Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The nuts and bolts of animal emotion
    Kremer, L. ; Klein Holkenborg, S.E.J. ; Reimert, I. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Webb, L.E. - \ 2020
    Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 113 (2020). - ISSN 0149-7634 - p. 273 - 286.
    Affect - Animal - Emotion - Valence - Welfare

    The study of animal emotion, as with its human equivalent, can be confusing due to the complicated and inconsistent use of terminology, and the number of interlinked fields and topics it encompasses. With this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date and, to the best of our knowledge, complete overview of the field of animal emotion, especially intended for new-comers to the field who wish to get a grasp of this field. We start by tackling the terminology and proposing definitions of commonly used terms, and present the different frameworks used for the study of animal emotion. Here, we heavily draw from human literature, as the definitions of animal emotion are derived originally from human research. We follow-up with an overview of current methodologies for the study of animal emotion, in particular the valence dimension of emotion, and include some of the associated limitations linked to these methodologies. We end by pointing out key areas for future research.

    Contributions of experimental approaches to development and poverty alleviation : Field experiments and humanitarian assistance
    Quattrochi, John ; Aker, Jenny C. ; Windt, Peter van der; Voors, Maarten - \ 2020
    World Development 127 (2020). - ISSN 0305-750X

    The work of Nobel Laureates Banerjee, Duflo and Kremer has centered around the use of randomized control trials to help solve development problems. To date, however, few field experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of humanitarian assistance. The reasons may lie in challenges related to logistics, fragility, security and ethics that often loom large in humanitarian settings. Yet every year, billions of dollars are spent on humanitarian aid, and policymakers are in need of rigorous evidence. In this paper, we reflect on the opportunities and risks of running experiments in humanitarian settings, and provide, as illustration, insights from our experiences with recent field experiments of large-scale humanitarian aid programs in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Joint sequencing of human and pathogen genomes reveals the genetics of pneumococcal meningitis
    Lees, John A. ; Ferwerda, Bart ; Kremer, Philip H.C. ; Wheeler, Nicole E. ; Valls Serón, Mercedes ; Croucher, Nicholas J. ; Gladstone, Rebecca A. ; Bootsma, Hester J. ; Rots, Nynke Y. ; Wijmega-Monsuur, Alienke J. ; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M. ; Trzciński, Krzysztof ; Wyllie, Anne L. ; Zwinderman, Aeilko H. ; Berg, Leonard H. van den; Rheenen, Wouter van; Veldink, Jan H. ; Harboe, Zitta B. ; Lundbo, Lene F. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Velde, Nathalie van der; Ängquist, Lars H. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Mentzer, Alexander J. ; Mills, Tara C. ; Knight, Julian C. ; Plessis, Mignon du; Nzenze, Susan ; Weiser, Jeffrey N. ; Parkhill, Julian ; Madhi, Shabir ; Benfield, Thomas ; Gottberg, Anne von; Ende, Arie van der; Brouwer, Matthijs C. ; Barrett, Jeffrey C. ; Bentley, Stephen D. ; Beek, Diederik van de - \ 2019
    Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723 - 14 p.

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common nasopharyngeal colonizer, but can also cause life-threatening invasive diseases such as empyema, bacteremia and meningitis. Genetic variation of host and pathogen is known to play a role in invasive pneumococcal disease, though to what extent is unknown. In a genome-wide association study of human and pathogen we show that human variation explains almost half of variation in susceptibility to pneumococcal meningitis and one-third of variation in severity, identifying variants in CCDC33 associated with susceptibility. Pneumococcal genetic variation explains a large amount of invasive potential (70%), but has no effect on severity. Serotype alone is insufficient to explain invasiveness, suggesting other pneumococcal factors are involved in progression to invasive disease. We identify pneumococcal genes involved in invasiveness including pspC and zmpD, and perform a human-bacteria interaction analysis. These genes are potential candidates for the development of more broadly-acting pneumococcal vaccines.

    REFRESH Interim Results : The REFRESH Project: Resource Efficient Food and dRink for the Entire Supply cHain
    Timmermans, A.J.M. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2018
    Berlin : REFRESH - 9 p.
    Development of a valid judgment bias test for dairy cattle
    Kremer, L.A.M. ; Webb, L.E. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2018
    Development of a valid judgment bias lest for dairy cows
    Kremer, L.A.M. ; Webb, L.E. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2018
    A Summary of Research Activities from the AgMIP Potato Crop Modeling Intercomparison Pilot
    Fleisher, D.H. ; Condori, B. ; Quiroz, R. ; Alva, A. ; Asseng, S. ; Barreda, Carolina ; Berghuijs, H.N.C. ; Bindi, M. ; Boote, K.J. ; Craigon, J. ; Fangmeier, A. ; Ferrise, Roberto ; Franke, A.C. ; Gayler, S. ; Govindakrishnan, P.M. ; Harahagazwe, Dieudonne ; Hoogenboom, G. ; Kremer, P. ; Kroes, J. ; Naresh Kumar, S. ; Merante, Paolo ; Nendel, C. ; Olesen, J.E. ; Parker, P.S. ; Pleijel, H. ; Raes, Dirk ; Raymundo, Rubi ; Reidsma, P. ; Ruana, A. ; Silva, J.V. ; Stella, T. ; Stockle, Claudio ; Supit, I. ; Evert, F.K. van; Vandermeiren, K. ; Vanuytrecht, Eline ; Vorne, V. ; Wolf, J. ; Woli, Prem - \ 2018
    Activity-1 of the potato crop model intercomparison pilot was recently completed and focused on quantifying multi-model uncertainty to climate responses when using common data sets from low-and high-input management sites. Median model ensemble response outperformed any single model in terms of replicatingobserved yield across all sites. Uncertainty among models averaged 15% higher for low-versus high-input sites, with larger differences observed for evapotranspiration (ET), nitrogen uptake, and water use efficiency as compared to dry matter. A minimum of five partial, or three full, calibrated models was required for an ensemble approach to keep variability below that of common field variation. Model variation was not influenced by carbon dioxide (C), but increased as much as 41 and 23% for yield and ET respectively as temperature (T) or rainfall (W) moved away from historical levels. Increases in T accounted for the highest amount of uncertainty, suggesting that methods and parameters for T sensitivity represent a considerable unknown among models. Activity-2 research is on-going and tests the capability of multiple models to mimic effects of elevated C concentration on potato yields measured at eight different locations in Europe. A subset from observed OTC and FACE data was used to initially calibrate the models. This research will also evaluate the stability of the models’ calibration with respect to changes in geographic location, as the same variety was used in all locations. This presentation will summarize the Activity-1 results and discuss the current status of Activity-2 investigations.
    Elaboration of a Judgment Bias Test suitable for dairy heifers
    Kremer, L.A.M. ; Webb, L.E. ; Reenen, C.G. van; Werf, J.T.N. van der; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
    - 1 p.
    Animal welfare integrates animal affect, i.e. the positive and negative states experienced by an animal. Scientists recognize Judgment Bias Test (JBT) as one of the best existing methods to assess animal affect. JBT investigates the link between affect and cognition. Individuals in a positive affective state are more optimistic than individuals in a negative affective state: they assess an ambiguous situation more positively. In practice, individuals are trained to associate one cue to a reward and another to a punisher. Their response to an ambiguous cue is then tested. Animals are assumed to be in a positive affective state if they associate the ambiguous cue to the reward instead of the punisher (and vice versa). JBT has been applied to many species, but never to adult cattle. A JBT for dairy cattle will be created to lay the foundations for the elaboration of an on-farm tool to assess cattle welfare. The validity of JBT relies on the animals’ motivation, the sensitivity of the test and the preserved ambiguity of the cue over testing sessions. A feed which maintains cows’ motivation for the JBT will be identified through preference and run-way tests. The sensitivity of three JBTs associated with different punishers inducing frustration, fear or pain will be compared. The most sensitive test.
    Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations
    Zeinstra, Gertrude G. ; Vrijhof, Milou ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2018
    Appetite 121 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 316 - 325.
    Daycare setting - Exposure - Variety - Vegetable consumption - Willingness to taste - Young children
    Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. Two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. The intervention group (N = 125) participated in a 5-month exposure period, where they were exposed repeatedly (∼12x) to the vegetables: pumpkin blanched and as a cracker spread; courgette blanched and as soup; white radish raw and as a cracker spread. The control group (N = 125) maintained their normal routine. Mixed model analyses were used to analyse intake data and Chi-square analyses for willingness to taste. At pre-test, children ate about 20 g of pumpkin and courgette, whereas white radish intake was approximately 10 g. There was a significant positive effect of the intervention for pumpkin (+15 g; p < 0.001) and white radish (+16 g; p = 0.01). Results for willingness to taste were in the same direction. There was no repeated exposure effect for courgette (p = 0.54); this may have been due to its less distinct taste profile or familiarity with boiled courgette. From our findings, we conclude that repeated exposure to multiple unfamiliar vegetable tastes within the daily routine of a childcare setting is effective in improving children's willingness to taste and intake of some of these vegetables. However, repeated exposure may not be sufficient for more familiar or blander tasting vegetables. This implies that one size does not fit all and that additional strategies are needed to increase children's intake of these vegetables.
    Supermarket shopper movements versus sales and the effects of scent, light, and sound
    Wijk, René A. de; Maaskant, Anna M. ; Kremer, Stefanie ; Holthuysen, Nancy T.E. ; Stijnen, Daniella A.J.M. - \ 2018
    Food Quality and Preference 70 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 32 - 39.
    Light - Scent - Shopper movements/sales - Sound - Supermarket

    Common sense assumes that supermarket sales of specific products are driven by the number of visitors and by their behavior during their visit. In addition, certain shopping ambiances probably stimulate a certain shopper behavior, resulting in more sales. Surprisingly, these relationships have rarely been experimentally tested in real-life supermarkets. Number of shoppers, shopper movement patterns, and sales of selections of white wines, coffees, and fruits in a medium-size supermarket were monitored over an 18-week period. Wines were visited for longer (9.5. s) than coffees (4.4. s) and fruits (4.5. s), but visitors to wines were relatively stationary and visits resulted less often in a sale (1 sale per 41.2 visits) than visits to coffees (1 sale per 21.7 visits) and fruits (1 sale per 3.7 visits). Visit frequency correlated positively with higher sales for coffee (Beta = 0.64, p <. 0.001) and for fruit (Beta = 0.33, p = 0.02) but not for wine. Wine, fruit, and coffee sales increased with the number of directional changes during a visit (p <. 0.001). Sales correlated positively with visit duration only for wine (Beta = 0.74, p <. 0.001). Local variations in scent, sound, and light conditions did not affect visit frequency or sales, but did affect speed during coffee (p = 0.04) and wine (p = 0.03) visits.

    A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change
    Yousefpour, Rasoul ; Temperli, Christian ; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl ; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark ; Meilby, Henrik ; Lexer, Manfred J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Bugmann, Harald ; Borges, Jose G. ; Palma, João H.N. ; Ray, Duncan ; Zimmermann, Niklaus E. ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Kremer, Antoine ; Kramer, Koen ; Reyer, Christopher P.O. ; Lasch-Born, Petra ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
    Ecology and Society 22 (2017)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
    Behavioral adaptation - Europe - Forest management - Knowledge management - Mathematical programming - Process-based models - Spatial planning
    Adapting the management of forest resources to climate change involves addressing several crucial aspects to provide a valid basis for decision making. These include the knowledge and belief of decision makers, the mapping of management options for the current as well as anticipated future bioclimatic and socioeconomic conditions, and the ways decisions are evaluated and made. We investigate the adaptive management process and develop a framework including these three aspects, thus providing a structured way to analyze the challenges and opportunities of managing forests in the face of climate change. We apply the framework for a range of case studies that differ in the way climate and its impacts are projected to change, the available management options, and how decision makers develop, update, and use their beliefs about climate change scenarios to select among adaptation options, each being optimal for a certain climate change scenario. We describe four stylized types of decision-making processes that differ in how they (1) take into account uncertainty and new information on the state and development of the climate and (2) evaluate alternative management decisions: the “no-change,” the “reactive,” the “trend-adaptive,” and the “forward-looking adaptive” decision-making types. Accordingly, we evaluate the experiences with alternative management strategies and recent publications on using Bayesian optimization methods that account for different simulated learning schemes based on varying knowledge, belief, and information. Finally, our proposed framework for identifying adaptation strategies provides solutions for enhancing forest structure and diversity, biomass and timber production, and reducing climate change-induced damages. They are spatially heterogeneous, reflecting the diversity in growing conditions and socioeconomic settings within Europe.
    The effect of date marking terminology of products with a long shelf life on food discarding behaviour of consumers
    Holthuysen, Nancy ; Kremer, Stefanie ; Bos-Brouwers, Hilke - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1709) - ISBN 9789463432290 - 26
    keeping quality - food - food wastage - nutrition labeling - terminology - consumer behaviour - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedsel - voedselverspilling - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - terminologie - consumentengedrag
    Measuring temporal liking simultaneously to Temporal Dominance of Sensations in several intakes. An application to Gouda cheeses in 6 Europeans countries
    Thomas, A. ; Chambault, M. ; Dreyfuss, L. ; Gilbert, C.C. ; Hegyi, A. ; Henneberg, S. ; Knippertz, A. ; Kostyra, E. ; Kremer, S. ; Silva, A.P. ; Schlich, P. - \ 2017
    Food Research International 99 (2017)1. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 426 - 434.
    Gouda cheese - Liking - Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) - Temporal Drivers of Liking (TDL)
    The idea of having untrained consumers performing Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and dynamic liking in the same session was recently introduced (Thomas, van der Stelt, Prokop, Lawlor, & Schlich, 2016). In the present study, a variation of the data acquisition protocol was done, aiming to record TDS and liking simultaneously on the same screen in a single session during multiple product intakes. This method, called Simultaneous Temporal Drivers of Liking (S-TDL), was used to describe samples of Gouda cheese in an international experiment.To test this idea, consumers from six European countries (n = 667) assessed 4 Gouda cheeses with different ages and fat contents during one sensory evaluation session. Ten sensory attributes and a 9-point hedonic scale were presented simultaneously on the computer screen. While performing TDS, consumers could reassess their liking score as often as they wanted. This new type of sensory data was coded by individual average liking scores while a given attribute was perceived as dominant (Liking While Dominant; LWD).Although significant differences in preference were observed among countries, there were global preferences for a longer dominance of melting, fatty and tender textures. The cheese flavour attribute was the best positive TDL, whereas bitter was a strong negative TDL. A cluster analysis of the 667 consumers identified three significant liking clusters, each with different most and least preferred samples. For the TDL computation by cluster, significant specific TDL were observed. These results showed the importance of overall liking segmentation before TDL analysis to determine which attributes should have a longer dominance duration in order to please specific consumer targets.
    Agricultural extension, technology adoption and household food security : evidence from DRC
    Santos Rocha, Jozimo - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H. Bulte, co-promotor(en): M.M. van den Berg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434485 - 231
    agricultural extension - technology - adoption - food security - households - development economics - agricultural production - knowledge transfer - congo democratic republic - landbouwvoorlichting - technologie - adoptie - voedselzekerheid - huishoudens - ontwikkelingseconomie - landbouwproductie - kennisoverdracht - democratische republiek kongo

    In this thesis, I use experimental and quasi-experimental data from 25 villages and a total of 1,105 farmers from eastern DRC to investigate the relationship among agricultural training, the adoption of agricultural technologies, crop productivity, and household food insecurity and dietary diversity. I present evidence that contributes to narrow the gap in the literature on the role of input subsidies fostering small-scale farmers' uptake of productivity-enhancing technologies, how farmer field school and farmer-to-farmer trainings affect the adoption of agricultural technologies, how F2F training may reduce the costs of FFS implementation, how adoption materializes on yields of food crops, and how training through the adoption of improved agricultural technologies impacts household food insecurity and the diet diversification of target households.

    As a complement to econometric evidence and in order to understand the main findings, I also discuss behavioral features and farmer driven initiatives which somehow condition these impacts. Throughout the four main chapters, I identify practical implications that are highly important for the design and implementation of new programs and policies aimed to address agricultural productivity issues and reduce household food insecurity. In Chapter 1 I develop a general introduction to the research which discusses the evolution of agricultural extension in the last few decades, and describe FFS and F2F training methodologies. Chapter 2 provides a detailed description of the project intervention, technologies promoted, research settings and the data collection process. In Chapter 3, I report the results of an experimental study that analyses the impact of one-shot input starter packs on the adoption of productivity-enhancing complementary practices, which have the potential to maximize the impact of starter pack inputs. Additionally, I assess the levels of persistence on farmers’ use of improved crop seeds which are included in the starter packs. Overall, I find no evidence of starter packs’ impact on small-scale farmers’ adoption of productivity-enhancing technologies. Similarly, the levels of persistence regarding the use of seeds following the delivery of starter packs were not significant. These results are consistent with studies that have found minimal or no persistence on the use of inputs following the provision of subsidies, including Duflo, Kremer et al. (2011). The limited impact that starter packs had on yields in the first year may logically explain that farmers refrained from using improved seeds subsequently because the inputs are not economically attractive.

    Chapter 4 studies the effectiveness of knowledge transmission from farmers trained in FFS through farmer-to-farmer training (F2F), which could potentially result in lower extension costs and higher impacts. I find that FFS training has a higher impact than F2F training in the first period, but the magnitude of the treatment effect in the second period is not statistically different between the two training methods. I argue that the dissemination of technologies promoted in FFS groups can well be formalized through farmer-to-farmer deliberate training attached to the FFS approach. Given the low costs of F2F training compared to FFS, the introduction of F2F training may substantially alleviate a major constraint to the large-scale introduction of FFS as a training method, its high costs.

    In Chapter 5, I study the impact of farmer’s participation in FFS and F2F training on small-scale agricultural productivity. A multi-crop yield-index and the yields of cassava were used as impact indicators. The results indicate that both FFS and F2F trainings contribute to a significant increase in farmers’ yields, especially in the second period when the magnitude of the effect substantially increased. We also learned that the effect size does not differ between the two training approaches in neither period, suggesting that F2F communications are a suitable alternative or complement to FFS training. While the chapter was unable to confirm if training materializes in higher yields through technology adoption, I argue that in the context of the sample the adoption of productivity-enhancing practices and inputs are likely the most important impact mechanism.

    I also study the relationship between agricultural training, the adoption of improved technologies and household food insecurity. I find that farmers’ participation in agricultural trainings has a positive effect, through the adoption of improved technologies, on improvements in household dietary diversity (HDDS). Nonetheless, the impact on household access to food (HFIAS) is less evident. These results suggest that FFS/F2F training can well reduce household food insecurity, which is mostly achieved through the adoption of improved agricultural technologies. Yet, there are farm and household specific factors which constrain how training impacts technology adoption and how adoption affect household food insecurity and diet diversification. In Chapter 7, I synthesize the results of the four main chapters and articulate the sequence of results from training to adoption to productivity to food security.

    Fresh, frozen, or ambient food equivalents and their impact on food waste generation in Dutch households
    Janssen, Anke M. ; Nijenhuis, Mariska ; Boer, Eric P.J. ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
    Waste Management 67 (2017). - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 298 - 307.
    Food disposal - Food preservation - Freezer - Meal planning - Product-specific - Waste index
    In Europe, it is estimated that more than 50% of total food waste - of which most is avoidable - is generated at household level. Little attention has been paid to the impact on food waste generation of consuming food products that differ in their method of food preservation. This exploratory study surveyed product-specific possible impacts of different methods of food preservation on food waste generation in Dutch households. To this end, a food waste index was calculated to enable relative comparisons of the amounts of food waste from the same type of foods with different preservation methods on an annual basis. The results show that, for the majority of frozen food equivalents, smaller amounts were wasted compared to their fresh or ambient equivalents. The waste index (WI) proposed in the current paper confirms the hypothesis that it may be possible to reduce the amount of food waste at household level by encouraging Dutch consumers to use (certain) foods more frequently in a frozen form (instead of fresh or ambient). However, before this approach can be scaled to population level, a more detailed understanding of the underlying behavioural causes with regard to food provisioning and handling and possible interactions is required.
    "Welcome on board" : Overall liking and just-about-right ratings of airplane meals in three different consumption contexts-laboratory, re-created airplane, and actual airplane
    Holthuysen, Nancy T.E. ; Vrijhof, Milou N. ; Wijk, René A. de; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
    Journal of Sensory Studies 32 (2017)2. - ISSN 0887-8250

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of contexts on overall liking and just-about-right (JAR) ratings of airplane meals. A rice dish (meal type A) and a pasta dish (meal type B) were assessed. Per meal type, two variants were produced (variant 1 and 2). Two hundred forty-two consumers were randomly allocated to evaluate one of the four meals, first in a laboratory setting and then in a re-created airplane environment. In addition, 222 passengers did the same assessments during an actual flight. Specific meals (A1, B1) were less liked in the laboratory than in the re-created airplane. In general, no differentiation in overall liking occurred per meal type between the two tested variants in the laboratory, whereas these two variants were significantly differentiated in liking in the re-created airplane and the actual airplane. Mean overall liking ratings in the re-created airplane did not significantly differ from the mean overall liking ratings in the actual airplane. The observed JAR ratings did not differ much between the re-created airplane and the actual airplane. In summary, the re-created airplane as a testing location produced more similar test results to the actual airplane than the traditional laboratory. Practical applications: Sensory consumer testing in re-created contexts may produce results with a higher external validity than laboratory testing and therefore offer a cost-efficient alternative to extensive sensory consumer testing in real-life contexts.

    Ready-made meal packaging - A survey of needs and wants among Finnish and Dutch 'current' and 'future' seniors
    Heiniö, Raija Liisa ; Arvola, Anne ; Rusko, Elina ; Maaskant, Anna ; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 79 (2017). - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 579 - 585.
    Age - Food packaging - Online data collection - Ready-made meal - Senior consumers
    For older populations, improved ready-made meal packaging may potentially contribute to adequate nutritional intakes, and in turn facilitate maintenance of independent living. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the features of ready-made meal packages important for older people is a step towards this goal.Features of ready-made meal packaging appreciated by 'current' (aged 65 ≥ years) and 'future' (aged 55-64 years) seniors were studied as an internet survey in Finland (n = 764) and in the Netherlands (n = 457). Only minor significant differences were found between these two senior groups. The four packaging features most valued by both the Finnish and Dutch consumers were: easy readability, easy disposability and recyclability, visibility of the contents, and easy opening. These features were basically the same regardless of age group, gender or country. Older people did not show interest either in multi-packages or in eating meals directly from the package. Future senior men frequently using ready-made meals were identified as a promising target segment for the development and marketing of novel ready-made meals. More generally, special attention should be paid in package design to age-relevant features, such as easy opening and easy-to-read information, and the impact of culture-specific translation of the features into packaging design.
    My idol eats carrots, so do I? The delayed effect of a classroom-based intervention on 4–6-year-old children’s intake of a familiar vegetable
    Zeinstra, G.G. ; Kooijman, V.M. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2017
    Food Quality and Preference 62 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 352 - 359.
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a role modelling intervention on children’s intake of a familiar vegetable. Ninety nine 4–6-year-old children participated at school in a between-subject experiment with three conditions. Two popular Dutch TV idols acted as enthusiastic role models in a video film that was specifically designed for this study. In the convivial eating (CE) condition, children ate raw carrots while they watched the role modelling video for eight sessions (2x/week). Children in the positive restriction and convivial eating (PR + CE) condition were – prior to eight convivial eating sessions – involved in five sessions where they watched the video without eating carrots themselves. The control group ate carrots twice only, and never watched the role modelling video. The main outcome was vegetable intake. Information on demographics and child eating characteristics was collected via a parental questionnaire. A longer-term follow-up was executed at nine months (N = 93). Children’s average carrot intake was 22 ± 24 g per intervention session. There was no increased intake directly after the intervention, but carrot intake in both intervention groups (CE: 45 g; PR + CE: 52 g) was 20–30 g higher at nine months (p < 0.01), whereas intake remained stable for the control group (p = 0.31). About 40% of all children consistently ate (almost) no carrots; higher fussiness and neophobia, and lower vegetable liking typified these non-eaters. So, although the intervention did not immediately increase children’s vegetable intake, it was associated with a higher intake at follow-up. The high numbers of non-eaters points to the need for tailored interventions that encourage non-eaters to consume relatively familiar – but previously rejected – vegetables.
    Protein-Enriched Bread and Readymade Meals Increase Community-Dwelling Older Adults' Protein Intake in a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
    Ziylan, Canan ; Haveman-Nies, Annemien ; Kremer, Stefanie ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2017
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 18 (2017)2. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 145 - 151.
    Community-dwelling older adults - Meals-on-wheels - Protein-enriched regular products - Undernutrition

    Objectives: Sufficient protein intake can decrease undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to increase community-dwelling older adults' daily protein intake with acceptable and applicable protein-enriched bread and readymade meals at home. Design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial of 2 weeks. Setting: Senior residential center in the Netherlands. Participants: Forty-two community-dwelling elderly residents (≥65 years) participated, with a mean age of 74.0 ± 6.9 years and mean body mass index of 28.5 ± 3.45 kg/m2 Intervention: The intervention group (n = 22) received 5 protein-enriched readymade meals and plentiful protein-enriched bread during 2 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 20) received the regular equivalents during these 2 weeks. Measurements: Food intake was assessed by using dietary food record-assisted 24-hour recalls and by weighing meal leftovers. Acceptability of the enriched products was assessed with product evaluation questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results: Mean intake of food products (g) and energy (kJ) did not differ significantly between the control and the intervention groups. Total daily protein intake in the intervention group was 14.6 g higher than in the control group (87.7 vs 73.1 g/d, . P = .004). Expressed in g/kg body weight per day, protein intake was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (1.25 vs 0.99 g/kg/d, . P = .003). The enriched products were equally liked, scoring 7.7 of 10.0. The in-depth interviews with participants indicated high acceptability of the enriched products. Conclusion: This study showed that community-dwelling older adults' protein intake can be increased to recommended levels with highly acceptable and applicable protein-enriched products that fit into the normal eating pattern. Future studies should investigate whether this effect is maintained in the long-term among a frailer population.

    Applying mealtime functionality to tailor protein-enriched meals to older consumer segments
    Uijl, Louise C. den; Jager, Gerry ; Zandstra, Elizabeth H. ; Graaf, Kees de; Kremer, Stefanie - \ 2017
    Food Quality and Preference 56 (2017)part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 28 - 37.
    Congruency - Mealtime functionality - Product tailoring - Protein-enriched meals - Satisfaction - Senior consumer clusters

    The older adults group is highly heterogeneous, and its members do not always meet their recommended protein intake. We explored mealtime functionality as a basis for tailoring protein-enriched (PE) meal concepts to two senior consumer segments: 1) cosy socialisers, who eat mainly for cosiness and social interaction, and 2) physical nutritioners, who eat mainly for nutrients and physical needs. We hypothesised an increased ‘product–cluster fit’ when the functional meal associations are congruent to the clusters’ functional mealtime expectations. In a home-use test, participants (N = 91, mean age 68.1 (y) ± 5.3 (SD), 42 cosy socialisers) prepared and consumed three kale mash meal concepts once over three weeks: (1) a basic meal concept (without PE/tailoring), (2) a cosy meal concept (PE/tailored to mealtime expectations of cosy socialisers), and (3) a physical meal concept (PE/tailored to mealtime expectations of physical nutritioners). The participants reported their expectations and experiences with the recipes and dishes (e.g. expected liking; attractiveness recipe; actual liking; taste; smell; satisfaction). The results showed that the cosy meal concept was experienced as ‘traditional’ (p

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