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- Soil Biology and Biological Soil Quality (6)
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European mushroom assemblages are darker in cold climates
Krah, Franz Sebastian ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Schaefer, Hanno ; Müller, Jörg ; Andrew, Carrie ; Boddy, Lynne ; Diez, Jeffrey ; Egli, Simon ; Freckleton, Robert ; Gange, Alan C. ; Halvorsen, Rune ; Heegaard, Einar ; Heideroth, Antje ; Heibl, Christoph ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Høiland, Klaus ; Kar, Ritwika ; Kauserud, Håvard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Norden, Jenni ; Papastefanou, Phillip ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Bässler, Claus - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
Thermal melanism theory states that dark-colored ectotherm organisms are at an advantage at low temperature due to increased warming. This theory is generally supported for ectotherm animals, however, the function of colors in the fungal kingdom is largely unknown. Here, we test whether the color lightness of mushroom assemblages is related to climate using a dataset of 3.2 million observations of 3,054 species across Europe. Consistent with the thermal melanism theory, mushroom assemblages are significantly darker in areas with cold climates. We further show differences in color phenotype between fungal lifestyles and a lifestyle differentiated response to seasonality. These results indicate a more complex ecological role of mushroom colors and suggest functions beyond thermal adaption. Because fungi play a crucial role in terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles, understanding the links between the thermal environment, functional coloration and species’ geographical distributions will be critical in predicting ecosystem responses to global warming.
Continental-scale macrofungal assemblage patterns correlate with climate, soil carbon and nitrogen deposition
Andrew, Carrie ; Halvorsen, Rune ; Heegaard, Einar ; Kuijper, Thomas W. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Bässler, Claus ; Egli, Simon ; Gange, Alan C. ; Høiland, Klaus ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Boddy, Lynne ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
Journal of Biogeography 45 (2018)8. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 1942 - 1953.
assemblage - biogeography - climate - ectomycorrhizal - Europe - fungi - macroecology - saprotrophic - temporal change
Aim: Macroecological scales of species compositional trends are well documented for a variety of plant and animal groups, but remain sparse for fungi, despite their ecological importance in carbon and nutrient cycling. It is, thus, essential to understand the composition of fungal assemblages across broad geographical scales and the underlying drivers. Our overall aim was to describe these patterns for fungi across two nutritional modes (saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal). Furthermore, we aimed to elucidate the temporal component of fruiting patterns and to relate these to soil carbon and nitrogen deposition. Location: Central and Northern Europe. Methods: A total of 4.9 million fungal fruit body observations throughout Europe, collected between 1970 and 2010, were analysed to determine the two main environmental and geographical gradients structuring fungal assemblages for two main nutritional modes, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Results: Two main gradients explaining the geography of compositional patterns were identified, for each nutritional mode. Mean annual temperature (and related collinear, seasonal measures) correlated most strongly with the first gradient for both nutritional modes. Soil organic carbon was the highest correlate of the second compositional gradient for ectomycorrhizal fungi, suspected as an indicator of vegetation- and pH-related covariates. In contrast, nitrogen deposition constituted a second gradient for saprotrophic fungi, likely a proxy for anthropogenic pollution. Compositional gradients and environmental conditions correlated similarly when the data were divided into two time intervals of 1970–1990 and 1991–2010. Evidence of compositional temporal change was highest with increasing elevation and latitude. Main conclusions: Fungal assemblage patterns demonstrate clear biogeographical patterns that relate the nutritional modes to their main environmental correlates of temperature, soil organic carbon and nitrogen deposition. With respect to global change impacts, the highest rates of compositional change by time suggest targeting higher latitudes and elevations for a better understanding of fungal dynamics. We, finally, suggest further examination of the ranges and dispersal abilities of fungi to better assess responses to global change.
Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Høiland, Klaus ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Gange, Alan C. ; Egli, Simon ; Bässler, Claus ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Boddy, Lynne ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
climate - fungi - fruit bodies - distribution - NDVI - nutritional mode - path analysis - phenology
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 days, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 days, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large‐scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic, as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring‐fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species‐specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems.
Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Høiland, Klaus ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Gange, Alan C. ; Egli, Simon ; Bässler, Claus ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Boddy, Lynne ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2018
Ecology 99 (2018)6. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 1306 - 1315.
climate - distribution - Europe - fruit bodies - fungi - NDVI - nutritional mode - path analysis - phenology
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude, and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation, and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by approximately 25 d, primarily with latitude. Altitude affected fruiting by up to 30 d, with spring delays and autumnal accelerations. Fruiting was as much explained by the effects of bioclimatic variability as by their large-scale spatial patterns. Temperature drove fruiting of autumnal ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic groups as well as spring saprotrophic groups, while primary production and precipitation were major drivers for spring-fruiting ectomycorrhizal fungi. Species-specific phenology predictors were not stable, instead deviating from the overall mean. There is significant likelihood that further climatic change, especially in temperature, will impact fungal phenology patterns at large spatial scales. The ecological implications are diverse, potentially affecting food webs (asynchrony), nutrient cycling and the timing of nutrient availability in ecosystems.
Big data integration : Pan-European fungal species observations' assembly for addressing contemporary questions in ecology and global change biology
Andrew, Carrie ; Heegaard, Einar ; Kirk, Paul M. ; Bässler, Claus ; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob ; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard ; Kuijper, Thomas ; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice ; Büntgen, Ulf ; Kauserud, Håvard - \ 2017
Fungal Biology Reviews 31 (2017)2. - ISSN 1749-4613 - p. 88 - 98.
Biogeography - Citizen science - Fungi - Global change - Meta-database - Open-source
Species occurrence observations are increasingly available for scientific analyses through citizen science projects and digitization of museum records, representing a largely untapped ecological resource. When combined with open-source data, there is unparalleled potential for understanding many aspects of the ecology and biogeography of organisms. Here we describe the process of assembling a pan-European mycological meta-database (ClimFun) and integrating it with open-source data to advance the fields of macroecology and biogeography against a backdrop of global change. Initially 7.3 million unique fungal species fruit body records, spanning nine countries, were processed and assembled into 6 million records of more than 10,000 species. This is an extraordinary amount of fungal data to address macro-ecological questions. We provide two examples of fungal species with different life histories, one ectomycorrhizal and one wood decaying, to demonstrate how such continental-scale meta-databases can offer unique insights into climate change effects on fungal phenology and fruiting patterns in recent decades.
Fine-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of fungal fruiting : Prevalence, amplitude, range and continuity
Heegaard, E. ; Boddy, L. ; Diez, J.M. ; Halvorsen, R. ; Kauserud, H. ; Kuijper, Thomas ; Bässler, C. ; Büntgen, U. ; Gange, A.C. ; Krisai-Greilhuber, I. ; Andrew, C.J. ; Ayer, F. ; Høiland, K. ; Kirk, P.M. ; Egli, S. - \ 2017
Ecography 40 (2017)8. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 947 - 959.
Despite the critical importance of fungi as symbionts with plants, resources for animals, and drivers of ecosystem function, the spatiotemporal distributions of fungi remain poorly understood. The belowground life cycle of fungi makes it difficult to assess spatial patterns and dynamic processes even with recent molecular techniques. Here we offer an explicit spatiotemporal Bayesian inference of the drivers behind spatial distributions from investigation of a Swiss inventory of fungal fruit bodies. The unique inventory includes three temperate forest sites in which a total of 73 952 fungal fruit bodies were recorded systematically in a spatially explicit design between 1992 and 2006. Our motivation is to understand how broad-scale climate factors may influence spatiotemporal dynamics of fungal fruiting within forests, and if any such effects vary between two functional groups, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and saprotrophic fungi. For both groups we asked: 1) how consistent are the locations of fruiting patches, the sizes of patches, the quantities of fruit bodies, and of prevalence (occupancy)? 2) Do the annual spatial characteristics of fungal fruiting change systematically over time? 3) Are spatial characteristics of fungal fruiting driven by climatic variation? We found high inter-annual continuity in fruiting for both functional groups. The saprotrophic species were characterised by small patches with variable fruit body counts. In contrast, ECM species were present in larger, but more distinctly delimited patches. The spatial characteristics of the fungal community were only indirectly influenced by climate. However, climate variability influenced overall yields and prevalence, which again links to spatial structure of fruit bodies. Both yield and prevalence were correlated with the amplitudes of occurrence and of fruit body counts, but only prevalence influenced the spatial range. Summarizing, climatic variability affects forest-stand fungal distributions via its influence on yield (amount) and prevalence (occupancy), whereas fungal life-history strategies dictate fine-scale spatial characteristics.
Assemblage structure, species richness, abundance, and distribution of fungal fruit bodies in a seven year plot based survey near Vienna
Straatsma, G. ; Krisai - Greilhuber, I. - \ 2003
Mycological Research 107 (2003)5. - ISSN 0953-7562 - p. 632 - 640.
ectomycorrhizal fungi - community structure - rain-forest - diversity - microfungi
Almost 900 species were encountered during a seven year survey of fungal fruit bodies in 13 forests and grasslands plots measuring about 1 ha. The data were comparable to those from a Swiss forest plot monitored for 21 years. Species richness and abundance were almost linearly correlated on a log/log scale. Abundance and yearly frequency of species were tightly correlated. The geographic range of species may also be related to these two parameters. Rare species scored low on abundance, yearly frequency and geographic range. About half of the species were rare, and occurred in only one out of seven years. The two major functional groups of saprotrophic and mycorrhizal species behaved similarly over the years, as in the Swiss study. Annual variation was high for species richness alone and for richness combined with abundances. The log transformed species richness of plots correlated well with parameters that take the abundances or yearly frequencies of species into account. If other mushroom assemblages show similar regularities, it may be possible to omit abundance counts in future surveys. The species composition of the plots varied strongly over the years. Many species did not reach their maximum abundance in the richest year. Species showed their maximum abundances in different plots in the same year more often than expected by chance. Thus the presence and abundance of species depended on factor(s) other than the general productivity of a year, and years showed (a) different aspect(s) than productivity alone. Long-term surveys are important for understanding the structure of mushroom assemblages and their biodiversity.
Boekbesprekingen: Pilzflora von Bayreuth und Umgebung, W. Beyer. IHW-Verlag, Eching. Die Makromyceten im Raum von Wien: Ökologie und Floristik, I. Krisai-Greilhuber. IHW-Verlag, Eching
Kuyper, Th.W. - \ 1993
Coolia 36 (1993)4. - ISSN 0929-7839 - p. 124 - 124.