a well-balanced diet and an increase in their quality of life. Such varieties also may be useful for disease prevention in individuals at risk.
The effect of PEGT/PBT scaffold architecture on oxygen gradients in tissue engineered cartilaginous constructs
Malda, J. ; Woodfield, T.B.F. ; Vloodt, F. van der; Kooy, F.K. ; Martens, D.E. ; Tramper, J. ; Blitterswijk, C.A. van; Riesle, J. - \ 2004
Biomaterials 25 (2004)26. - ISSN 0142-9612 - p. 5773 - 5780.
solid-state fermentation - articular-cartilage - polyactive(r) - hypoxia - system - model - cells - bone - biocompatibility - chondrocytes
Repair of articular cartilage defects using tissue engineered constructs composed of a scaffold and cultured autologous cells holds promise for future treatments. However, nutrient limitation (e.g. oxygen) has been suggested as a cause of the onset of chondrogenesis solely within the peripheral boundaries of larger constructs. In the present study, oxygen gradients were evaluated by microelectrode measurements in two porous polyethylene glycol terephthalate/polybutylene terephthalate (PEGT/PBT) scaffold architectures, a compression-molded and particle-leached sponge (CM) and a 3D-deposited fiber (3DF) scaffold. During the first 14 days in vitro, gradients intensified, after which a gradual decrease of the gradients was observed in vitro. In vivo, however, gradients changed instantly and became less pronounced. Although similar gradients were observed regardless of scaffold type, significantly more cells were present in the center of 3DF constructs after 2 weeks of in vivo culture. Our results stress the importance of a rationally designed scaffold for tissue-engineering applications. Organized structures, such as the 3DF PEGT/PBT polymer scaffolds, offer possibilities for regulation of nutrient supply and, therefore, hold promise for clinical approaches for cartilage repair. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oxygen gradients in tissue-engineered PEGT/PBT cartilaginous constructs: measurement and modeling
Malda, J. ; Rouwkema, J. ; Martens, D.E. ; Paul le Comte, E. ; Kooy, F.K. ; Tramper, J. ; Blitterswijk, C.A. van; Riesle, J. - \ 2004
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 86 (2004)1. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 9 - 18.
articular-cartilage - in-vitro - synovial fluids - tension - chondrocytes - metabolism - microelectrode - diffusion - pressure - computer
The supply of oxygen within three-dimensional tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage polymer constructs is mainly by diffusion. Oxygen consumption by cells results in gradients in the oxygen concentration. The aims of this study were, firstly, to identify the gradients within TE: cartilage polymer constructs and, secondly, to predict the profiles during in vitro culture. A glass microelectrode system was adapted and used to penetrate cartilage and TE cartilaginous constructs, yielding reproducible measurements with high spatial resolution. Cartilage polymer constructs were cultured for up to 41 days in vitro. Oxygen concentrations, as low as 2 - 5%, were measured within the center of these constructs. At the beginning of in vitro culture, the oxygen gradients were steeper in TE constructs in comparison to native tissue. Nevertheless, during the course of culture, oxygen concentrations approached the values measured in native tissue. A mathematical model was developed which yields oxygen profiles within cartilage explants and TE constructs. Model input parameters were assessed, including the diffusion coefficient of cartilage (2.2 x 10(-9)) + (0.4 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1)), 70% of the diffusion coefficient of water and the diffusion coefficient of constructs (3.8 x 10(-10) m(2) s(-1)). The model confirmed that chondrocytes in polymer constructs cultured for 27 days have low oxygen requirements (0.8 x 10(-19) mol m(-3) s(-1)), even lower than chondrocytes in native cartilage. The ability to measure and predict local oxygen tensions offers new opportunities to obtain more insight in the relation between oxygen tension and chondrogenesis. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vraag het de bomen; creativiteit in bosbeheer
Dijs, F. ; Ansembourg, F. d'; Claessens, B. ; Fennema, A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Heybroek, H. ; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Hussendörfer, E. ; Klein, J. de; Koopmans, G. ; Kooy, F. van der; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. ; Ouden, J. den; Schanz, H. ; Spek, T. ; Swart, B. ; Waal, R.W. de; Wijk, M.N. van - \ 2003
Utrecht : Matrijs - ISBN 9053452346 - 120
bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - landgoederen - particuliere bosbouw - particulier eigendom - houtteelt - nederland - dauerwald - forest management - forest policy - estates - private forestry - private ownership - silviculture - netherlands
De geschiedenis van het bosbeheer van landgoed Middachten, ten tijde van Graaf zu Ortenburg (1927-2001)
Effects of endotoxin-contaminated FSH-preparations in heifers.
Kooy, E. van der; Kindahl, H. ; Gustafsson, H. - \ 1995
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 35 (1995). - ISSN 0044-605X - p. 449 - 451.
Changes in body composition and in fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight gain.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1994
In: Obesity in Europe 93 / Ditschuneit, H., London : John Libbey - p. 301 - 308.
Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1994
In: Obesity in Europe 93 / Ditschuneit, H., London : John Libbey - p. 309 - 317.
Visceral fat accumulation in relation to sex hormones in obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Koppeschaar, H.P.F. - \ 1994
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 78 (1994). - ISSN 0021-972X - p. 1515 - 1520.
Molmuis ondergraaft vegetatie-ontwikkeling.
Kooy, J. van der; Maanen, B. van - \ 1994
Zoogdier 5 (1994)2. - ISSN 0925-1006 - p. 3 - 7.
dieren - begrazing - herbivoren - muizen - muridae - plantensuccessie - ratten - verstoring - limburg - animals - grazing - herbivores - mice - plant succession - rats - disturbance
Veranderingen in serumlipiden bij vermageren. Vergelijking van effecten van verlaging (verzadigde) vetconsumptie en energiebeperking.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Meyboom, S. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. - \ 1993
Voeding 54 (1993). - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 20 - 20.
Abdominal diameters as indicators of visceral fat: comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and anthropometry
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Visser, M. - \ 1993
The British journal of nutrition 70 (1993)1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 47 - 58.
Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Droop, A. ; Bakker, C.J.G. - \ 1993
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57 (1993). - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 327 - 333.
Visceral fat loss measured by magnetic resonance imaging in relation to changes in serum lipids of obese men and women.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Droop, A. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1993
Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13 (1993). - ISSN 1049-8834 - p. 487 - 494.
Visceral fat accumulation in relation to sex hormones in obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Koppeschaar, H.P.F. - \ 1993
International Journal of Obesity 17 (1993)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 57 - 57.
Techniques for the measurement of visceral fat a practical guide.
Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. - \ 1993
International Journal of Obesity 17 (1993). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 187 - 196.
Resting metabolic rate and body composition in obese subjects losing and regaining weight.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Meyboom, S. ; Schouten, F.J.M. - \ 1993
International Journal of Obesity 17 (1993)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 28 - 28.
Relative effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipid levels in the dietary treatment of obesity.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Meyboom, S. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. - \ 1993
International Journal of Obesity 17 (1993)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 49 - 49.
Relative effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipid levels in dietary treatment of obesity.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Meyboom, S. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. - \ 1993
Journal of Lipid Research 34 (1993). - ISSN 0022-2275 - p. 2183 - 2191.
Effect of weight cycle on visceral fat deposition.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1993
International Journal of Obesity 17 (1993)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 60 - 60.
Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1993
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58 (1993). - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 853 - 857.
Circadian rhythms of appetite at different stages of a weight loss programme.
Graaf, C. de; Jas, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. - \ 1993
International Journal of Obesity 17 (1993). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 521 - 526.
Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain
Kooy, K. van der - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast; P. Deurenberg; J.C. Seidell. - S.l. : Van der Kooy - ISBN 9789054850991 - 123
obesitas - overgewicht - voeding - vetten - biometrie - energiebehoeften - voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - consumptiepatronen - vetweefsel - obesity - overweight - nutrition - fats - biometry - energy requirements - food hygiene - nutritional state - consumption patterns - adipose tissue

This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for 13 weeks, and re-examined more than one year after weight loss intervention. Five techniques to assess the changes in body composition after weight loss (on average 12.2 ± 3.7 kg (mean ± SD)) were compared. The results from densitometry (hydrostatic weighing) and the deuterium oxide dilution technique were similar, whereas, bioelectrical impedance and two anthropometric methods (skinfold thicknesses and body mass index) showed larger reductions in fat-free mass (FFM) than estimated by densitometry and the dilution technique. These findings were similar in both sexes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess the reductions after weight loss in the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat depots and the subcutaneous fat depot at trochanter level. The proportional reduction of fat was largest in the visceral depot (men 40%, women 33%) and less fat was lost subcutaneously, especially at trochanter level (men 29%, women 26%). The reductions in visceral fat as measured by MRI were compared with changes in anthropometric measurements. The change in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was not related to the change in visceral fat, and the change in sagittal-to-transverse abdominal diameter ratio was only moderately associated with visceral fat loss in both sexes. During the follow-up of 67 weeks after weight loss, 80% of the weight lost was regained on average. In men but not in women, the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) after weight loss was larger than expected from the losses of FFM and fat mass. The RMR returned to baseline level in both sexes after weight regain. The reduction in RMR was not related to later weight regain. Percentage body fat and amount of visceral fat also nearly returned to the level similar to that before weight loss.

It is concluded that bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements are not as good as densitometry or the deuterium-oxide dilution method for the evaluation of changes in body composition. Only approximate estimates of visceral fat can be achieved by anthropometry. As a consequence, the assessment of changes in visceral fat by anthropometry is limited. Finally, one weight cycle as observed in this study does not lead to a permanently reduced RMR, nor to a greater body fatness nor to an increase in visceral fat compared with initial levels.

Fecundabiliteit en beroepsmatige blootstelling aan bestrijdingsmiddelen in de fruitteelt.
Westveer, K. ; Cock, J. de; Heederik, D. ; Zijpp, M. van der; Velde, E. te; Kooy, R. van - \ 1992
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg 70 (1992). - ISSN 0920-0517 - p. 577 - 584.
Kreupelheid bij melkvee: economisch van belang.
Enting, H. ; Kooy, D. ; Dijkhuizen, A.A. ; Huirne, R.B.M. ; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N. - \ 1992
Veeteelt (1992). - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 1196 - 1198.
Changes in fat distribution after weight loss: comparison between MR-imaging and anthropometry.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Bakker, C. - \ 1992
International Journal of Obesity 16 (1992)suppl.. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 11a - 11a.
Changes in visceral fat in relation to energy expenditure in obese men and women: implications for weight reduction.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Deurenberg, P. ; Seidell, J.C. - \ 1992
International Journal of Obesity 16 (1992)suppl.. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 18a - 18a.
Changes in fat-free mass in obese subjects after weight loss: a comparison of body composition measures.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Westerterp, K.R. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1992
International Journal of Obesity 16 (1992). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 675 - 683.
Visceral fat accumulation measured by magnetic resonance imaging in relation to serum lipids in obese men and obese women.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. - \ 1992
Atherosclerosis 94 (1992). - ISSN 0021-9150 - p. 171 - 181.
Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects: relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Deurenberg, P. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Weststrate, J.A. ; Schouten, F.J.M. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1992
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 263 (1992). - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E913 - E919.
Selektion auf Milcheiweiss verbessert meist auch Fettgehalt.
Vos, H. ; Groen, A.F. ; Kooy, R. van der - \ 1992
Milchrind 2 (1992). - p. 4 - 5.
Arbeidsomstandigheden in de fruitteelt en fecunditeit.
Cock, J. de; Westveer, K. ; Zijpp, M. van der; Heederik, D. ; Velde, E. te; Kooy, R. van - \ 1991
Annalen van de vereniging voor fertiliteitsstudie 18 (1991)1. - p. 3 - 7.
Veranderingen in abdominaal vet en in diameters bij gewichtsverlies: een magnetisch resonantiebeeld studie.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Bakker, C. - \ 1991
Voeding 52 (1991). - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 166 - 167.
Verdeling van lichaamsvet en geslachtshormonen in relatie tot serumvetten bij obese mensen.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Koppeschaar, H.P.F. - \ 1991
Voeding 52 (1991). - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 14 - 14.
Adipose tissue distribution in relation to serum lipids in obese subjects: differences between men and women.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. - \ 1991
International Journal of Obesity 15 (1991)suppl. 1. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 85 - 85.
Changes in abdominal fat and diameters with weight loss: a magnetic resonance imaging study.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Bakker, C. - \ 1991
International Journal of Obesity 15 (1991)suppl. 1. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 88 - 88.
Is the bioelectrical-impedance method valid?
Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. ; Kooy, K. van der - \ 1991
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (1991)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 179 - 179.
Sex and age specific prediction formulas for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance: a cross-validation study.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Weststrate, J.A. ; Seidell, J.C. - \ 1991
International Journal of Obesity 15 (1991). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 17 - 25.
Centraal wonen in Nederland : een onderzoek naar bewonerservaringen en sociaal - ruimtelijke voorwaarden
Kesler, B. - \ 1991
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): G.A. Kooy; H. van Leeuwen. - S.l. : Kesler - ISBN 9789067541978 - 516
huishoudens - gezinsstructuur - communes - coöperatieve woningbouw - nederland - households - family structure - communes - cooperative housing - netherlands

The National Association for Centraal Wonen was founded in 1971 with the aim of realizing housing projects with communal areas, with the (prospective) residents participating in all phases of the plans and in the management of the housing. Furthermore, these housing projects are intended for all types of households and must offer independence for individuals and households while nevertheless allowing for the development of social contacts and solidarity.

This thesis describes a study on these so-called Centraal Wonen projects, here referred to as co-housing. It is in two parts. Part one is about the prototype project, Centraal Wonen Hilversumse Meent. In part two the perspective is enlarged to cover all co-housing units completed in the Netherlands in the period 1977-1986.

The prologue describes the reason for the study and the author's particular interest. The study began in 1976 as a research project commissioned by the Ministry of Housing and Planning. This research forms part one of the thesis. In 1979 the author became an active member of Centraal Wonen. Part two of this thesis deals with data from 36 co-housing units and the knowledge the author gained gained by her involvement in the realization of two projects and since 1985 by her life in one of these units.

Chapter one briefly outlines the social context in the Netherlands during the sixties and the background to the plea for co-housing.

Chapter two describes the three phases of the research in Centraal Wonen Hilversumse Meent. In the first phase (1976) all prospective residents were interviewed about six months before they moved into cohousing. Other external participants, such as the architect, representatives of the housing society and local civil servants, were also questioned about their contribution to the process of realizing the co-housing project. The adult residents were interviewed again in 1978 and 1979 (one and two years after the move). Households and individuals who had moved out were interviewed about six months after they had left. The cooperation was extraordinary; only one ex-resident declined to be interviewed. The interviews were about motives and expectations, the process of setting up the co- housing schemes, the changes in social life, daily chores, household activities and experiences in subgroups (clusters; see chapter three) and in the group. The research method was a mixture of oral and written questionnaires, open interviews, time-budgeting and attending general meetings during two years. Some people found the task of time-budgeting during one week too much for them.

The study focused on the process of realizing the co housing project, and on the development of collective activities and their importance for the individuals and households. The main questions were: the extent of residents' participation; the diversity achieved in the group; the sort of contacts and help people expect; how the contacts and mutual help developed relate to the co-housing project's original goals; the contribution of the spatial conditions to the goals of the group.

Chapter three is about the spatial conditions of the housing and the characteristics of the residents, and chapter four is about the realization of the Hilversum co-housing project.

The idea behind Centraal Wonen Hilversumse Meent dates from around 1970. The project, which comprises 50 houses and common facilities, was financed in the governement- subsidized rented housing sector. In 1977 133 people moved in (one- and two-parent families, couples and singles: 38 men, 41 women and 54 children). Each household rents a house with private facilities (kitchen, bathroom) and the use of common facilities. The houses vary in size from 41- 107 square meter (m 2) . There are communal areas at two levels: the cluster and the group. There are ten clusters and almost all houses (44) belong to a cluster.

A cluster is an intentionally created social and spatial unit. Each cluster consists of four or five closely connected houses, a common dining room cum kitchen (33m 2) with a terrace, an outhouse to accommodate two washing machines, and a garden. This means that socially a cluster comprises four or five different households, about 10-12 people. The composition of clusters is the result of a careful process of acquaintance and choice/selection.

The group facilities are: a building of about 95m 2for social activities, a communal garden, a creche and a youth club (each 41m 2) , a hobby building for woodworking (21m 2), pottery (6m 2) and repairs, 3 guest-rooms and a sauna (30m 2). The social composition of the co-housing group is the outcome of a process of self selection.

Chapters five, six and seven describe how the clusters function and how the group functions, and compare these levels. Findings are presented about: the residents' motives for choosing co-housing; the kind and the proportion of social contacts, mutual help and problems; the functioning of the solidarity fund for financial support to the low income households; patterns of cluster activities; patterns of how to deal with children during the cluster meals; the meaning of the new contacts and the social changes in the cluster; the use and the evaluation of the common spaces; the organization and management process (Backus, 1987; Kesler, 1987).

Chapter eight gives conclusions and recommendations relating to the Hilversum study. The general conclusion drawn from Centraal Wonen Hilversumse Meent is that its residents have succeeded well in the realization of their aims: a project with communal areas and a social network based on ideas of sociability. Social and spatial conditions are connected. Clusters and group are impossible without the communal spatial areas. The group obtained influence in all phases of the plan and the management, and succeeded in building a good organizational infrastructure to deal with the social and spatial responsibilities. The residents succesfully created a new life-style and all participate in the social network. The cluster model is not without problems: conflicts are part of it. Not all the problems have been solved painlessly. Five cluster households (9%) dropped out of their cluster and four households (8%) moved out during the first two years. This yearly turnover of 4% is low compared with that in conventional neighbourhoods (9%) and other experimental projects (sometimes over 25%).

Chapters nine and ten review the results in the social context and sketch the situation in the project in 1983. Most of the collective facilities continued to function as before, except that the creche had been replaced by an alternative health clinic. The solidarity fund had been reduced as a consequence of changes in incomes; some households with a higher income had been succeeded by households with a lower income.

Part two of this thesis is an elaboration, an inventory of developments in Dutch co-housing and a development of hypotheses for further research.

The introductory chapter 11 outlines the rest of the research. The main questions dealt with are:
- How co-housing has developed quantitatively and qualitatively;
- How co-housing functions and realizes its goals:
. heterogenous households in terms of social type, age groups and income)
. participation in planning and management
. spatial conditions for collective activities and the independence of households
. development of contacts and solidarity;
- How external participants and housing policy influence the development of co-housing.

In the period 1977-1986 the 36 co-housing projects were built in the Netherlands, but many groups also wound up because of a lack of perspective and success. Today (1991) there are over fifty units (3700 residents) and about fifteen initiative groups (preparing a co-housing project) in the National Association of Centraal Wonen. There are at least ten more large co-housing projects with the same aims, not connected to the association, and many projects associated with the National Association of co-housing of the Elderly (with an age threshold). They are not included in this study, but some of the results are also relevant for them.

Chapter twelve is about the goals of co-housing groups and motives of participants. It traces the influences of other initiatives, such as communes, communal households/living groups, and foreign examples of co-housing projects in Denmark and Germany.

The Dutch co-housing projects endorse the basic ideas of the National Association of Centraal Wonen, but do not copy the first project. Each group formulates its own programme; this has resulted in a great variety. The basic ideas are to develop shared values, to voluntarily form residents' groups and to create a flexible framework to respond to local aims and circumstances. Examples of such aims are: flexible spatial conditions, participation of disabled people, accommodation and support for refugees or homeless young people, minimum environmental pollution, using solar energy, having workshops for repairs and hobbies, neighbourhood activities.

There are two types of motive behind participation in co-housing: practical and relational. For clusters a practical motive is not enough: there must be a development of intimate connections and friendship. For activities at group level the more practical approach is also valuable for efficient management. It does indeed seem that Willke's (1983) expectation is valid that co-housing is an attractive option for people involved in the new social movements (women's emancipation, the peace movement, alternative food and health, the environment, psychotherapy). If motives are bound together in co-housing in "pluriform associations", this new life-style can become a "catalyst" for the changes in the direction of sustainable development.

Chapter thirteen describes the variety of groups in Dutch co- housing. The size of group varies greatly, from 10-210 persons. For the aspect of heterogeneity the author studied 27 large projects, each with at least 20 houses/appartments. About half of the projects studied (including Hilversumse Meent) had achieved heterogeneity in households, the other projects consisted almost entirely of singles and one-parent families. Age heterogeneity has not been achieved except in one project in Haarlem; elderly people are absent. Given that there is great interest in co-housing for the elderly this suggests there is resistance to age-heterogenous groups and/or that social and spatial conditions are unattractive for the elderly. Yet children are present in all the co- housing projects (forming 20-46% of the population).

Data on household incomes are available for fifteen projects; only four (27%) (including Hilversumse Meent) have income heterogeneity. Most projects have few residents with higher incomes. So it can be concluded that the only heterogeneity achieved is in the type of households -and that is not optimal- and that most groups are dominated by younger and lower income households. It seems that the heterogenous groups are more stable (fewer moves) than groups mainly consisting of singles and one-parent families, young people and low incomes.

Co-housing schemes in the Netherlands are in danger of becoming less accessible for the lower income households - the main group- interested in this type of housing. National policy, in particular the rise in rents and the fall in grants to individuals, threatens the survival of co-housing projects.

Chapter fourteen is about the role of residents in planning, running and managing their projects. Most (75%) of the projects in the Netherlands are governmentsubsidized rented housing. The remainder are owner occupied (14%; all small projects) or are a mixture of rented and owner-occupied houses (11%).

Schemes with rented houses are realized by working with a local housing corporation and/or local government. Residents' groups play an important role by taking the initiative and formulating the programme.

The Hilversum project served as a model for the others. In most other projects the residents are less involved in the deciding on the ground plans of houses and in collecting the rents. Centraal Wonen has changed local and the national housing policy. Today, the housing regulations are adapted more to the needs for co-housing.

Chapter fifteen gives an overview of how the spatial conditions and the co-housing models reflect the diversity in residents' expectations and programmes. As mentioned, the projects vary greatly in size; 25% are small projects with about ten houses/appartments, but the larger projects have 20-80 houses/appartments. The degree of collectiveness depends partly on the size of the project, partly on the programme. Four models can be distinguished:
1 Small groups : about ten houses and one level of collectiveness.
2 Big groups : at least twenty houses/appartments and one level of collectiveness.
3 Cluster : big projects with two levels of collectiveness.
4 Mixed : big projects partly with clusters.

The cluster model can be subdivided into three types:
a the closed cluster model (the Hilversum idea): cluster households have indoor connections (a cluster entrance with hall or staircase) and outdoor connections with other clusters and group facilities.
b the open cluster model : all houses and communal facilities have indoor connections, and the cluster is socially defined but is not a formal spatial unit (for example, Rotterdam De Banier).
c the cluster with limited private accommodation : private facilities are limited and kitchen and/or bathroom facilities are shared by a cluster/several households or a communal household, so indoor connections are obligatory (example Amersfoort Het Hallenhuis).

The existence of collective areas is clear evidence of the development and maintenance of clusters and group. These areas contribute to the cluster/group identity and to a social network. The existence of private accommodation (in most projects) improves the independence of individuals and households. It helps people to control the intensity of contacts and to balance individuality (privacy) and sociability.

Chapter sixteen discusses the significance of social contacts and mutual help. All the projects have lots of activities such as parties, regular social events, and in larger projects clubs and workgroups for management tasks. The main regular cluster activity is an evening meal, and its frequency and organization is an indication of the intensity of the relationships. Contacts with children and the question of who is responsible for their needs and behaviour during cluster meals are sensitive issues in many clusters. The characteristics of co-housing contacts are: spontaneous encounters, frequent chats, much exchange of greetings, advice and help in household matters, cluster or group mangement, easy day-and-night childcare, and the many lend-borrow-and-ask contacts.

The contacts are similar to the contacts between ordinary neighbours in terms of the aspects nearby, integration of contact and help , and a balance of supply and demand ; are similar to relations with family in terms of the aspects network and solidarity ; and are similar with friends in terms of the aspect intimacy. Aspects specific to the co-housing contacts are: the emancipation of household activities and becoming aware of the meaning of open relationships and democracy .

Nearby contacts and social control are two sides of the same coin. The spatial conditions contribute to balance the contacts. It is acceptable to withdraw from social activities for a certain period, but not permanently. The positive side of social control is that trouble is noticed and there are opportunities to help.

At the group level there is a formal structure for conflict management; at the cluster level there is not. At cluster level conflicts interfere far more in daily life. Occasionally a conflict is solved by a household moving out. This far-reaching consequence has led to a more flexible model, the open cluster model. A comparative study needs to be done to find out if the open cluster model is a better solution. The closed cluster model probably contributes more to the development and the maintainance of clusters as social units, because conflicts must be solved: by discussion or, in exceptional cases, by moving out. But this gives new chances for the closed cluster. In the open cluster model it is much easier to avoid discussion, to stop participating, and so to contribute to the destruction of the clusters.

Residents who spend most of their time at home (home oriented) seem to be more vulnerable to insoluble conflicts than externally oriented people. The theory of human territoriality (Bakker and Bakker-Rabdau, 1974) might be useful for studying the social processes and conficts in co- housing (as it is for understanding family problems); this theory might be helpful for developing social learning processes.

The contacts made in co-housing are primarily of relational value, with the practical aspects being of secondary importance. The less intimate the contacts, the more superficial the daily contact.

In future the integration of new residents will be very important. Probably this integration will be more of a problem in large projects than in smaller ones.

Chapter seventeen is a summary of results, conclusions and presentation of hypotheses. Eight hypotheses are formulated and discussed. The last point of these hypotheses is:

The 'equal chances' of the Dutch government's policy do not operate in favour of co-housing or other initiatives for experimental and emancipated forms of housing.

Finally, the epilogue presents some thoughts on co-housing in relation to emancipation, hyper-individualism and solitude, communication and the role of the Dutch government's housing policy.

Selektie op eiwit-vetverhouding in melk biedt zeker perspectief.
Vos, H. ; Groen, A.F. ; Kooy, R. van de - \ 1991
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Effect van gewichtsafname bij overgewichtige personen op de risikofactoren plasminogeen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) en lipoproteine a (Lpa).
Huisveld, I.A. ; Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der - \ 1990
In: Verslag 7e Amstol Symp. Trombose en atherosclerose. Diagnostiek, preventie en behandeling anno 1990, J.W. ten Cate e.a. (red.). Amsterdam - p. 135 - 140.
The effect of psychological stress on diet induced thermogenesis and resting metabolic rate.
Weststrate, J.A. ; Kooy, K. van der; Deurenberg, P. ; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1990
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44 (1990). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 269 - 276.
Imaging techniques for measuring adipose-tissue distribution - a comparison between computed tomography and 1.5-T magnetic resonance.
Seidell, J.C. ; Bakker, C.J.G. ; Kooy, K. van der - \ 1990
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 (1990)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 953 - 957.
Body fat distribution and sex hormones in relation to serum lipids in obese subjects.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Koppeschaar, H.P.F. - \ 1990
In: Proc. Int. Symp. Lipoprotein metabolism and lipid lowering agents, The Hague. Macclesfield, Cheshire: Gardiner-Caldwell Communications Ltd. (1990) F-013a. Ook: J. Steroid Biochem. 36, suppl (1990) 10S
Weight loss and changes in body fat distribution measured by MRI.
Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Bakker, C. - \ 1990
Voeding 51 (1990). - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 155 - 155.
Body composition and weight reduction in relation to antigen and activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in overweight individuals.
Huisveld, I.A. ; Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Hospers, J.E.H. ; Seidell, J.C. ; Deurenberg, P. ; Koppeschaar, H.P.F. ; Mosterd, W.L. ; Bouma, B.N. - \ 1990
Fibrinolysis 4 (1990)suppl 2. - p. 84 - 85.
Resting metabolic rate in obese subjects before and after weight loss: indication for an increased efficiency after weight loss.
Deurenberg, P. ; Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Seidell, J.C. ; Schouten, F.J.M. - \ 1990
International Journal of Obesity 14 (1990)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 37a - 37a.
Reply: Calculation of body fat in the obese by Siri's formula.
Deurenberg, P. ; Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1990
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44 (1990). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 167 - 167.
Age dependency of prediction formulas for fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Weststrate, J.A. - \ 1990
International Journal of Obesity 14 (1990)suppl. 2. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 101a - 101a.
The assessment of the body composition in the elderly by densitometry, anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1990
In: In vivo body composition studies. Recent advances / Yasumura, S., - p. 391 - 393.
Assessment of body composition by bioelectrical impedance in a population aged >60 y.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Evers, P. ; Hulshof, T. - \ 1990
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51 (1990)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 3 - 6.
Agrarische huishoudens : een onderzoek naar de veranderende relatie tussen gezin en bedrijf in Oost - Gelderland
Zwart, S.I. - \ 1990
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): G.A. Kooy. - S.l. : Zwart - ISBN 9789067541756 - 240
huishoudens - gezinnen - statistiek - familiebedrijven, landbouw - structuur - samenstelling - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - sociologie - verwantschap - boeren - nederland - gelderland - achterhoek - households - families - statistics - family farms - structure - composition - farm management - sociology - kinship - farmers - netherlands - gelderland - achterhoek
This study of farm family households in the east of The Netherlands is based on a field survey carried out in spring 1984. Rapid changes in the structure and processes of agriculture in the Netherlands since the 1950's and radical change in the family, notably with relation to sex roles, have caused increasing political and academic concern for the future and the viability of family farming. This has also led to women's position in agriculture being subjected to much discussion and increasing scholarly interest. These, the most important motives for initiating this study, are outlined in the first chapter, together with the most important post-war changes in Dutch agriculture. This chapter also includes a review of the literature on the changing forms and functions of family and marriage and of women's position in family and society and it ends by discussing the implications of these changes for farm families and farm women.

The second chapter presents a detailed description of the study. It includes a definition of the research problem, a description of its theoretical basis, concepts and hypotheses, an explanation of the design of the study and finally a description of the construction of the questionnaires and the sampling and data collection methods.

Farm family households are social institutions composed of complex networks of interwoven and mutually dependent roles. The family and the farm enterprise are thus seen as interdependent social subsystems. This view of the farm family household yields the first main theme of this study: how family and farm are intertwined. The way in which this interconnectedness is shaped, its specific form, is subject to change because it is linked to the particular historical, social and cultural environment in which it is situated.

This view of the farm family household leads on to an elaboration of the second main theme of this study: the sexual division of labour and decisions. The way in which husband and wife divide or share labour and decisions in various domains is not an isolated phenomenon. In this study it is interpreted as an aspect of family structure. Until recently the way in which families divided work and decisions was subject to traditional sex role ideology. Husband and wife, father and mother, farmer and farmer's wife were roles with relatively well defined rights and obligations. But during the last 30 years this normative structure has been weakening and other factors are becoming more important in determining how marital roles take shape.

By placing the two main themes of this study (the way in which family and farm are intertwined and the sexual division of labour and decisions) within the context of societal change, the differences found in farm couples in these two respects can be interpreted as ultimately resulting from general processes of change as they relate to agriculture and marriage and the family. For theoretical as well as for common sense reasons four complexes of factors were selected for this study: factors related to farm characteristics and agricultural change; sex role ideologies; the household cycle; and socio-demographic characteristics. Consequently an eclectic research model emerged, and the following basic research questions were formulated.

1) Are there differences between farm family households in the way family and farm are intertwined? And, if so, which variables cause these differences?
2) Are there differences between farm family households in the way husband and wife divide labour and decisions in various domains? And, if so, which variables cause these differences?
3) What is the relationship between the way family and farm are intertwined and the way in which husband and wife divide labour and decisions?

The fieldwork for this study was carried out in Winterswijk local government area, situated in the east of the province of Gelderland. This particular local government area was chosen because several studies were done in the fifties, describing its agriculture and its farm family households, and these provided valuable baseline data. A stratified sample of 92 farm couples younger than 65 years on farms larger than 5 ha was drawn, evenly divided over various ages. Husband and wife were interviewed at the same time but independently from each other, using two partly overlapping, partly different standardized questionnaires.

In chapter three a brief history of the community of Winterswijk is given. Various characteristic features of the region are outlined and the correspondence between Winterswijk and other regions in the Netherlands in terms of agriculture, farms, families and households is discussed. The farms and farming do not differ greatly from those elsewhere in the country. Until recently, traditional multigeneration family households were relatively numerous in this region, whereas in most other regions in The Netherlands the nuclear family household was the dominant pattern. In the fifties about half of Winterswijk's farm households consisted of members of three or four generations living communally in the same house.

In chapter four a descriptive analysis of the farm family households and their farms is presented. The first section deals with socio- demographic characteristics and household features such as age, education, religious affiliation, household composition, life cycle, neighbourhood bonds, and participation in professional and social organizations. Since the fifties, nuclear families have gradually loosened the close ties with their relatives, the church and the neighbourhood in a process which is generally described as family nuclearization and individualization. Nuclear families of successive generations nowadays have their separate living arrangements, even though they remain working together on the same farm. Families have closed, in the sense that they tolerate less interference in family matters from relatives, neighbours and church. Farmers and farmers' wives are more strongly oriented toward the world beyond their own community than their counterparts 30 years ago. For instance the strong preference for a marriage partner from the same neighbourhood, the same church and the same socio-economic background that was typical in the older generation seems to be gradually diminishing with the younger.

The sex role ideologies of the farm couple are also discussed. Opinions on women's place in family and society were measured on an attitudinal scale. It seems that women hold more modern sex role orientations than men. Moreover, younger women and those with a better education have more modern sex role orientations; to a lesser degree so do women who have more contact with agricultural extension officers. For the farmers, age and education were the most important determinants of their sex role orientations, and their religious affiliation was slightly less important.

Next, the farms and the changes that have occurred in the 1950's are discussed. On average the farms have a cultivated area of 17 ha. The larger holdings generally specialize in dairy farming, the smaller ones often specialize in pigs or combine the two. Since the fifties considerable specialization, intensification, mechanization, and economies of scale have taken place and the influence of agro- industry and banking has increased. Consequently, rational economic considerations have assumed increasing importance in farming. Nevertheless the family is still central to the continuity of the farm enterprise.

The farmers and their wives were asked how these changes of the last 40 years affected their satisfaction with their lives and their work. Men and women agreed on the most important aspects. Although farmwork is less physically demanding nowadays, the psychlogical pressure under which they have to work is greater. Both women and men experience more personal freedom and less control from the social environment. On the other hand, life moves at a faster pace and there is little time and very little opportunity for relaxed social contacts. The men in particular relatively frequently expressed feelings of social isolation. In contrast, women seemed to have gained more freedom for social participation and for orientation on the outside world, e.g. for further education and training and for joining clubs and organizations. The evaluations of the men and the women also differ. Women in particular experienced living with the older generation as an intrusion on their privacy and consequently as a heavy burden. Separating the households of the younger and the older generations and converting the farmhouse into separate dwellings for each family contributed greatly to their feeling of personal freedom. For the men the traditional living arrangements (generally with their own parents) carried less weight. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the farmers more often referred to the higher standard of living but also to financial problems. Although some women did mention economic pressures such as rising costs and taxes, in general the financial problems of the farm signified less of a burden to them than for their husbands. All in all the data suggest that according to their own evaluations, the women benefited more than did the men from the changes that have taken place since the fifties.

Chapter four goes on to deal with the way family and farm are interwoven, by examining which aspects form a coherent and consistent pattern. These were: the spatial arrangements (i.e. the layout of the house and farm buildings) on-farm sale of products (retail), the use of a fixed household budget, separate bank accounts for household and farm enterprise, marriage settlements, and the legal form of the farm enterprise. Based on the aspects as mentioned, a mean interweave score was computed, which was used in the further analyses.

The last section of this chapter describes farm couples' division of labour and decisions in a number of domains and also deals with the number of hours both spouses spend on household chores and farm work. The women do by far the larger share of the housework. On average farmers' wives spend 43 hours weekly on household chores including childcare; they get little help from others. The farmers spend an average of 1.7 hours per week on housework. On average, farmers spend 60 hours weekly on farm work, doing by far the largest share. All the women interviewed work on the farm for a number of hours per week, for an average of 20 hours per week. So, husband and wife have more or less equally long working days. Sons who will eventually succeed their fathers on the farm, also contribute considerably to the farm work. Daughters rarely do farm work, and the contributions of other family members are also negligible. Most of the farmers' wives have one or more fixed chores; typically these are feeding the calves and pigs, cleaning the sheds, milking parlour and milking equipment and, less frequently, milking. Other fixed chores women frequently perform and assume responsibility for are "cord keeping, financial administration, receiving telephone calls and running errands. Seen from the angle of the woman's life cycle, the following work pattern emerges. During the first years of marriage (or from the moment the couple starts cohabitating) before children are born, the young woman remains working in her original job. (Most of the women worked in the service sector and had not had any training in agriculture.) In many cases the woman's father-in-law, and sometimes also her mother in law, is still working along with the woman's husband . During the stage when children are born, the woman quits her off-farm job and gradually takes on a few farm chores. Sometimes she tries to catch up on her technical agricultural knowlegde of agriculture by following training courses. When the children reach primary school age her share in the farm work increases considerably as her father-in-law gradually withdraws. Her share in the farm work is reduced again when one of her children who will eventually take over the farm starts working with the father.

In this study the farm couples' division of labour and decisions is envisaged as role enactment in various domains, i.e. the household, the social and recreational domain, emotional and expressive domain and the farm. The tasks and decisions relating to childcare were not treated as a separate domain but were divided between the other domains. Three dimensions of the division of labour and decisions were distinguished. As well as studying the relative participation of husband and wife in the tasks of the domains mentioned above, the role specialization versus role flexibility and the stereotypy of the role performance were dealt with. Starting from these domains and dimensions, the division of tasks and decisions among farm couples can be outlined as follows. The overall picture has a certain symmetry. Both the farmer and his wife operate in a more or less autonomous fashion in one domain, the women performing most of the household chores and the farmers most of the farm work, more or less along the lines of the traditional indoor/outdoor pattern. In contrast, the other domains are characterized much more by working together, sharing, flexibility and exchange, although traces of a traditional pattern remain here too, notably so in the emotional expressive domain. Decision making is shared to a larger extent. In the household domain the woman usually makes the decisions on daily matters that do not have major financial consequences, and the farmer makes the decisions on daily affairs concerning the farm. Typically major decisions within both domains are made jointly. At first sight this pattern corresponds with the traditional division of labour among urban middle-class married couples in the fifties. The highly specialized indoor/outdoor, housewife/breadwinner division of labour and joint decision making was typical of this pattern. In the farm households studied, I found a similar balance, although women seem to wield more control in farm matters than the farmers exercise over the household. Some of the women were visibly active in farm matters, doing fixed chores on a daily basis. In contrast, the farmers tend to help their wives with household chores, without assuming responsibilities of their own. On the other hand the data suggest that a certain degree of mutual adjustment between family and farm does indeed occur, but that it is the women who do most of the adjusting, adapting themselves to the demands of the farm.

In the fifth chapter the hypotheses that were formulated at the outset of the study are explored and tested. In accordance with the design of the study, it explores the way sex role attitudes, farm characteristics, household cycle and social-demographic and participation variables explain the variation in how the spheres of family and farm are intertwined and how labour and decisions are divided between the farm couples. Finally the relationships between the two dependent variables are examined. It turned out that the way in which family and farm are intertwined is especially is connected with the economic inportance (Dutch farm size unit) of the farm enterprise. In the larger farms the delimitations in all aspects of both spheres were much sharper. Also, the intergenerational transfer of the farm and the ways the generations overlap, i.e. the ways in which they organize their living and housing arrangements and cooperate at the various stages of the life cycle, are very important to the concept of intertwinement of family and farm. However this concept cannot be understood in terms of economic and socio- structural factors only, but is also connected with cultural values. The nature of the interconnection between family sphere and farm aspects is shaped, is also connected to the couple's sex role ideologies. Couples with more egalitarian attitudes delineated sharper boundaries between family and farm.

As regards the division of labour and decisions it first appeared that every dimension considered in this study has a specific pattern of relationships with the explanatory variables. The same holds true for the different domains. Each of the domains identified in the design of the study has its own dynamics and rules. So, even though there is in a sense, a certain spatial fusion of farm and household tasks in farm family households, especially as as far as women's work is concerned, these tasks cannot be regarded as a homogeneous continuum divided between farmer and wife according to the same logic. In the household domain as well as in the social and recreational and emotional-expressive domains, sex role ideologies are important determinants for the way tasks and decisions are divided.

Concomitantly, the results of the survey indicate that a change toward a more symmetrical, flexible and non-stereotyped pattern is gradually taking place, with the younger and better educated couples showing a more modern pattern in all three dimensions. Relationships are not as clear cut for the farm tasks and decisions. Sex role attitudes play an important part here too, as becomes clear from the fact that women's work is largely restricted to chores in and around the farm buildings. However, no clearcut trend is discernable. The division of farm labour and decisions is strongly connected with the stage that has been reached in the intergenerational transfer of the farm, and on how the generations work and live together and on the corresponding characteristics of the farm. On farms where men of two generations (father and son) work together, the women play less active roles in farm affairs. In addition, the greater efficiency of the farm production process also fits in with a pattern of division of farm labour and decisions in which women tend to participate less.

When the tasks and decisions of all the domains are considered, it appears that the woman's level of education and the efficiency of the organization of the production process both for milk and pigs, best predict an egalitarian, flexible and non-stereotyped way of dividing tasks and decisions. In other words, role enactment in farm family households can be understood from the way the farm production process is organized as well as from the age of the farm couple, which is an important indicator of peoples' sex role attitudes.

As regards the relationship between the way family and farm are intertwined and the role enactment of farm couples, it is suggested that the processes of change taking place in both phenomena are part of a more comprehensive process of change and modernization in which attitudes towards farm organization and farm management probably also play a part.

In chapter six the most important conclusions are summarized and reviewed in the light of the future of farm family households and women's position on the farm and in agriculture in the Netherlands. A number of theoretical aspects are questioned and some recommendations for agricultural and social policy are made.

The problems and opportunities facing farm households in the Netherlands in the future, and the viability of the family farm are discussed within the context of how family and farm are intertwined. It is pointed out that farm family households should be viewed as dynamically adapting themselves to changing agriculture and society at large. Many failed to keep their place in agriculture in the post- war period. Those that succeeded transformed the traditional family patterns, modernized their farms and farm management and were able to adjust the two spheres in such a fashion that vital, contemporary units emerged, able to cope with the current situation and its problems. This vitality augurs well for the survival of the family farm. In the long term farm family households may be confronted with an increasing number of difficulties, and as a consequence they may find it increasingly difficult to redefine the relationships and the intertwinement of farm and family spheres. The future of family farming not only depends on current problems in agriculture and on its political, economic and technological conditions, but also on processes of change affecting marriage and the family, which can form a potential threat to the family farm. Phenomena like individualization, the loosening of family ties and increasing instability in marital relations may put the family farm under serious pressure in the future.

To date, policymakers and extension officers have neglected the family context of agricultural enterprises, focusing instead on the model of a rational economic enterprise. Family matters are treated as separate, private aspects that are only indirectly related to the business enterprise. Family issues are not generally an object of agricultural policy, and policy makers tend to see marriage and the family in terms of traditional stereotypes. A better understanding of the interconnectedness of family and farm, as described in this study, promotes a realistic vision of family farming and benefits scholars, agricultural extension agencies and policy makers.

The changes that have taken place in farm family households in the Nether~ lands since the fifties largely conform with the process of family nuclearization or individualization as outlined in mainstream family sociology. However, farm family households differ from the general picture in two respects. In the first place, in about half the families surveyed strong bonds exist between the generations, both spatially as well as in terms of intergenerational cooperation. Secondly, the farm family household can be conceived of as a multifunctional institution, which is a unit of consumption as well as a unit of production. In the context of mainstream family sociology these phenomena should be conceived of as a cultural lag, as somewhat archaic traits that will disappear in due course. However, this study suggests that family relationships in farm family households are in essence not traditional phenomena at all but should rather be viewed as idiosyncratic relations and functions. The way in which the intertwinement between family and farm is shaped in the farm family household, can be viewed as a dynamic answer to societal change. Consequently, the standard sociological view of farm families as essentially traditional is too narrow and needs to be revised.

The position of the majority of women in Dutch agriculture is to a considerable degree defined by their marriage. As long as the family farm remains the dominant social context for agricultural production and as long as farms continue to be passed on from father to son, women's place in agriculture will remain primarily a derived one, embedded as it is in the family context. Farm women do not have an occupational status of their own. As well as pointing at this fundamental constant, this study highlights some of the marked changes that have taken place in the lives of farmers' wives. Some of these changes are connected with agricultural change, but others are related to women's position in family and society. These changes have had farreaching consequences on the type and the amount of farm work done by the women and on their household work, as well as on the general context of their everyday life.

No major discontent with this situation was observed in this study. But future developments may bring some change to this situation. An increasing number of farmers' wives may continue their own career, but those who opt for a place on their husband's farm will increasingly claim better defined positions, with mutual rights and obligations delimited and accounted for formally. Also, an increasing number of women will want to farm in their own right, that is independent of their family and/or husband. Although in each of these three situations the woman's relationship to the farm is different, her position can be expected to become more problematic in the future. Therefore it is important for farm couples to face up to the formal material, economic and legal aspects of their relationship. Future farm couples would be well advised to agree formally on their mutual rights and obligations, not only regarding the farm but also regarding income-earning activities, and the household and childrearing. Although this advice conflicts with romantic values like unity and harmony, this study has made clear that both the couple's relationship and the farm business will benefit from this modern 'marriage de raison'.

Success of marriage in the Netherlands, 1983
Kooy, G.A. ; Weeda, C.J. - \ 1989
sociology - sexuality - family life
Consensus of opinions and background matching of partners in marriages in the Netherlands. Background data on marriage and family / voting behaviour / religion / satisfaction in household and job / social contacts in relation with personal problems and worries / self-description / partner description / general attitude towards marriage, financial affairs, leisure time, sexuality, upbringing of and care for children, working married women / socio-cultural and recreational activities of both partners / the role of marriage in happiness of life. Background variables: basic characteristics/ residence/ housing situation/ household characteristics/ characteristics of parental family/household/ occupation/employment/ income/capital assets/ education/ social class/ politics/ religion
Veranderingen in ruststofwisseling en lichaamssamenstelling bij personen met overgewicht na gewichtsverlies.
Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Deurenberg, P. ; Seidell, J.C. - \ 1989
Voeding 50 (1989). - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 346 - 347.
Body impedance is largely dependent on the intra- and extra-cellular water distribution.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. ; Schouten, F.J.M. - \ 1989
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (1989). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 845 - 853.
Brief: Differences in body impedance when measured with different instruments.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. - \ 1989
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (1989). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 885 - 886.
Genus Haliscomenobacter van Veen, van der Kooy, Geuze, van der Vlies 1973.
Mulder, E.G. - \ 1989
In: Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology / Staley, J.T., Baltimore : - p. 2003 - 2004.
The assessment of body composition by bioelectrical impedance in the elderly.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Leenen, R. - \ 1989
In: Proc. 2nd Eur. Congr. Obesity. Oxford 1989. Int. J. Obesity 13 (1989) 86a
The assessment of the body composition in the elderly by anthropometric and electrical impedance techniques.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1989
In: Proc. Int. Symp. In vivo body composition studies, Toronto (1989) 91a
Is an adaptation of Siri's formula for the calculation of body fat percentage from body density in the elderly necessary?
Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. ; Kooy, K. van der - \ 1989
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (1989). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 559 - 568.
Body composition changes assessed by bioelectrical impedance measurements.
Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. ; Kooy, K. van der - \ 1989
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49 (1989)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 401 - 403.
In obese subjects the body fat percentage calculated with Siri's formula is an overestimation.
Deurenberg, P. ; Leenen, R. ; Kooy, K. van der; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1989
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (1989). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 569 - 575.
Assessment of body composition in 8-11 year old children by bioelectrical impedance.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Paling, A. ; Withagen, P. - \ 1989
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (1989). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 623 - 629.
Body mass index as a measure of body fatness in the elderly.
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der; Hulshof, T. ; Evers, P. - \ 1989
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (1989). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 231 - 236.
Brief: Bioelectrical impedance or anthropometry?
Deurenberg, P. ; Kooy, K. van der - \ 1989
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (1989). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 503 - 504.
Factors affecting bioelectrical impedance measurements in humans.
Deurenberg, P. ; Weststrate, J.A. ; Paymans, I. ; Kooy, K. van der - \ 1988
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42 (1988). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 1017 - 1022.
Gezinsgeschiedenis; vier eeuwen gezin in Nederland
Kooy, G.A. - \ 1985
Assen [etc.] : Van Gorcum - ISBN 9789023221074 - 212
gezinnen - historische verslagen - geschiedenis - huishoudens - verwantschap - nederland - sociologie - statistiek - families - historical records - history - households - kinship - netherlands - sociology - statistics
Een sociologisch doctorandus en de zelfkazerij
Constandse, A.K. - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie;verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoogh, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J., LH Wageningen - p. 47 - 52.
De socioloog als syncretist; kanttekeningen bij een analytische sociografie
Bor, W. van den - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie. Verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool - p. 67 - 75.
Terugblik en vooruitzicht anno 1985: vier decennia Nederlandse gezinssociologie
Leeuwen, L.Th. van - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie; verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J., LH Wageningen - p. 199 - 203.
De mythe van de permissieve samenleving
Munters, Q.J. - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie; verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J., LH Wageningen - p. 125 - 132.
Bij het afscheid van G.A. Kooy en Het Wageningse sociologische gezinsbedrijf in communaal perspectief
Weeda, C.J. - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie; verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J.,
Variabelen, een kwestie van niveau
Nooij, A.T.J. - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie; verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J., LH Wageningen - p. 75 - 81.
Privacy and avowals
Meyer, A.M.T. - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie; verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J., - p. 115 - 123.
Een tijdreis door de gezinssociologische theorie
Douma, W.H. - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie; verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J., Wageningen : LH - p. 187 - 198.
Recreatie in een relatie
Kloeze, J.W. te - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie; verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., van Leeuwen, L.Th., Munters, Q.J., Weeda, C.J., Wageningen : LH - p. 83 - 93.
De trek van alleenlopenden naar Eindhoven tussen 1865 en 1920
Woude, A.M. van der - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie. Verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool - p. 101 - 113.
De betekenis van gezinssociologisch onderzoek voor het beleid
Hoog, C. de - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie, verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool - p. 167 - 171.
Over 'disengagement'
Klooster-van Wingerden, C.M. van 't - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie, verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool - p. 63 - 66.
Impact of information technology on households
Presvelou, C. - \ 1985
In: Tussen empirie en reflectie, verzamelde opstellen voor G.A. Kooy / de Hoog, C., Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool - p. 41 - 45.
Mannen en vrouwen van psychiatrische patienten : een onderzoek naar verschillen in ervaringen, huwelijksbeleving en psychisch welbevinden
Methorst, G.J. - \ 1985
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): G.A. Kooy; G.J. Mellenbergh; H.G.M. Rooymans. - Wageningen : Methorst - 286
psychosen - psychiatrie - geestelijke stoornissen - psychologie - abnormaal gedrag - intermenselijke relaties - mannen - vrouwen - sociale problemen - getrouwde personen - personen - psychoses - psychiatry - mental disorders - psychology - abnormal behaviour - interpersonal relations - men - women - social problems - married persons - persons

HUSBANDS AND WIVES OF PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS: a study of differences pertaining to (marital) experiences and psychological well-being.

SUMMARY

The present study has been designed in order to explain differences in psychological well-being between husbands and wives of psychiatric outpatients, found in preceding investigations. Chapter 1 contains an introduction to the study and the outline of the report. In chapter 2 the literature m general sex-differences in psychological wellbeing is reviewed as well as that on the correspondence on psychological distress between husbands and wives. The explanations for the sex-differences can be divided roughly into two models. in the first one, which starts from sex- differences in socialization, it is assumed, that women are better trained than men to discern and express emotions. There is more cultural acceptance of psychological difficulties when expressed by females than when expressed by males. Therefore women will sooner be inclined to report psychological symptoms. The second explanation contradicts the first by noting that the overrepresentation of women on psychological symptons is mainly caused by married women whereas among the never married, males report more feelings of distress than females. According to this explanation, it is the difference between the traditional social roles of married men and women that accounts for the higher rate of married women with symptoms of psychological distress. Compared to their husbands wives occupy fewer social positions, experience less variation, receive fewer structural reinforcements, and are psychologically more dependent on their marital and family lives. Consequently married women have less opportunities to compensate for stressful events with satisfaction derived from a job or from social contacts with colleagues: life areas less bound to the nuclear family. This implies that the risk of boredam and of dissatisfactory conditions of life is higher for married women From a role theoretical perspective these explanations have been elaborated into nine hypotheses, presented in chapter 3 . Together these hypotheses should explain the fact that wives of psychiatric outpatients reported more psychological complaints than husbands of such patients. Having a partner who is treated for psychiatric symptoms was supposed to be correlated with so-called role-discrepancy. Role-discrepancy has been conceived as the discrepancy bet~ one's expectations of the spouse's marital role-behaviour and the behaviour of this spouse as actually perceived. Therefore hypothesis 1 has been formulated as follows: "Spouses of psychiatric outpatients will report more role- discrepancy than "normally" married persons" (i.e. persons, who neither they themselves nor their partners have ever been treated for psychiatric symptoms). To test the assumption that rolediscrepancy would be characteristic of the marital disruption experienced by spouses of psychiatric outpatients, hypothesis 2 has been formulated thus. "The negative correlation between role-discrepancy and marital satisfaction is stronger among spouses of psychiatric outpatients than among "normally" married persons". Because women were supposed to be better socialized than men to discern emotional expressions in themselves and in others it was assumed that wives would note the deviating behaviour of their spouses to a greater extent than men. To test this assumption, hypothesis 3 has been formulated: "Women experience more role-discrepancy than men". Won" were furthermore supposed to be more psychologically dependent on their marital lives than men. Disruption of the marriage would therefore be correlated with psychological distress rather among women than among men. The assumption that the marital lives of the spouses of psychiatric outpatients were disturbed would provide an explanation for the greater proportion of female spouses reporting psychological complaints. To test this assumption hypotheses 4 and 5 have been formulated. Hypothesis 4 : "The positive correlation between psychological complaints and role-discrepancy is stronger among women than among men". Hypothesis 5 : "The difference between the role-discrepancy of the wives of psychiatric outpatients and "normlly" married women is larger than the difference between the role-discrepancy of the husbands of psychiatric outpatients and "normally" married men". Starting from the sex-differences in the socialization process during which women would have learned to value especially the socio-emotional aspects of life and men the functional-instrumental ones, the role-discrepancy perceived by male and female spouses would differ accordingly. This assumption lead to hypotheses 6 and 7. Hypothesis 6 : "Women will experience more role-discrepancy on marital areas concerning affection and joined activities than men". Hypothesis 7 : "Compared to women men will experience more role-discrepancy on instrumental and functional areas of marital life". Spouses of psychiatric outpatients would furthermore experience role-discrepancy on the areas secondary to them selves but primary to their partners, because the role-behaviour of
the partners was supposed to be inadequate in these areas. The spouses of psychiatric outpatients would have to complement their partners in these areas. To test this assumption hypotheses 8 and 9 have been for mulated as follows. Hypothesis 8 : "Wives of male psychiatric
outpa
tients experience more role-discrepancy than "normally"
married we~
particularly on functional and instrumental areas of marital
life".
Hypothesis 9: "Compared to "normally" married men husbands
of female
psychiatric outpatients experience more role-discrepancy
especially
on socio-emotional areas of marital life".
In order to test these hypotheses a questionnaire to measure
marital
role-discrepancy has been constructed. A pilot-study among
189 "nor
mally" married men and women (reported in chapter 4) showed
this so
called "Marital Change Desirability Scale" to be internally
consistent
and valid as a measure of marriage appraisal.
The hypotheses have been tested in a study among the
following groups
of married persons: fifty male and fifty female psychiatric
outpatients
and their spouses, 72 men and 56 women from a random
population sample
without psychiatric treatment at present or in the past, 50
couples
who labeled their marriage as "happy", and 28 couples who
reported
marital problem. The design of the study is described in
chapter 5.
Data have been gathered by mews of questionnaires and by
means of
open interviews. The spouses of the psychiatric outpatients
have been
interviewed in order to obtain qualitative material that
might cla
rify the quantative data from the questionnaires. All
respondents
filled in the Marital Change Desirability Scale to measure
their role
discrepancy, the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire to measure their marital satisfaction and the Social Desirability Scale to control for response-tendencies. All groups, except the random population sample, filled in the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, as a measure of psychosomatic symptomatology. The patients and their partners filled in the Dutch Personality Questionnaire, as a ~sure of neuroticism, the Attitude to Marriage and Divorce Scales, as measures of sex-role stereotyping, and a psychological complaints questionnaire, as a measure of general psychological well- being. The results obtained by means of the questionnaires are reported in chapter 6. Respondents with marital problems reported the lowest marital satisfaction and the highest role-discrepancy. Second in line cam the partners of the psychiatric outpatients. In accordance with hypothesis 1 both male and female partners reported significantly more role-discrepancy than "normally" married men and v~. There was a difference between the marriage in which the nun and those in which the woman was the identified patient. In the first cases the husbands (the patients) had roughly the same role-discrepancy and marital satisfaction scores as the "normlly" married men whereas their wives were distinguished negatively from the "normally" married women. Amongst the marriages with the wife as the identified patient both. of the spouses differed negatively from the "normally" married men and women. Hypothesis 2, the assumption that role-discrepancy was characteristic of the marital disruption of patients' spouses, had to be rejected. The same holds for hypothesis 3, that wives would experience more role-discrepancy than husbands. Hypothesis 5, assuming a greater difference bet~ the role-discrepancy scores of wives of male patients and "normlly" married women than between those of husbands of female patients and "normally" married men, had to be rejected too. The only sex-differences on role- discrepancy found was that wen reported more discrepancy on the affective and women more on the instrumental areas of their marriages. These differences held for all the men and women except the male patients and their wives. This means that hypotheses 6 through 9 have not been confirmed either. As had been expected the psychological well-being of wives was more strongly correlated with their marriage appraisal than the psychological well-being
of the husbands. This correlation was found particularly in a negative sense: wives of male patients and wives with marital problems reported more psychosomatic symptoms than "normally" and "happily" married wives and more than all husbands except the wale patients. The husbands of female patients reported roughly the sane amount of psychosomatic symptoms as the "normally" married men. This means that hypothesis 4 is only confirmed for women who experience a disruption of their marital relationship. These results might indicate that women "suffer" more from a distorted marital relationship than men. On the other hand, it is possible that man express their marital dissatisfaction in another way than through psychological complaints. The interview data, reported in chapter 7, for example indicated that husbands of psychiatric outpatients were also distressed by the psychological problems of their wives and the effects m their lives and marriages. Though male and female partners of the patients did not differ significantly, the raw data unanimously showed men to evaluate the changes in patient's functioning, in their own functioning, and in their marriages, that were caused by or correlated with the psychological problems of the patients, more negatively than the wives of the male patients. Husbands seemed to be more disapproving of the whole situation, wives showed more signs of acquiescence. It looks as if husbands' expectations of their wives, their marriages, and their lives in general had been disturbed to a greater extent than those of the female spouses. It may be that men are less familiar with psychological problems than women, as might be concluded from the general finding that husbands more frequently said that they never expected this to happen to their wives whereas female spouses more often seemed to have anticipated the psychological breakdown of their partners. Male and female spouses also had different strategies to cope with their problems. Men relied more frequently on information from professionals or encyclopaedias whereas women relied more on lay persons who had the same sort of experiences. Furthermore women were distinguished from men by more self- development. In spite of negative experiences they evaluated the increase in selfreliance, though initially enforced by their husbands' illness as positive and as an enrichment of their lives. These results gave rise
to considerations about the tenability of the (sex)role theoretical explanatory ~1. Together with a Dutch summary of the results these considerations form the contents of chapter 8. It is concluded there that role theory can account for the present findings. Both male and female spouses were influenced by the psychiatric illness of their partners. Both had to take over responsibilities that originally belonged to the other sex. For men this mostly meant a step backwards: more household chores, more activities by which they were bound to the nuclear family, more stress because the work outside the 1~ had to be combined with these tasks without an increase in social status. Women on the other hand experienced as enlargement of their action radius by taking over their husbands' functions as family-representatives, by starting work outside the house, either because of the 'need to supplement family income or because they decided to do it because they considered that being at home all day together with the patient did not improve the situation. Con~ to the male spouses of the patients, the female spouses gained "priviliges" originally bound to male social roles. As has been stated earlier role theory can explain the results of this study, but it would have to be revised regarding stereotyped sexroles. Instead of describing (married) persons in terms of the social roles they are supposed to have according to their sex and marital status, it seems better to do this in terms of the social roles they will have according to their marital status alone.. It may be possible that the distinction between male and female spouses is fading away to make room for distinctions according to the positions a spouse, whether husband or wife, may occupy in the general society. The lack of differences between the male and female partners in this study might be interpretated as resulting from the second wave of feminism that started in the late sixties. The fact that the wives of the patients used more self-developing coping strategies than the husbands, can be seen as a confirmation of this interpretation for the female spouses at least.

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