Is nutrition science ready for the twenty-first century? Moving towards transdisciplinary impacts in a changing world
Tufford, Adèle R. ; Calder, Philip C. ; Van’t Veer, Pieter ; Feskens, Edith F. ; Ockhuizen, Theo ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Sikkema, Jan ; Vries, Jan de - \ 2020
European Journal of Nutrition 59 (2020). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 10.
Malnutrition in an obese world was the fitting title of the 13th Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) conference held in October 2019. Many individuals do not eat a healthy, well-balanced diet, and this is now understood to be a major driver of increased disease risk and illness. Moreover, both our current eating patterns and the food system as a whole are environmentally unsustainable, threatening the planetary systems we depend on for survival. As we attempt to feed a growing global population, food systems will increasingly be confronted with their environmental impacts, with the added challenge of climate change-induced threats to food production. As we move into the third decade of the twenty-first century, these challenges demand that the nutrition research community reconsider its scope, concepts, methods, and societal role. At a pre-meeting workshop held at the FENS conference, over 70 researchers active in the field explored ways to advance the discipline’s capacity to address cross-cutting issues of personal, public and planetary health. Using the world cafe method, four themed discussion tables explored (a) the breadth of scientific domains needed to meet the current challenges, (b) the nature and definition of the shifting concepts in nutrition sciences, (c) the next-generation methods required and (d) communication and organisational challenges and opportunities. As a follow-up to earlier work , here we report the highlights of the discussions, and propose the next steps to advance responsible research and innovation in the domain of nutritional science.
Towards "improved Standards in the Science of Nutrition" through the Establishment of Federation of European Nutrition Societies Working Groups
Calder, Philip C. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Plat, Jogchum ; 'T Veer, Pieter Van; Vries, Jan De - \ 2020
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 76 (2020)2. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 2 - 5.
Supplementation of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides from birth onwards improve social and reduce anxiety-like behaviour in male BALB/c mice
Szklany, Kirsten ; Wopereis, Harm ; Waard, Cindy de; Wageningen, Thecla van; An, Ran ; Limpt, Kees van; Knol, Jan ; Garssen, Johan ; Knippels, Leon M.J. ; Belzer, Clara ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. - \ 2019
Nutritional Neuroscience (2019). - ISSN 1028-415X
Behaviour - dietary supplementation from birth - early life - fructo-oligosaccharide - galacto-oligosaccharide - healthy mice - intestinal microbiota - prebiotics - SCFA - serotonergic system
Objective: The intestinal microbiota is acknowledged to be essential in brain development and behaviour. Their composition can be modulated by prebiotics such as short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS) and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (lcFOS). Several studies reported potential health benefit of prebiotics on behaviour. As the prebiotic mixture of scGOS and lcFOS is included in infant formula, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with this specific mixture from the day of birth onwards on behaviour and intestinal microbiota development in mice. Method: Healthy male BALB/cByJ mice received, from day of birth, a dietary supplement with or without 3% scGOS:lcFOS (9:1). Behavioural tests were performed pre-weaning, in adolescence, early adulthood and adulthood. We assessed faecal microbiota compositions over time, caecal short-chain fatty acids as well as brain mRNA expression of Htr1a, Htr1b and Tph2 and monoamine levels. Results: Compared to control fed mice, scGOS:lcFOS fed mice showed reduced anxiety-like and repetitive behaviour over time and improved social behaviour in adulthood. The serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC) was affected by the scGOS:lcFOS. In the PFC, mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) was enhanced in scGOS:lcFOS fed mice. Although the bacterial diversity of the intestinal microbiota was unaffected by the scGOS:lcFOS diet, microbiota composition differed between the scGOS:lcFOS and the control fed mice over time. Moreover, an increased saccharolytic and decreased proteolytic fermentation activity were observed in caecum content. Discussion: Supplementing the diet with scGOS:lcFOS from the day of birth is associated with reduced anxiety-like and improved social behaviour during the developmental period and later in life, and modulates the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota in healthy male BALB/c mice. These data provide further evidence of the potential impact of scGOS:lcFOS on behaviour at several developmental stages throughout life and strengthen the insights in the interplay between the developing intestine and brain.
Embracing Complexity beyond Systems Medicine: A New Approach to Chronic Immune Disorders
Velde, Anje A. Te; Bezema, Tjitske ; Kampen, Antoine H.C. Van; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Hart, Bert A. 't; Middendorp, Henriët Van; Hack, Erik C. ; Montfrans, Joris M. Van; Belzer, Clara ; Jans-Beken, Lilian ; Pieters, Raymond H. ; Knipping, Karen ; Huber, Machteld ; Boots, Annemieke M.H. ; Garssen, Johan ; Radstake, Tim R. ; Evers, Andrea W.M. ; Prakken, Berent J. ; Joosten, Irma - \ 2016
Frontiers in Immunology 7 (2016). - ISSN 1664-3224
In order to combat chronic immune disorders (CIDs), it is an absolute necessity to understand the bigger picture, one that goes beyond insights at a one-disease, molecular, cellular, and static level. To unravel this bigger picture we advocate an integral, cross-disciplinary approach capable of embracing the complexity of the field. This paper discusses the current knowledge on common pathways in CIDs including general psychosocial and lifestyle factors associated with immune functioning. We demonstrate the lack of more in-depth psychosocial and lifestyle factors in current research cohorts and most importantly the need for an all-encompassing analysis of these factors. The second part of the paper discusses the challenges of understanding immune system dynamics and effectively integrating all key perspectives on immune functioning, including the patient’s perspective itself. This paper suggests the use of techniques from complex systems science in describing and simulating healthy or deviating behavior of the immune system in its biopsychosocial surroundings. The patient’s perspective data are suggested to be generated by using specific narrative techniques. We conclude that to gain more insight into the behavior of the whole system and to acquire new ways of combatting CIDs, we need to construct and apply new techniques in the field of computational and complexity science, to an even wider variety of dynamic data than used in today’s systems medicine.
Altered gut microbiota and activity in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders
Theije, C.G. de; Wopereis, H.J. ; Ramadan, M. ; Eijndthoven, T. van; Lambert, J. ; Knol, J. ; Garssen, J. ; Kraneveld, A.D. ; Oozeer, R. - \ 2014
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 37 (2014). - ISSN 0889-1591 - p. 197 - 206.
valproic acid - intestinal microbiota - maternal separation - host interactions - propionic-acid - onset autism - children - brain - microflora - exposure
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with evidence of genetic predisposition. Intestinal disturbances are reported in ASD patients and compositional changes in gut microbiota are described. However, the role of microbiota in brain disorders is poorly documented. Here, we used a murine model of ASD to investigate the relation between gut microbiota and autism-like behaviour. Using next generation sequencing technology, microbiota composition was investigated in mice in utero exposed to valproic acid (VPA). Moreover, levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid in caecal content were determined. Our data demonstrate a transgenerational impact of in utero VPA exposure on gut microbiota in the offspring. Prenatal VPA exposure affected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to genera within the main phyla of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and the order of Desulfovibrionales, corroborating human ASD studies. In addition, OTUs assigned to genera of Alistipes, Enterorhabdus, Mollicutes and Erysipelotrichalis were especially associated with male VPA-exposed offspring. The microbial differences of VPA in utero-exposed males deviated from those observed in females and was (i) positively associated with increased levels of caecal butyrate as well as ileal neutrophil infiltration and (ii) inversely associated with intestinal levels of serotonin and social behaviour scores. These findings show that autism-like behaviour and its intestinal phenotype is associated with altered microbial colonization and activity in a murine model for ASD, with preponderance in male offspring. These results open new avenues in the scientific trajectory of managing neurodevelopmental disorders by gut microbiome modulation
Neuro-immune interactions in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: Future therapeutic targets
Kraneveld, A.D. ; Rijnierse, A. ; Nijkamp, F.P. ; Garssen, J. - \ 2008
European Journal of Pharmacology 585 (2008)2-3. - ISSN 0014-2999 - p. 361 - 374.
tumor-necrosis-factor - gene-related peptide - vasoactive-intestinal-peptide - enteric nervous-system - dorsal-root ganglion - toll-like receptors - primary nociceptive neurons - tachykinin nk2 receptors - colonic epithelial-cells - primary sensory neurons
The gastro-intestinal tract is well known for its largest neural network outside the central nervous system and for the most extensive immune system in the body. Research in neurogastroenterology implicates the involvement of both enteric nervous system and immune system in symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Since both disorders are associated with increased immune cell numbers, nerve growth and activation of both immune cells and nerves, we focus in this review on the involvement of immune cell-nerve interactions in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Firstly, the possible effects of enteric nerves, especially of the nonadrenergic and noncholinergic nerves, on the intestinal immune system and their possible role in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases are described. Secondly, the possible effects of immunological factors, from the innate (chemokines and Toll-like receptors) as well as the adaptive (cytokines and immunoglobulins) immune system, on gastro-intestinal nerves and its potential role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome are reviewed. investigations of receptor-mediated and intracellular signal pathways in neuro-immune interactions might help to develop more effective therapeutic approaches for chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases.