Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The Newly Developed Elderly Nutrient-Rich Food Score Is a Useful Tool to Assess Nutrient Density in European Older Adults
Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Kramer, Charlotte S. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2019
Frontiers in Nutrition 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-861X
diet - diet quality - elderly - nutrient density - nutrient profiling - nutrient-rich food index

Objective: To develop a nutrient-rich food (NRF) score that captures dietary reference values for older adults and to validate this against a diet index that was specifically designed to assess adherence to dietary guidelines for the older population. Design: A cross-sectional study within the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS, n = 735 men and women aged 70–94 years, enrolled between October 2010 and February 2012) and within the NU-AGE study (n = 250 men and women aged 65–79 years, enrolled between April 2012 and March 2013). Dietary intake was assessed by means of two non-consecutive dietary record assisted 24-h recalls and 7-day food records, respectively. Structured questionnaires collected data on lifestyle and socio-economic information. Anthropometrics were measured by trained dieticians or research assistants. We evaluated Elderly NRF (E-NRF) scores against the NU-AGE index, a measure of adherence to European dietary guidelines for the aging population. The E-NRF scores were composed of nutrients that: (1) have been shown to be of inadequate intake in the aging population (>20%), (2) were defined as nutrients of public health relevance, and (3) were associated with relevant health outcomes. Results: The E-NRF score that best predicted the NU-AGE index included seven nutrients to encourage (protein, dietary fiber, folate, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, potassium) and three nutrients to limit (saturated fat, sodium and mono- and disaccharides) on a 100-kcal basis, the E-NRF7.3 score (model R2 0.27 in DNFCS and 0.41 in NU-AGE). Food groups contributing the most to the individual E-NRF7.3 scores were vegetables, bread, potatoes and milk and milk products. Conclusion: The E-NRF7.3 score is a useful tool for assessing nutrient density of diets within the older population. No index has previously been developed with the aim of evaluating nutrient density of diets and foods specifically capturing dietary reference values for older adults.

16 million Euros for robotics innovation network
Kramer, J.E. de; Lokhorst, Kees - \ 2019
Robustness of trait connections across environmental gradients and growth forms
Flores-Moreno, Habacuc ; Fazayeli, Farideh ; Banerjee, Arindam ; Datta, Abhirup ; Kattge, Jens ; Butler, Ethan E. ; Atkin, Owen K. ; Wythers, Kirk ; Chen, Ming ; Anand, Madhur ; Bahn, Michael ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cornelissen, Hans C. ; Craine, Joseph ; Gonzalez-Melo, Andres ; Hattingh, Wesley N. ; Jansen, Steven ; Kraft, Nathan J.B. ; Kramer, Koen ; Laughlin, Daniel C. ; Minden, Vanessa ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Onipchenko, Vladimir ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Dalrymple, Rhiannon L. ; Reich, Peter B. - \ 2019
Global Ecology and Biogeography (2019). - ISSN 1466-822X
leaf traits - plant functional traits - plant strategy integration - seed traits - stem traits - trait interdependence - trait networks

Aim: Plant trait databases often contain traits that are correlated, but for whom direct (undirected statistical dependency) and indirect (mediated by other traits) connections may be confounded. The confounding of correlation and connection hinders our understanding of plant strategies, and how these vary among growth forms and climate zones. We identified the direct and indirect connections across plant traits relevant to competition, resource acquisition and reproductive strategies using a global database and explored whether connections within and between traits from different tissue types vary across climates and growth forms. Location: Global. Major taxa studied: Plants. Time period: Present. Methods: We used probabilistic graphical models and a database of 10 plant traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen and phosphorous content, leaf life span, plant height, stem specific density and seed mass) with 16,281 records to describe direct and indirect connections across woody and non-woody plants across tropical, temperate, arid, cold and polar regions. Results: Trait networks based on direct connections are sparser than those based on correlations. Land plants had high connectivity across traits within and between tissue types; leaf life span and stem specific density shared direct connections with all other traits. For both growth forms, two groups of traits form modules of more highly connected traits; one related to resource acquisition, the other to plant architecture and reproduction. Woody species had higher trait network modularity in polar compared to temperate and tropical climates, while non-woody species did not show significant differences in modularity across climate regions. Main conclusions: Plant traits are highly connected both within and across tissue types, yet traits segregate into persistent modules of traits. Variation in the modularity of trait networks suggests that trait connectivity is shaped by prevailing environmental conditions and demonstrates that plants of different growth forms use alternative strategies to cope with local conditions.

The Elderly-Nutrient Rich Food Score Is Associated With Biochemical Markers of Nutritional Status in European Older Adults
Kramer, Charlotte S. ; Szmidt, Maria K. ; Sicinska, Ewa ; Brzozowska, Anna ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Nutrition 6 (2019). - ISSN 2296-861X
Background: In order to prevent age-related degenerative diseases in the aging population, their diets should be nutrient dense. For this purpose, the Elderly-Nutrient rich food (E-NRF7.3) score has been developed to assess nutrient density of diets by capturing dietary reference values for older adults. To demonstrate its practical importance such score should be validated against markers of nutritional status and health. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the E-NRF7.3 score and markers of nutritional status and inflammation. Design: This study was carried out in a sample of the NU-AGE study including 242 Dutch and 210 Polish men and women, aged 65–79 years. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records and structured questionnaires collected data on supplement use, lifestyle, and socio-economic information. Baseline measurements included anthropometrics, physical and cognitive function tests, and a fasting venipuncture. E-NRF7.3 scores were calculated to estimate nutrient density of foods and the diet. Associations between the E-NRF7.3 scores and micronutrient status of vitamin D, folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and c-reactive protein (CRP) were examined using linear regression analysis while adjusting for confounders. Results: Each one unit increase in E-NRF7.3 score was associated with a 2.2% increase in serum folate in Dutch and 1.6% increase in Polish participants in the fully adjusted models (both p < 0.01). Each one unit increase in E-NRF7.3 was significantly associated with a 1.5% decrease in homocysteine levels in Dutch participants (p < 0.01), whereas, a 0.9% increase in vitamin B12 levels was observed in Polish participants only (p < 0.01). Higher E-NRF7.3 scores were not associated with vitamin D or CRP levels. Adjustment for potential confounders did not substantially alter these results. Discussion: The E-NRF7.3 was developed to reflect dietary intake of relevant nutrients for older adults. Its association with markers of nutritional status could be confirmed for folate (both populations), vitamin B12 (Poland only), and homocysteine (the Netherlands only). There was no association with vitamin D and CRP. To further demonstrate its validity and practical implication, future studies should include a wider range of nutritional status makers, health outcomes, and inflammation markers.
Leucine coingestion augments the muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 15 g of protein following resistance exercise in older men
Holwerda, Andrew M. ; Paulussen, Kevin J.M. ; Overkamp, Maarten ; Goessens, Joy P.B. ; Kramer, Irene-Fleur ; Wodzig, Will K.W.H. ; Verdijk, Lex B. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Loon, Luc J.C. Van - \ 2019
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 317 (2019)3. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E473 - E482.
Older adults have shown an attenuated postexercise increase in muscle protein synthesis rates following ingestion of smaller amounts of protein compared with younger adults. Consequently, it has been suggested that older adults require the ingestion of more protein to increase postexercise muscle protein synthesis rates compared with younger adults. We investigated whether coingestion of 1.5 g of free leucine with a single 15-g bolus of protein further augments the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response during recovery from resistance-type exercise in older men. Twenty-four healthy older men (67 ± 1 yr) were randomly assigned to ingest 15 g of milk protein concentrate (MPC80) with (15G+LEU; n = 12) or without (15G; n = 12) 1.5 g of free leucine after performing a single bout of resistance-type exercise. Postprandial protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, whole body protein metabolism, and postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were assessed using primed, continuous infusions with l-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine, l-[ring-2H2]tyrosine, and l-[1-13C]leucine combined with ingestion of intrinsically l-[1-13C]phenylalanine-labeled milk protein. A total of 70 ± 1% (10.5 ±0.2 g) and 75 ± 2% (11.2 ± 0.3 g) of the protein-derived amino acids were released in the circulation during the 6-h postexercise recovery phase in 15G+LEU and 15G, respectively (P < 0.05). Postexercise myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 16% (0.058 ± 0.003 vs. 0.049 ± 0.002%/h, P < 0.05; based on l-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine) and 19% (0.071 ± 0.003 vs. 0.060 ± 0.003%/h, P < 0.05; based on l-[1-13C]leucine) greater in 15G+LEU compared with 15G. Leucine coingestion further augments the postexercise muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of a single 15-g bolus of protein in older men.
Rise of the robots
Kramer, Janneke de - \ 2019

A worldwide shortage of skilled and semi-skilled horticultural workers is driving automation. But is the fully autonomous, self-cultivating greenhouse a reality?

Het betere boeren
Kramer, Janneke de - \ 2019
Leaf economics and plant hydraulics drive leaf: wood area ratios
Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Rosas, Teresa ; Rowland, Lucy ; Choat, Brendan ; Cornelissen, Hans ; Jansen, Steven ; Kramer, Koen ; Lapenis, Andrei ; Manzoni, Stefano ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Reich, Peter ; Schrodt, Franziska ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadia ; Wright, Ian J. ; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi - \ 2019
New Phytologist (2019). - ISSN 0028-646X
biomechanics - Corner's rules - Huber value - leaf economics spectrum - leaf size - trait trade-off - wood density - xylem hydraulics

Biomass and area ratios between leaves, stems and roots regulate many physiological and ecological processes. The Huber value Hv (sapwood area/leaf area ratio) is central to plant water balance and drought responses. However, its coordination with key plant functional traits is poorly understood, and prevents developing trait-based prediction models. Based on theoretical arguments, we hypothesise that global patterns in Hv of terminal woody branches can be predicted from variables related to plant trait spectra, that is plant hydraulics and size and leaf economics. Using a global compilation of 1135 species-averaged Hv, we show that Hv varies over three orders of magnitude. Higher Hv are seen in short small-leaved low-specific leaf area (SLA) shrubs with low Ks in arid relative to tall large-leaved high-SLA trees with high Ks in moist environments. All traits depend on climate but climatic correlations are stronger for explanatory traits than Hv. Negative isometry is found between Hv and Ks, suggesting a compensation to maintain hydraulic supply to leaves across species. This work identifies the major global drivers of branch sapwood/leaf area ratios. Our approach based on widely available traits facilitates the development of accurate models of above-ground biomass allocation and helps predict vegetation responses to drought.

When are infection risks of blood transfusion tolerable? Towards understanding the ethical views of stakeholders in the blood supply
Kramer, Koen ; Verweij, Marcel F. ; Zaaijer, Hans L. - \ 2019
Vox Sanguinis (2019). - ISSN 0042-9007
acceptability - blood donation - blood donor - blood recipient - risk - transfusion-transmitted infection

Background and objectives: The perception of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) is sensitive to various concerns besides the probability and impact of infection, and some of these concerns may be ethically relevant. This paper aims to advance thinking about blood safety policies by exploring and explaining stakeholders’ reasons to consider TTI risks tolerable or intolerable. Materials and methods: Inspired by critical empirical ethics and phenomenological hermeneutics, we held interviews and focus group discussions to explore the moral experience of policymakers, hematologists, blood donors and recipients. Respondents were invited to discuss general concerns about the blood supply, to address the tolerability of TTI risks compared with other hazards and to comment on the costs of blood safety. Arguments for tolerance or intolerance towards TTI risks were analysed qualitatively. Results: Stakeholders’ views could be clustered into seven categories: (1) clinical impact; (2) probability of infection; (3) avoidability of infection; (4) cost and health benefits; (5) other consequences of safety measures; (6) non-consequentialist ethical arguments; and (7) stakeholders’ interests. Various arguments were offered that resonate with current ethical thinking about blood safety. Assuming that resources spent on inefficient blood safety measures could be applied more beneficially elsewhere, for example, responders typically expressed tolerance towards TTI risks. Some other arguments seem novel, for instance arguments for risk intolerance based on the low probability of infection and arguments for risk tolerance if patients have a poor prognosis. Conclusion: Understanding the moral experience of stakeholders enriches ethical debate about blood safety and prepares developing more widely acceptable policies.

Characterizing the coverage of critical effects relevant in the safety evaluation of food additives by AOPs
Kramer, Nynke I. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Wu, Siyao ; Thiel, Anette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Vinken, Mathieu - \ 2019
Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)8. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 2115 - 2125.
3Rs - Acceptable daily intake - Adverse outcome pathway - Critical adverse effect - Food additives

There is considerable interest in adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as a means of organizing biological and toxicological information to assist in data interpretation and method development. While several chemical sectors have shown considerable progress in applying this approach, this has not been the case in the food sector. In the present study, safety evaluation reports of food additives listed in Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Union were screened to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize toxicity induced in laboratory animals. The resulting database was used to identify the critical adverse effects used for risk assessment and to investigate whether food additives share common AOPs. Analysis of the database revealed that often such scrutiny of AOPs was not possible or necessary. For 69% of the food additives, the report did not document any adverse effects in studies based on which the safety evaluation was performed. For the remaining 31% of the 326 investigated food additives, critical adverse effects and related points of departure for establishing health-based guidance values could be identified. These mainly involved effects on the liver, kidney, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, central nervous system and reproductive system. AOPs are available for many of these apical endpoints, albeit to different degrees of maturity. For other adverse outcomes pertinent to food additives, including gastrointestinal irritation and corrosion, AOPs are lacking. Efforts should focus on developing AOPs for these particular endpoints.

Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector in the Netherlands : Methodological background, update 2019
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kramer, H. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt technical report 146) - 111
This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse Gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of the methodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Each of the reporting categories Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements, Other land and Harvested Wood Products are described in a separate chapter. Additionally it gives a table-by-table elaboration of the choices and motivations for filling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF.
Resultaten Nationale Landschapsenquête : onderzoek naar visies en waardering van de Nederlandse bevolking over het landelijk gebied in Nederland
Buijs, Arjen ; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Langers, Fransje ; Kramer, Henk - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2937) - 55
Reply to 'No evidence for different metabolism in domestic mammals'
Milla, Rubén ; He, Tianhua ; Kattge, Jens ; Kramer, K. ; Violle, Cyrille - \ 2019
Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 323 - 323.
Nexus interventions for small tropical islands: case study Bonaire
Geest, Matthijs van der; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Dominguez Teles, I. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. ; Ghasemi, Nafiseh ; Kramer, H. ; Meijninger, W.M.L. ; Lotz, L.A.P. - \ 2019
Wageningen Marine Research - 85 p.
Exploiting low-cost and commonly shared aerial photographs and LiDAR data for detailed vegetation structure mapping of the Wadden Sea Island of Ameland
Mücher, C.A. ; Kramer, H. ; Najafabadi, M.R. ; Kooistra, L. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Slim, P.A. - \ 2019
SDRP Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies 4 (2019)1. - ISSN 2472-6397 - p. 502 - 515.
Regular mapping of vegetation structure is important for biodiversity monitoring, and increasingly for tracking compliance with nature policy mandates. As such, the Netherlands uses vegetation structure mapping to monitor the Natura 2000 site on the Dutch Wadden Sea island of Ameland. Three decades of natural gas extraction here has caused soil subsidence, impacting vegetation and habitats on the island. In the Netherlands, vegetation structure mapping is typically done using conventional techniques, primarily field surveys combined with visual interpretation of aerial photographs. This procedure is time-consuming and often too inconsistent and inefficient for large areas. In the current study we exploited commonly shared and low-cost aerial photographs and LiDAR data for detailed vegetation structure mapping. Aerial photographs are not always easy to use in automatic classification procedures, as they often lack calibrated spectral reflectance values. Furthermore, pre-processing of aerial photographs to render them more attractive may skew the image so that it no longer accurately depicts the original scene anymore. Our aim was to determine if automatic or semi-automatic classification techniques could be applied to these readily available Dutch data to support mapping and monitoring of the vegetation structure of larger areas. We compared the effectiveness of two well-known classification methods, namely rule-based (RB) and random forest (RF). The RF algorithm was applied with its default settings, as supplied by eCognition software. Both classification methods performed well, with overall accuracies of 84.1% (RB) and 86.4% (RF). Each method, however, has its advantages and disadvantages, which are discussed. Overall, RF classification was preferred over RB classification, as it was better able to handle the complexity of the rules needed for distinguishing more classes. Provision of in situ training data, such as vegetation relevés, was not really problem in the Dutch context. Nevertheless, exploitation of new digital aerial photographs produced each year in a semi-automatic process remains a challenge. Commercial high resolution satellite imagery (~0.5 m resolution) is therefore still preferred by us. This latter, unfortunately, is more costly than aerial photographs which, while not always ideal, are readily available at no additional costs for involved organisations
Next generation physiologically based kinetic (NG-PBK) models in support of regulatory decision making
Paini, A. ; Leonard, J.A. ; Joossens, E. ; Bessems, J.G.M. ; Desalegn, A. ; Dorne, J.L. ; Gosling, J.P. ; Heringa, M.B. ; Klaric, M. ; Kliment, T. ; Kramer, N.I. ; Loizou, G. ; Louisse, J. ; Lumen, A. ; Madden, J.C. ; Patterson, E.A. ; Proença, S. ; Punt, A. ; Setzer, R.W. ; Suciu, N. ; Troutman, J. ; Yoon, M. ; Worth, A. ; Tan, Y.M. - \ 2019
Computational Toxicology 9 (2019). - ISSN 2468-1113 - p. 61 - 72.
In silico - In vitro - PBPK - PBTK - Physiologically based kinetic models - Toxicokinetics

The fields of toxicology and chemical risk assessment seek to reduce, and eventually replace, the use of animals for the prediction of toxicity in humans. In this context, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling based on in vitro and in silico kinetic data has the potential to a play significant role in reducing animal testing, by providing a methodology capable of incorporating in vitro human data to facilitate the development of in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of hazard information. In the present article, we discuss the challenges in: 1) applying PBK modelling to support regulatory decision making under the toxicology and risk-assessment paradigm shift towards animal replacement; 2) constructing PBK models without in vivo animal kinetic data, while relying solely on in vitro or in silico methods for model parameterization; and 3) assessing the validity and credibility of PBK models built largely using non-animal data. The strengths, uncertainties, and limitations of PBK models developed using in vitro or in silico data are discussed in an effort to establish a higher degree of confidence in the application of such models in a regulatory context. The article summarises the outcome of an expert workshop hosted by the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) – European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), on “Physiologically-Based Kinetic modelling in risk assessment – reaching a whole new level in regulatory decision-making” held in Ispra, Italy, in November 2016, along with results from an international survey conducted in 2017 and recently reported activities occurring within the PBK modelling field. The discussions presented herein highlight the potential applications of next generation (NG)-PBK modelling, based on new data streams.

Experiments Are Necessary in Process-Based Tree Phenology Modelling
Hänninen, Heikki ; Kramer, Koen ; Tanino, Karen ; Zhang, Rui ; Wu, Jiasheng ; Fu, Yongshuo H. - \ 2019
Trends in Plant Science 24 (2019)3. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 199 - 209.
bud burst - climate change - dormancy - phenology - process-based modelling

In boreal and temperate trees, air temperature is a major environmental factor regulating the timing of spring phenological events, such as vegetative bud burst, through underlying physiological processes. This has been established by experimental research, and mathematical process-based tree phenology models have been developed based on the results. The models have often been applied when assessing the effects of climate change. Currently, there is an increasing trend to develop process-based tree phenology models using only observational phenological records from natural conditions. We point out that this method runs a high risk of producing models that do not simulate the real physiological processes in the trees and discuss experimental designs facilitating the development of biologically realistic process-based models for tree spring phenology.

UAV based soil salinity assessment of cropland
Ivushkin, Konstantin ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Bregt, Arnold K. ; Pulatov, Alim ; Franceschini, Marston H.D. ; Kramer, Henk ; Loo, Eibertus N. van; Jaramillo Roman, Viviana ; Finkers, Richard - \ 2019
Geoderma 338 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 502 - 512.
Hyperspectral - LiDAR - Quinoa - Remote sensing - Soil salinity - Thermography - UAV

Increased soil salinity is a significant agricultural problem that decreases yields for common agricultural crops. Its dynamics require cost and labour effective measurement techniques and widely acknowledged methods are not present yet. We investigated the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing to measure salt stress in quinoa plants. Three different UAV sensors were used: a WIRIS thermal camera, a Rikola hyperspectral camera and a Riegl VUX-SYS Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanner. Several vegetation indices, canopy temperature and LiDAR measured plant height were derived from the remote sensing data and their relation with ground measured parameters like salt treatment, stomatal conductance and actual plant height is analysed. The results show that widely used multispectral vegetation indices are not efficient in discriminating between salt affected and control quinoa plants. The hyperspectral Physiological Reflectance Index (PRI) performed best and showed a clear distinction between salt affected and treated plants. This distinction is also visible for LiDAR measured plant height, where salt treated plants were on average 10 cm shorter than control plants. Canopy temperature was significantly affected, though detection of this required an additional step in analysis – Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) clustering. This step assured temperature comparison for equally vegetated pixels. Data combination of all three sensors in a Multiple Linear Regression model increased the prediction power and for the whole dataset R2 reached 0.46, with some subgroups reaching an R2 of 0.64. We conclude that UAV borne remote sensing is useful for measuring salt stress in plants and a combination of multiple measurement techniques is advised to increase the accuracy.

Inside the tiny country where robots grow the food
Kramer, Janneke de - \ 2018

The wave of machines taking over farms in the Netherlands has helped propel its rise to the world’s second-biggest food exporter after the U.S.

External scientific report: Data collection for the estimation of ecological data (specific focal species, time spent in treated areas collecting food, composition of diet), residue level and residue decline on food items to be used in the risk assessment for birds and mammals
Lahr, J. ; Kramer, Wolfgang ; Mazerolles, Vanessa ; Poulsen, Veronique ; Jölli, Daniela ; Müller, Marc ; McVey, Emily ; Wassenberg, J. ; Derkx, M.P.M. ; Brouwer, J.H.D. ; Deneer, J.W. ; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Buij, R. - \ 2018
EFSA (EFSA Supporting Publications 5)
The study described in this report was conducted with the aim of developing an unified database of ecological data and residue data to be used for the risk assessment of plant protection products for birds and mammals. The main sources of data were the information submitted in the context of approval of active substances and authorization of products and and additional information retrieved through a systematic literature review. The data were screened and organised in three Excel databases, one for birds, one for mammals and one for residue studies. The ecological information for birds and mammal risk assessment consisted of data that is used for the determination of focal species, estimation of the proportion of an animal's daily diet obtained in a treated habitat (PT) and assessment of the composition of the diet obtained from a treated area (PD). The information gathered on residues focussed on (initial) residue levels after treatment and on residue decline (the reported half‐life or DT50 and the DT90)
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