Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Safety and efficacy of four-segmented Rift Valley fever virus in young sheep, goats and cattle
    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Oreshkova, Nadia ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kant, Jet ; Water, Sandra van de; Soós, Pál ; Dehon, Yves ; Kollár, Anna ; Pénzes, Zoltán ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Vaccines 5 (2020)1. - ISSN 2076-393X

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that causes severe and recurrent outbreaks on the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to expand its habitat. RVFV induces severe disease in newborns and abortion in pregnant ruminants. The viral genome consists of a small (S), medium (M) and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. The M segment encodes a glycoprotein precursor protein that is co-translationally cleaved into the two structural glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are involved in receptor attachment and cell entry. We previously constructed a four-segmented RVFV (RVFV-4s) by splitting the M genome segment into two M-type segments encoding either Gn or Gc. RVFV-4s replicates efficiently in cell culture but was shown to be completely avirulent in mice, lambs and pregnant ewes. Here, we show that a RVFV-4s candidate vaccine for veterinary use (vRVFV-4s) does not disseminate in vaccinated animals, is not shed or spread to the environment and does not revert to virulence. Furthermore, a single vaccination of lambs, goat kids and calves was shown to induce protective immunity against a homologous challenge. Finally, the vaccine was shown to provide full protection against a genetically distinct RVFV strain. Altogether, we demonstrate that vRVFV-4s optimally combines efficacy with safety, holding great promise as a next-generation RVF vaccine.

    Early pathogenesis of wesselsbron disease in pregnant ewes
    Oymans, Judith ; Keulen, Lucien van; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Pathogens 9 (2020)5. - ISSN 2076-0817
    Flavivirus - Immunohistochemistry - Neuroinvasion - Pregnant ewes - Vertical transmission - Wesselsbron virus

    Wesselsbron virus (WSLV) is a neglected, mosquito-borne flavivirus that is endemic to the African continent. The virus is teratogenic to ruminants and causes a self-limiting febrile illness in humans. Wesselsbron disease manifests with similar clinical signs and occurs in the same areas under the same climatic conditions as Rift Valley fever, which is therefore included in the differential diagnosis. Although the gross pathology of WSLV infection in pregnant ewes is reported in literature, the pathogenesis that leads to stillbirths, congenital malformations and abortion has remained undescribed. In the present study, pregnant ewes were inoculated with WSLV and subjected to detailed clinical- and histopathology 8 days later. The virus was mainly detected in foetal trophoblasts of the placenta and in neural progenitor cells, differentiated neurons, oligodendrocytes, microglia and astrocytes. Our study demonstrates that WSLV efficiently crosses the maternal–foetal interface and is highly neuroinvasive in the ovine foetus.

    Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor activation during In vitro and in vivo digestion of raw and cooked broccoli (brassica oleracea var. Italica)
    Koper, Jonna E.B. ; Kortekaas, Maaike ; Loonen, Linda M.P. ; Huang, Zhan ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Gill, Chris I.R. ; Pourshahidi, L.K. ; McDougall, Gordon ; Rowland, Ian ; Pereira-Caro, Gema ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Capuano, Edoardo - \ 2020
    Food & Function 11 (2020)5. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 4026 - 4037.

    Broccoli is rich in glucosinolates, which can be converted upon chewing and processing into Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) ligands. Activation of AhR plays an important role in overall gut homeostasis but the role of broccoli processing on the generation of AhR ligands is still largely unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature, cooking method (steaming versus boiling), gastric pH and further digestion of broccoli on AhR activation were investigated in vitro and in ileostomy subjects. For the in vitro study, raw, steamed (t = 3 min and t = 6 min) and boiled (t = 3 min and t = 6 min) broccoli were digested in vitro with different gastric pH. In the in vivo ileostomy study, 8 subjects received a broccoli soup or a broccoli soup plus an exogenous myrosinase source. AhR activation was measured in both in vitro and in vivo samples by using HepG2-Lucia™ AhR reporter cells. Cooking broccoli reduced the AhR activation measured after gastric digestion in vitro, but no effect of gastric pH was found. Indole AhR ligands were not detected or detected at very low levels both after intestinal in vitro digestion and in the ileostomy patient samples, which resulted in no AhR activation. This suggests that the evaluation of the relevance of glucosinolates for AhR modulation in the gut cannot prescind from the way broccoli is processed, and that broccoli consumption does not necessarily produce substantial amounts of AhR ligands in the large intestine.

    Multimeric single-domain antibody complexes protect against bunyavirus infections
    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Water, Sandra van de; Harmsen, Michiel ; Bermúdez-Méndez, Erick ; Drabek, Dubravka ; Grosveld, Frank ; Wernike, Kerstin ; Beer, Martin ; Aebischer, Andrea ; Daramola, Olalekan ; Conde, Sara Rodriguez ; Brennan, Karen ; Kozub, Dorota ; Kristiansen, Maiken Søndergaard ; Mistry, Kieran K. ; Deng, Ziyan ; Hellert, Jan ; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo ; Rey, Félix A. ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    eLife 9 (2020). - ISSN 2050-084X

    The World Health Organization has included three bunyaviruses posing an increasing threat to human health on the Blueprint list of viruses likely to cause major epidemics and for which no, or insufficient countermeasures exist. Here, we describe a broadly applicable strategy, based on llama-derived single-domain antibodies (VHHs), for the development of bunyavirus biotherapeutics. The method was validated using the zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an emerging pathogen of ruminants, as model pathogens. VHH building blocks were assembled into highly potent neutralizing complexes using bacterial superglue technology. The multimeric complexes were shown to reduce and prevent virus-induced morbidity and mortality in mice upon prophylactic administration. Bispecific molecules engineered to present two different VHHs fused to an Fc domain were further shown to be effective upon therapeutic administration. The presented VHH-based technology holds great promise for the development of bunyavirus antiviral therapies.

    Reverse genetics system for shuni virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus with zoonotic potential
    Oymans, Judith ; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Oort, Sophie Van; Vloet, Rianka ; Venter, Marietjie ; Pijlman, Gorben P. ; Oers, Monique M. Van; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Viruses 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 1999-4915
    Orthobunyavirus - Reassortment - Reverse genetics - Schmallenberg virus - Shuni virus

    The genus Orthobunyavirus (family Peribunyaviridae, order Bunyavirales) comprises over 170 named mosquito- and midge-borne viruses, several of which cause severe disease in animals or humans. Their three-segmented genomes enable reassortment with related viruses, which may result in novel viruses with altered host or tissue tropism and virulence. One such reassortant, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in north-western Europe in 2011. Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus related to SBV that is associated with neurological disease in horses in southern Africa and recently caused an outbreak manifesting with neurological disease and birth defects among ruminants in Israel. The zoonotic potential of SHUV was recently underscored by its association with neurological disease in humans. We here report a reverse genetics system for SHUV and provide first evidence that the non-structural (NSs) protein of SHUV functions as an antagonist of host innate immune responses. We furthermore report the rescue of a reassortant containing the L and S segments of SBV and the M segment of SHUV. This novel reverse genetics system can now be used to study SHUV virulence and tropism, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive reassortment events.

    Theoretical risk of genetic reassortment should not impede development of live, attenuated Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccines commentary on the draft WHO RVF Target Product Profile
    Monath, Thomas P. ; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Watts, Douglas M. ; Christofferson, Rebecca C. ; Desiree LaBeaud, Angelle ; Gowen, Brian ; Peters, Clarence J. ; Smith, Darci R. ; Swanepoel, Robert ; Morrill, John C. ; Ksiazek, Thomas G. ; Pittman, Phillip R. ; Bird, Brian H. ; Bettinger, George - \ 2020
    Vaccine: X 5 (2020). - ISSN 2590-1362
    Genetic reassortment - Rift Valley Fever vaccine - Target Product Profile

    In November 2019, The World Health Organization (WHO) issued a draft set of Target Product Profiles (TPPs) describing optimal and minimally acceptable targets for vaccines against Rift Valley fever (RVF), a Phlebovirus with a three segmented genome, in both humans and ruminants. The TPPs contained rigid requirements to protect against genomic reassortment of live, attenuated vaccines (LAVs) with wild-type RVF virus (RVFV), which place undue constraints on development and regulatory approval of LAVs. We review the current LAVs in use and in development, and conclude that there is no evidence that reassortment between LAVs and wild-type RVFV has occurred during field use, that such a reassortment event if it occurred would have no untoward consequence, and that the TPPs should be revised to provide a more balanced assessment of the benefits versus the theoretical risks of reassortment.

    Novel toscana virus reverse genetics system establishes NSS as an antagonist of type I interferon responses
    Woelfl, Franziska ; Léger, Psylvia ; Oreshkova, Nadia ; Pahmeier, Felix ; Windhaber, Stefan ; Koch, Jana ; Stanifer, Megan ; Sosa, Gleyder Roman ; Uckeley, Zina M. ; Rey, Felix A. ; Boulant, Steeve ; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Lozach, Pierre Yves - \ 2020
    Viruses 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 1999-4915
    Arbovirus - Bunyavirales - Interferon - Neglected diseases - Phenuiviridae - Phlebovirus - Reverse genetics - Sand fly fever - Toscana virus

    The sand fly-borne Toscana virus (TOSV) is the major cause of human meningoencephalitis in the Mediterranean basin during the summer season. In this work, we have developed a T7 RNA polymerase-driven reverse genetics system to recover infectious particles of a lineage B strain of TOSV. The viral protein pattern and growth properties of the rescued virus (rTOSV) were found to be similar to those of the corresponding wild-type (wt) virus. Using this system, we genetically engineered a TOSV mutant lacking expression of the non-structural protein NSs (rTOSVϕNSs). Unlike rTOSV and the wt virus, rTOSVϕNSs was unable to (i) suppress interferon (IFN)-b messenger RNA induction; and (ii) grow efficiently in cells producing IFN-b. Together, our results highlight the importance of NSs for TOSV in evading the IFN response and provide a comprehensive toolbox to investigate the TOSV life cycle in mammalian and insect host cells, including several novel polyclonal antibodies.

    Obstacles to vaccination of animals and prospective solutions
    Holm, Anja ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Biologicals 65 (2020). - ISSN 1045-1056 - p. 46 - 49.
    Emerging animal diseases - Obstacles to vaccination - Regulatory acceptance - Vaccine platforms - Veterinary

    On the 17th of October 2019, a workshop was held at Wageningen Bioveterinary Research in Lelystad, the Netherlands, to discuss the obstacles to vaccination in the veterinary field. Participants from academia, OIE, FAO, EC, EMA, USDA, national regulatory and veterinary health authorities, and the animal health industry discussed how availability and access to animal vaccines can be improved not just in the EU and US but also in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC) across the world and agreed that this requires innovations in both the scientific and the regulatory field. The workshop called for engaging all stakeholders to improve regulatory acceptance of novel vaccine technologies and encourage their registration. There is a need for better mutual understanding between academia, industry and regulators, and more openness to discuss framework, requirements, and product authorisations, and to converge the regulatory rules between regions. The next leap forward could be a broader application of novel technologies using RNA- or DNA-based vaccine platforms, where the “backbone” is maintained, while the gene of interest coding for an immunogenic protein can be exchanged in a standardised manner. This approach enables rapid response in outbreak situations and should lower the risk and cost of vaccine development.

    Two novel porcine teschovirus strains as the causative agents of encephalomyelitis in the Netherlands
    Vreman, Sandra ; Caliskan, Nermin ; Harders, Frank ; Boonstra, Jan ; Peperkamp, Klaas ; Ho, Cynthia K.Y. ; Kuller, Wikke ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    BMC Veterinary Research 16 (2020)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
    Non-suppurative encephalomyelitis - Porcine teschovirus - Weanling pigs

    Background: Porcine teschovirus (PTV) circulates among wild and domesticated pig populations without causing clinical disease, however neuroinvasive strains have caused high morbidity and mortality in the past. In recent years, several reports appeared with viral agents as a cause for neurologic signs in weanling and growing pigs among which PTV and new strains of PTV were described. Case presentation: On two unrelated pig farms in the Netherlands the weanling pig population showed a staggering gate, which developed progressively to paresis or paralysis of the hind legs with a morbidity up to 5%. After necropsy we diagnosed a non-suppurative encephalomyelitis on both farms, which was most consistent with a viral infection. PTV was detected within the central nervous system by qPCR. From both farms PTV full-length genomes were sequenced, which clustered closely with PTV-3 (98%) or PTV-11 (85%). Other common swine viruses were excluded by qPCR and sequencing of the virus. Conclusion: Our results show that new neuroinvasive PTV strains still emerge in pigs in the Netherlands. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of PTV and other viral agents causing encephalomyelitis within wild and domestic pig populations supported by the awareness of veterinarians.

    Vison: vaccine against coronavirus
    Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    Rift Valley fever virus targets the maternal-foetal interface in ovine and human placentas
    Oymans, Judith ; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kant, Jet ; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 14 (2020)1. - ISSN 1935-2727 - p. e0007898 - e0007898.

    BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus of the order Bunyavirales that causes severe disease in ruminants and humans. Outbreaks in sheep herds are characterised by newborn fatalities and abortion storms. The association of RVFV infections with abortions of ovines and other ruminants is well recognized, whereas the pathology resulting in abortion has remained undescribed. Accumulating evidence suggests that RVFV is abortogenic in humans as well, warranting more research on the interaction of RVFV with the ruminant and human placenta. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pregnant ewes were inoculated with a highly virulent strain of RVFV and necropsied at different days post infection. Tissues were collected and analysed by PCR, virus isolation, and immunohistochemistry. The results show that RVFV replicates efficiently in maternal placental epithelial cells before the virus infects foetal trophoblasts. Moreover, the virus was shown to bypass the maternal epithelial cell layer by directly targeting foetal trophoblasts in the haemophagous zone, a region of the ovine placenta where maternal blood is in direct contact with foetal cells. Abortion was associated with widespread necrosis of placental tissues accompanied with severe haemorrhages. Experiments with human placental explants revealed that the same virus strain replicates efficiently in both cyto- and syncytiotrophoblasts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that RVFV targets the foetal-maternal interface in both ovine and human placentas. The virus was shown to cross the ovine placental barrier via two distinct routes, ultimately resulting in placental and foetal demise followed by abortion. Our finding that RVFV replicates efficiently in human trophoblasts underscores the risk of RVFV infection for human pregnancy.

    Safety and efficacy of ChAdOx1 RVF vaccine against Rift Valley fever in pregnant sheep and goats
    Stedman, Anna ; Wright, Daniel ; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Clark, Madeleine H.A. ; Hill, Adrian V.S. ; Gilbert, Sarah C. ; Francis, Michael J. ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Charleston, Bryan ; Warimwe, George M. - \ 2019
    Vaccines 4 (2019)1. - ISSN 2076-393X

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus that was first discovered in Kenya in 1930 and has since spread to become endemic in much of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Rift Valley fever (RVF) causes recurrent outbreaks of febrile illness associated with high levels of mortality and poor outcomes during pregnancy—including foetal malformations, spontaneous abortion and stillbirths—in livestock, and associated with miscarriage in humans. No vaccines are available for human use and those licensed for veterinary use have potential drawbacks, including residual virulence that may contraindicate their use in pregnancy. To address this gap, we previously developed a simian adenovirus vectored vaccine, ChAdOx1 RVF, that encodes RVFV envelope glycoproteins. ChAdOx1 RVF is fully protective against RVF in non-pregnant livestock and is also under development for human use. Here, we now demonstrate that when administered to pregnant sheep and goats, ChAdOx1 RVF is safe, elicits high titre RVFV neutralizing antibody, and provides protection against viraemia and foetal loss, although this protection is not as robust for the goats. In addition, we provide a description of RVFV challenge in pregnant goats and contrast this to the pathology observed in pregnant sheep. Together, our data further support the ongoing development of ChAdOx1 RVF vaccine for use in livestock and humans.

    NSs Filament Formation Is Important but Not Sufficient for RVFV Virulence In Vivo
    Li, Shufen ; Zhu, Xiangtao ; Guan, Zhenqiong ; Huang, Wenfeng ; Zhang, Yulan ; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Lozach, Pierre Yves ; Peng, Ke - \ 2019
    Viruses 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 1999-4915
    filament - NSs - reverse genetics system - RVFV - virulence

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus that represents as a serious health threat to both domestic animals and humans. The viral protein NSs is the key virulence factor of RVFV, and has been proposed that NSs nuclear filament formation is critical for its virulence. However, the detailed mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we generated a T7 RNA polymerase-driven RVFV reverse genetics system based on a strain imported into China (BJ01). Several NSs mutations (T1, T3 and T4) were introduced into the system for investigating the correlation between NSs filament formation and virulence in vivo. The NSs T1 mutant showed distinct NSs filament in the nuclei of infected cells, the T3 mutant diffusively localized in the cytoplasm and the T4 mutant showed fragmented nuclear filament formation. Infection of BALB/c mice with these NSs mutant viruses revealed that the in vivo virulence was severely compromised for all three NSs mutants, including the T1 mutant. This suggests that NSs filament formation is not directly correlated with RVFV virulence in vivo. Results from this study not only shed new light on the virulence mechanism of RVFV NSs but also provided tools for future in-depth investigations of RVFV pathogenesis and anti-RVFV drug screening.

    Preparing for Virus X
    Kortekaas, J.A. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2019
    Rift Valley fever: biology and epidemiology
    Wright, Daniel ; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Bowden, Thomas A. ; Warimwe, George M. - \ 2019
    Journal of General Virology 100 (2019)8. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1187 - 1199.
    epidemiology - one health - pathogenesis - Rift Valley fever - transmission - vaccine

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that was first discovered in Kenya in 1930 and is now endemic throughout multiple African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. RVF virus primarily infects domestic livestock (sheep, goats, cattle) causing high rates of neonatal mortality and abortion, with human infection resulting in a wide variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting febrile illness to life-threatening haemorrhagic diatheses, and miscarriage in pregnant women. Since its discovery, RVF has caused many outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with major impacts on human and animal health. However, options for the control of RVF outbreaks are limited by the lack of licensed human vaccines or therapeutics. For this reason, RVF is prioritized by the World Health Organization for urgent research and development of countermeasures for the prevention and control of future outbreaks. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of RVF, including its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and status of vaccine development.

    Met kennis de markt op
    Dekkers, B.L. ; Kortekaas, J.A. ; Meiling, Jan ; Houthoff, Iris ; Goot, A.J. van der; Berendse, Sebastiaan - \ 2019
    Marketing knowledge
    Kortekaas, J.A. ; Meiling, Jan ; Goot, A.J. van der; Dekkers, B.L. ; Houthoff, Iris ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Lindner, F. - \ 2019

    Researchers and students are increasingly being challenged to think about how they can market their knowledge. Various startups and spin-offs are already under development. ‘We no longer wait until an enterprising researcher wants to go into business.’

    Association between vitamin content, plant morphology and geographical origin in a worldwide collection of the orphan crop Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae)
    Sogbohossou, E.O.D. ; Kortekaas, Dieke ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Stoilova, Tsvetilina ; Deynze, Allen Van; Vos, C.H. de; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2019
    Planta 250 (2019)3. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 933 - 947.
    Main conclusion: The variability in nutrient content and morphology in Gynandropsis gynandra is associated with the geographic origin of the accessions and provides a basis for breeding for higher levels of vitamin C, carotenoids or tocopherols in higher-yielding cultivars.We examined the variation in carotenoids, tocopherols and ascorbic acid as well as morphological traits in a worldwide germplasm of 76 accessions of the orphan leafy vegetable Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae) using greenhouse experiments and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The levels of carotenoids and tocopherols accumulating in the leaves varied significantly across accessions and were linked with the geographical origin and morphological variation. The main carotenoids included lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene and violaxanthin. A twofold to threefold variation was observed for these compounds. The main tocopherols detected were α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol with a 20-fold variation. A ninefold variation in vitamin C concentration and independent of geographical origin was observed. Overall, the accessions were grouped into three clusters based on variation in nutrient content and morphology. West African accessions were short plants with small leaves and with high tocopherol contents and relatively low carotenoid contents, Asian accessions were short plants with broad leaves and with relatively low carotenoid and high tocopherol contents, while East–Southern African plants were tall with high contents of both carotenoids and chlorophylls and low tocopherol contents. Carotenoids were positively correlated with plant height as well as foliar and floral traits but negatively correlated with tocopherols. The absence of a significant correlation between vitamin C and other traits indicated that breeding for high carotenoids or tocopherols content may be coupled with improved leaf yield and vitamin C content. Our study provides baseline information on the natural variation available for traits of interest for breeding for enhanced crop yield and nutrient content in Gynandropsis gynandra.
    Vector competence of biting midges and mosquitoes for Shuni virus
    Möhlmann, Tim W.R. ; Oymans, Judith ; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Kortekaas, Jeroen ; Vogels, Chantal B.F. - \ 2018
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 12 (2018)12. - ISSN 1935-2727

    Background: Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus that belongs to the Simbu serogroup. SHUV was isolated from diverse species of domesticated animals and wildlife, and is associated with neurological disease, abortions, and congenital malformations. Recently, SHUV caused outbreaks among ruminants in Israel, representing the first incursions outside the African continent. The isolation of SHUV from a febrile child in Nigeria and seroprevalence among veterinarians in South Africa suggests that the virus may have zoonotic potential as well. The high pathogenicity, extremely broad tropism, potential transmission via both biting midges and mosquitoes, and zoonotic features warrants prioritization of SHUV for further research. Additional knowledge is essential to accurately determine the risk for animal and human health, and to assess the risk of future epizootics and epidemics. To gain first insights into the potential involvement of arthropod vectors in SHUV transmission, we have investigated the ability of SHUV to infect and disseminate in laboratory-reared biting midges and mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal findings: Culicoides nubeculosus, C. sonorensis, Culex pipiens pipiens, and Aedes aegypti were orally exposed to SHUV by providing an infectious blood meal. Biting midges showed high infection rates of approximately 40–60%, whereas infection rates of mosquitoes were lower than 2%. SHUV successfully disseminated in both species of biting midges, but no evidence of transmission in orally exposed mosquitoes was found. Conclusions/Significance: The results of this study show that different species of Culicoides biting midges are susceptible to infection and dissemination of SHUV, whereas the two mosquito species tested were found not to be susceptible.

    New: creating vaccines faster
    Kortekaas, J.A. ; Bossenbroek, Jochem - \ 2018
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