Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Do diverse landscapes provide for effective natural pest control in subtropical rice?
    Zou, Yi ; Kraker, Joop De; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Xiao, Haijun ; Huang, Jikun ; Deng, Xiangzheng ; Hou, Lingling ; Werf, Wopke Van Der - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Ecology 57 (2020)1. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 170 - 180.
    While the biocontrol potential of natural enemies is well established, it is largely unknown how landscape‐mediated effects on pest and natural enemy communities impact the cascade of biocontrol potential, crop injury, yield and profit, taking into account crop management and surrounding landscape composition.We compared natural biocontrol with chemical control according to local farmers’ practice, across the ‘full cascade’ from natural enemy and pest abundance to crop injury, yield loss, yield and economic performance. This two‐year study was conducted in 20 rice fields embedded in a gradient of landscapes from crop‐dominated to semi‐natural habitat‐dominated, in subtropical China, the world's largest rice producing region.Natural enemies suppressed brown planthopper population growth in unsprayed plots, irrespective of landscape composition. However, crop injury was lower in pesticide treated plots than in unsprayed plots, and yields in sprayed plots were 20% higher than in unsprayed plots. Nevertheless, pesticide applications were only profitable in less than half of the cases when only costs for pesticides were considered, and in less than one third of the cases when costs for pesticides and labour were considered.Synthesis and applications. Our findings question the cost‐effectiveness of current chemical‐based pest management in farming, and highlight opportunities for more ecologically based pest management strategies based on the widespread activity of natural enemies. Pest damage and biocontrol, however, are largely independent from the landscape context, which might be due to the small‐scale character of Chinese rice landscapes. To maintain high levels of biocontrol, conserving this small‐scale character appears more important than increasing the proportion of semi‐natural habitat
    Decentralized valorization of residual flows as an alternative to the traditional urban waste management system: The case of Peñalolén in Santiago de Chile
    Kraker, Jeltsje de; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna ; Villena, Marcelo J. ; Pabón-Pereira, Claudia - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)22. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Circular metabolism - Decentralized valorization - Material flow analysis - Nutrient recovery - Waste management

    Urban residual flows contain significant amounts of valuable nutrients, which, if recovered, could serve as input for the own city needs or those of its immediate surroundings. In this study, the possibilities for decentralized recovery of nutrient rich residual flows in Santiago, Chile, are studied by means of a case study considering technical and socio-economic criteria. In particular, we calculate circularity indicators for organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) and cost-benefits of household and community on-site technological alternatives. Kitchen waste (KW) and garden residues (GR) as well as urine were considered as system inputs whereas urban agriculture, municipality green, or peri-urban agriculture were the considered destinations for nutrients recovered. The technologies studied were anaerobic digestion, vermicomposting, and composting, while urine storage and struvite precipitation were considered for nutrient recovery from urine. Material flow analysis was used to visualize the inputs and outputs of the baseline situation (the traditional urban waste management system), and of the different household and municipality resource recovery scenarios (the decentralized valorization systems). Our findings show that decentralized valorization of KW and GR are a clear win-win policy, since they can not only produce important environmental benefits for the city in the long run, but also important cost savings considering the landfill fees and residues transportation of the current centralized waste management system.

    Do diverse landscapes provide for effective natural pest control in subtropical rice?
    Zou, Y. ; Kraker, Joop de; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Xiao, Haijun ; Huang, Jikun ; Deng, Xiangzheng ; Hou, Lingling ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    agroecosystem - biological pest control - China - natural enemy - pest - planthopper - yield
    This datasets comprises data from 20 rice fields embedded in a gradient of landscapes from crop-dominated to semi-natural habitat-dominated, in the Jiangxi Province in China in 2014 and 2015. Each field was split into two plots: in one plot no pesticides were applied and in the other plot farmers applied pesticides according to their normal pest management practices. The dataset comprises information on the focal rice fields, the land use surrounding the focal rice fields, arthropod abundances and diversity, crop damage, an exclusion experiment to assess the potential of natural enemies to suppress pests, pest management practices and rice yield
    Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
    Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Declerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; O’Rourke, Megan E. ; Rusch, Adrien ; Poveda, Katja ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Schellhorn, Nancy A. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Zhang, Wei ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Adler, Lynn S. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Alignier, Audrey ; Angelella, Gina M. ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Avelino, Jacques ; Batáry, Péter ; Baveco, Johannes M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bohnenblust, Eric W. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Brewer, Michael J. ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Carrière, Yves ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Cayuela, Luis ; Centrella, Mary ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Henri, Dominic Charles ; Chabert, Ariane ; Costamagna, Alejandro C. ; La Mora, Aldo De; Kraker, Joop De; Desneux, Nicolas ; Diehl, Eva ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Eckberg, James O. ; Entling, Martin H. ; Fiedler, Daniela ; Franck, Pierre ; Veen, F.J.F. van; Frank, Thomas ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Getachew, Awraris ; Gonthier, David J. ; Goodell, Peter B. ; Graziosi, Ignazio ; Groves, Russell L. ; Gurr, Geoff M. ; Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary ; Heimpel, George E. ; Herrmann, John D. ; Huseth, Anders S. ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Ingrao, Adam J. ; Iv, Phirun ; Jacot, Katja ; Johnson, Gregg A. ; Jones, Laura ; Kaiser, Marina ; Kaser, Joe M. ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lavandero, Blas ; Lavigne, Claire ; Ralec, Anne Le; Lemessa, Debissa ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Liere, Heidi ; Lu, Yanhui ; Lubin, Yael ; Luttermoser, Tim ; Maas, Bea ; Mace, Kevi ; Madeira, Filipe ; Mader, Viktoria ; Cortesero, Anne Marie ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martinez, Eliana ; Martinson, Holly M. ; Menozzi, Philippe ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Miyashita, Tadashi ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. ; O’Neal, Matthew E. ; Opatovsky, Itai ; Ortiz-Martinez, Sebaastian ; Nash, Michael ; Östman, Örjan ; Ouin, Annie ; Pak, Damie ; Paredes, Daniel ; Parsa, Soroush ; Parry, Hazel ; Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo ; Perović, David J. ; Peterson, Julie A. ; Petit, Sandrine ; Philpott, Stacy M. ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Plećaš, Milan ; Pluess, Therese ; Pons, Xavier ; Potts, Simon G. ; Pywell, Richard F. ; Ragsdale, David W. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Raymond, Lucie ; Ricci, Benoît ; Sargent, Chris ; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre ; Saulais, Julia ; Schäckermann, Jessica ; Schmidt, Nick P. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Sivakoff, Frances S. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin ; Stutz, Sonja ; Szendrei, Zsofia ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thomson, Linda J. ; Tricault, Yann ; Tsafack, Noelline ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Valantin-Morison, Muriel ; Trinh, Mai Van; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Vierling, Kerri T. ; Werling, Ben P. ; Wickens, Jennifer B. ; Wickens, Victoria J. ; Woodcock, Ben A. ; Wyckhuys, Kris ; Xiao, Haijun ; Yasuda, Mika ; Yoshioka, Akira - \ 2018
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7863 - E7870.
    IPM
    The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
    Scholarly Metrics Recommendations for Research Libraries: Deciphering the trees in the forest
    Coombs, S. ; Peters, I. ; Schmidt, B. ; Princic, A. ; Martinez, M. ; Kraker, P. ; Jahn, N. ; Haustein, S. ; Cornée, N. ; Abcouwer, K. ; Gorraiz, J. ; Fest, P.M.J. ; Tsakonas, G. - \ 2018
    Liber - 17 p.
    The digital era has brought new and exciting changes to scholarly communication. Modern scientific libraries and information infrastructures are obliged to face these new challenges in a professional way sooner rather than later.The monitoring and execution of policies, the facilitation of Open Access publishing, and support for research data management are but a few examples of adaptation to the digital era. The use of scholarly metrics is also an emerging field for academic libraries, brought on by digital change. To foster this vision, LIBER's Innovative Metrics Working Group has set out recommendations on how academic libraries and information infrastructures can deal with scholarly metrics, and how to get started with the development of services to support this.

    The recommendations are grouped into four sections:
    - Discovery and Discoverability
    - Showcasing Achievements
    - Service Development
    - Research Assessment

    Each section covers a set of activities, and makes suggestions for libraries which want to promote the transparent, standardized and responsible use of scholarly metrics. As part of LIBER’s focus on Open Science, the Working Group has placed a special emphasis on recommendations addressing open scholarly metrics. Throughout this report, we have organised our recommendations into three levels. Which recommendations a library adopts will depend on their current level of engagement with scholarly metrics. The levels are as follows:
    - Initial Steps (circular bullet)
    - Intermediate Steps (square bullet)
    - Advanced Steps (triangular bullet)

    The order in which the recommendations appear are in correlation with the potential importance they can have for an institution. These two indications of use were developed during the Working Group’s workshop during LIBER’s 2017 Annual Conference. They are there to assist in prioritizing, but are not mandatory to follow and are not dependent on each other.
    Video monitoring of brown planthopper predation in rice shows flaws of sentinel methods
    Zou, Yi ; Kraker, Joop De; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Telgen, Mario D. Van; Xiao, Haijun ; Werf, Wopke Van Der - \ 2017
    Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322
    Immobilized preys are routinely used in agro-ecological exposure studies to quantify predation of pests under field conditions, but this method has not been validated. Our purpose was to determine the validity of using immobilized adults of the major rice pest Nilaparvata lugens, brown plant hopper (BPH), as sentinels. We used direct observation by video recording to determine the causal agents of removal of field exposed BPH sentinels with two experiments: 1) we recorded removal events of dead, immobilized BPH; and 2) we compared removal of (i) dead, immobilized BPH, (ii) live, immobilized BPH, and (iii) live, mobile BPH. Long-horned grasshoppers were responsible for most removals of dead, immobilized BPH, in both experiments. Predatory ground beetles removed most of the live, immobilized BPH, whereas frogs were the major predators of live, mobile BPH. Overall, we showed that removal of immobilized sentinel prey is not representative for predation of live, mobile prey, stressing the need for a critical assessment of commonly used sentinel methods. In addition, we found that frogs played the major role in predation of BPH in rice. As current strategies to enhance biocontrol of planthoppers in rice focus on arthropod natural enemies, this finding could have major implications.
    Sustainable Forest Management as a potential integrative approach in international public policy
    Mattei Faggin, Joana ; Offermans, A. - \ 2016
    In: Sustainable Development Research at ICIS / Cövers, R., Kraker, J. de, Kemp, R., Martens, P., Lente, H. van, Maastricht : Universitaire Pers Maastricht - ISBN 9789461596475 - p. 189 - 201.
    Deforestation negatively affects the provision of environmental services, and
    consequently affects local populations’ livelihoods that depend on the use of forest
    resources. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) aims to use forest resources in such a
    way as to provide environmental services while at the same time achieving economic
    and social goals. Even though there is currently no forest convention in an international
    public policy context, the SFM concept is included in several international public policy
    forums. The present chapter analyses SFM in three United Nations Conventions (CBD –
    on Biological Diversity, UNFCCC – on Climate Change, and UNCCD – to Combat
    Desertification). The chapter concludes that SFM is a broad concept, and its
    implementation specificities are addressed at a national policy scale, which is mainly
    influenced by the sovereignty principle. Finally, we concluded that the SFM concept still
    hardly touches upon the social dimension, compared to the economic and
    environmental dimensions.
    Modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for field sampling of arthropods
    Zou, Yi ; Telgen, Mario D. van; Chen, Junhui ; Xiao, Haijun ; Kraker, Joop de; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Werf, Wopke van der - \ 2016
    Journal of Visualized Experiments (2016)114. - ISSN 1940-087X
    Arthropod abundance - Biodiversity - Environmental Sciences - Issue 114 - Natural enemy - Pest management - Rice - Suction sampling

    Rice fields host a large diversity of arthropods, but investigating their population dynamics and interactions is challenging. Here we describe the modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for suction sampling of arthropod populations in rice. When used in combination with an enclosure, application of this sampling device provides absolute estimates of the populations of arthropods as numbers per standardized sampling area. The sampling efficiency depends critically on the sampling duration. In a mature rice crop, a two-minute sampling in an enclosure of 0.13 m2 yields more than 90% of the arthropod population. The device also allows sampling of arthropods dwelling on the water surface or the soil in rice paddies, but it is not suitable for sampling fast flying insects, such as predatory Odonata or larger hymenopterous parasitoids. The modified blower-vac is simple to construct, and cheaper and easier to handle than traditional suction sampling devices, such as D-vac. The low cost makes the modified blower-vac also accessible to researchers in developing countries.

    Can computer models be used for social learning? A serious game in water management
    Wal, Merel M. Van der; Kraker, Joop de; Kroeze, Carolien ; Kirschner, Paul A. ; Valkering, Pieter - \ 2016
    Environmental Modelling & Software 75 (2016). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 119 - 132.
    Serious game - Simulation model - Social learning - Water management

    Computer simulation models are increasingly used to support solving complex problems in natural resource management, with social learning as subsidiary goal of the solution process. In this research, a serious game on water management is used where participants receive feedback on consequences of their choices from an Integrated Assessment Meta Model. This study aims to determine if and how social learning takes place and explores the role of the model in social learning. Group discussions were qualitatively analysed to uncover and understand the mechanisms in this process. Results show that social learning took place in 10 of the 12 game sessions. Though model feedback was an important driver for social learning, social learning was driven most by the team's reflection on their perspective. We conclude that using a model can facilitate social learning in a serious-game setting, in particular in combination with reflection on teams' perspectives.

    Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India
    Vermeulen, L.C. ; Kraker, Dummy ; Hofstra, N. ; Kroeze, C. ; Medema, G.J. - \ 2015
    Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015). - ISSN 1748-9326 - 13 p.
    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a global model by Hofstra et al (2013 Sci. Total Environ. 442 10–9) and zoom into Bangladesh and India as illustrative case studies. The model is most sensitive to changes in oocyst excretion and infection rate, and to assumptions on the share of faeces reaching the surface water for different sanitation types. We find urban centres to be hotspots of human Cryptosporidium emissions. We estimate that 53% (Bangladesh) and 91% (India) of total emissions come from urban areas. 50% of oocysts come from only 8% (Bangladesh) and 3% (India) of the country area. In the future, population growth and urbanization may further deteriorate water quality in Bangladesh and India, despite improved sanitation. Under our 'business as usual' ('sanitation improvements') scenario, oocyst emissions will increase by a factor 2.0 (1.2) for India and 2.9 (1.1) for Bangladesh between 2010 and 2050. Population growth, urbanization and sanitation development are important processes to consider for large scale water quality modelling.
    Assessment of the Potential of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Biomonitoring of Air Pollution by Cadmium, Lead and Vanadium
    Steen, J.J.M. van der; Kraker, J. de; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. - \ 2015
    Journal of Environmental Protection 6 (2015)2. - ISSN 2152-2197 - p. 96 - 102.
    The aim of our study was to explore whether honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) could be used as a reliable alternative to the standard mechanical devices for monitoring of air quality, in particular with respect to the concentration of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). We therefore tested whether the concentrations of these metals in adult honeybees and in ambient air were positively correlated, and whether differences in concentration between locations were similar for bees and air. On the basis of our measurements, conducted over a two-month period at three distinct locations in the Netherlands with each three replicate honeybee colonies placed next to mechanical monitoring devices, we concluded that a significant positive relationship between the concentrations in bees and in air could only be established for V. Also, only in the case of V, the differences between the three locations in mean concentration were similar for bees and air. Both outcomes were probably due to the relatively large range over which the concentrations of V varied, both in bees and in air, as compared to Cd and Pb. However, for V, as well as for Cd and Pb, the concentrations in ambient air were about two orders of magnitude below the established air quality standards. We therefore conclude that in the Netherlands, both variation and levels of the atmospheric concentrations of these metals are too low to establish a relationship between the concentration in bees and in air that is useful to present honeybees as an alternative to mechanical devices in monitoring of air pollution. However, in countries with larger variation and higher levels of the atmospheric concentrations of these metals, further exploration of the potential of honeybees in biomonitoring of air pollution may be worthwhile
    Measuring Social Learning in Participatory Approaches to Natural Resource Management
    Wal, M.M. van der; Kraker, J. de; Offermans, A. ; Kroeze, C. ; Kirschner, P. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
    Environmental Policy and Governance 24 (2014)1. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 1 - 15.
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - sociaal leren - participatief management - klimaatverandering - governance - natural resources - resource management - social learning - participative management - climatic change - governance - cultural theory - stakeholder participation - climate-change - sustainability - perspectives - framework - dilemmas
    The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and practical methods to measure it. In this article, we present a simple and flexible method to measure social learning, whether it has occurred and to what extent, among stakeholders in natural resource management. The method yields measurements of social learning that are visual, quantitative and qualitative. First, we elaborate our definition of social learning as a convergence of perspectives and outline how stakeholder perspectives in natural resource management can be described with Cultural Theory. Next, we provide a generic description of the method, followed by two examples illustrating its application to the domains of water and land management. Finally, we discuss relative strengths and weaknesses of the method and how it could be applied to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to social learning.
    Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in humans living in municipalities with high and low broiler density
    Huijbers, P.M.C. ; Kraker, M. de; Graat, E.A.M. ; Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Santen, M.G.M. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Duijkeren, E. van; Greeff, S.C. de - \ 2013
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 19 (2013)6. - ISSN 1198-743X - p. E256 - E259.
    escherichia-coli - volunteers - resistance - poultry - genes
    Prevalence of, and risk factors for, carriage of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae were determined for 1025 Dutch adults in municipalities with either high or low broiler densities. Overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 5.1%. The hypothesis that individuals in areas with high broiler densities are at greater risk for ESBL carriage was rejected, as the risk was lower (OR = 0.45; p 0.009) for these individuals. Owning a horse increased the risk (OR = 4.69; p =0.0001), but horse owners often owned multiple species of companion animals. Routes of transmission from animals to humans in the community, and the role of poultry in this process, remain to be elucidated.
    Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Humans Living in Municipalities with High or Low Broiler Density
    Huijbers, P.M.C. ; Kraker, M. de; Graat, E.A.M. ; Hoek, A.H. van; Santen, M.G. van; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Jong, M.C.M. de; Greeff, S.C. de - \ 2012
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd American Society for Microbiology conference on Antimicrobial Resistance in Zoonotic Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens in Animals, Humans, and the Environment, Aix-en-Provence, France, 26-29 June 2012. - Aix-en-Provence, France : - ISBN 9781555818630 - p. 17 - 17.
    Spatial and temporal variation of metal concentrations in adult honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)
    Steen, J.J.M. van der; Kraker, J. ; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. - \ 2012
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184 (2012)7. - ISSN 0167-6369 - p. 4119 - 4126.
    heavy-metals - bees - contamination - products - pollen
    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have great potential for detecting and monitoring environmental pollution, given their wide-ranging foraging behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that concentrations of metals in adult honeybees were significantly higher at polluted than at control locations. These studies focused at a limited range of heavy metals and highly contrasting locations, and sampling was rarely repeated over a prolonged period. In our study, the potential of honeybees to detect and monitor metal pollution was further explored by measuring the concentration in adult honeybees of a wide range of trace metals, nine of which were not studied before, at three locations in the Netherlands over a 3-month period. The specific objective of the study was to assess the spatial and temporal variation in concentration in adult honeybees of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn. In the period of July-September 2006, replicated samples were taken at 2-week intervals from commercial-type beehives. The metal concentration in micrograms per gram honeybee was determined by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Significant differences in concentration between sampling dates per location were found for Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn Sr, Ti and V, and significant differences in average concentration between locations were found for Co, Sr and V. The results indicate that honeybees can serve to detect temporal and spatial patterns in environmental metal concentrations, even at relatively low levels of pollution. Keywords: Metals . Bioindication . Pollution . Honeybee
    ‘The lived experience of climate change’: creating open educational resources and virtual mobility for an innovative, integrative and competence-based track at Masters level
    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M. ; Wilson, Gordon ; Abbott, Dina ; Kraker, Joop de - \ 2011
    International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning 3 (2011)2. - ISSN 1753-5255
    This paper explores a new integrative approach to climate change education at Masters level. Drawing on the authors’ involvement in a European Union Erasmus project, it is argued that the diversity of knowledge(s) on climate change are a source of active/social learning. The wide variety of disciplinary, sectoral and lived experiential (both individual and collective)knowledge(s) are all considered legitimate in this exercise, the aim of which is to construct new interdisciplinary knowledge from their boundary interfaces. We further argue for a corresponding pedagogy based on developing transboundary competences – the ability to engage in social learning and action through communicative engagement across knowledge boundaries. We acknowledge that the challenges for enacting transboundary competence are considerable when it requires mobility across epistemological, even ontological, boundaries. The challenges are further compounded when the communicative engagement across space and time requires virtual mobility which is ICT-enabled. Nevertheless, meeting them is a normative goal, not only for this expanded, integrative approach to climate change education, but also for a global resolution of climate change itself.
    De idylle van een SLOAP : Space Left Over After Planning
    Dam, R.I. van - \ 2009
    Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 19 (2009)3. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 32 - 35.
    woningen - huisvesting - eigendom - dwellings - housing - ownership
    Krakers wonen vaak op de meest fantastische plekken, zoals oude forten, monumentale panden, oude boerderijtjes, kloosters of treinloodsen. Het komt voor dat krakers zich vestigen in minder fantasievolle plekken als een "jaren '80 flat", maar er lijkt wel een voorkeur uit te gaan naar plekken met karakter. Hoe zit dat nou? Een visie op de kraker anno 2010, vlak voor een nieuw overheidsbeleid t.a.v. leegstand, waar een kraker geen woonrecht meer heeft.
    Models as social learning tools in participatory integrated assessment
    Kraker, J. de; Kroeze, C. ; Kirschner, P. - \ 2009
    Valuation of ecosystems and ecosystem services
    Leemans, R. - \ 2007
    In: Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Textbook 1 / de Kraker, J., Heerlen : Open Universiteit Nederland - p. 55 - 77.
    Integrated management of ecosystems
    Hein, L.G. - \ 2007
    In: Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Textbook 2 / de Kraker, J., Heerlen : Open Universiteit Nederland - p. 33 - 60.
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