Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 block the replication of pancreatic β cells in diet-induced obesity
Ji, Yewei ; Sun, Shengyi ; Shrestha, Neha ; Darragh, Laurel B. ; Shirakawa, Jun ; Xing, Yuan ; He, Yi ; Carboneau, Bethany A. ; Kim, Hana ; An, Duo ; Ma, Minglin ; Oberholzer, Jose ; Soleimanpour, Scott A. ; Gannon, Maureen ; Liu, Chengyang ; Naji, Ali ; Kulkarni, Rohit N. ; Wang, Yong ; Kersten, Sander ; Qi, Ling - \ 2019
Nature Immunology 20 (2019)6. - ISSN 1529-2908 - p. 677 - 686.

Consumption of a high-energy Western diet triggers mild adaptive β cell proliferation to compensate for peripheral insulin resistance; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study we show that the toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 inhibited the diet-induced replication of β cells in mice and humans. The combined, but not the individual, loss of TLR2 and TLR4 increased the replication of β cells, but not that of α cells, leading to enlarged β cell area and hyperinsulinemia in diet-induced obesity. Loss of TLR2 and TLR4 increased the nuclear abundance of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D2 and Cdk4 in a manner dependent on the signaling mediator Erk. These data reveal a regulatory mechanism controlling the proliferation of β cells in diet-induced obesity and suggest that selective targeting of the TLR2/TLR4 pathways may reverse β cell failure in patients with diabetes.

WRF Model Prediction of a Dense Fog Event Occurred During the Winter Fog Experiment (WIFEX)
Pithani, Prakash ; Ghude, Sachin D. ; Chennu, V.N. ; Kulkarni, Rachana G. ; Steeneveld, Gert Jan ; Sharma, Ashish ; Prabhakaran, Thara ; Chate, D.M. ; Gultepe, Ismail ; Jenamani, R.K. ; Madhavan, Rajeevan - \ 2019
Pure and Applied Geophysics 176 (2019)4. - ISSN 0033-4553 - p. 1827 - 1846.
Liquid water content - PBL scheme - vertical level - WIFEX - WRF model

In this study, the sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the life cycle of a dense fog event that occurred on 23–24 January 2016 is evaluated using different model configurations. For the first time, intensive observational periods (IOPs) were made during the unique winter fog experiment (WIFEX) that took place over Delhi, India, where air quality is serious during the winter months. The multiple sensitivity experiments to evaluate the WRF model performance included parameters such as initial model and boundary conditions, vertical resolution in the lower boundary layer (BL), and the planetary BL (PBL) physical parameterizations. In addition, the model sensitivity was tested using various configurations that included domain size and grid resolution. Results showed that simulations with a high number of vertical levels within the lower PBL height (i.e., 10 levels below 300 m) simulated the accurate timing of fog formation, development, and dissipation. On the other hand, simulations with less vertical levels in the PBL captured only the mature physical characteristics of the fog cycle. A comparison of six local PBL schemes showed little variation in the onset of fog life cycle in comparison to observations of visibility. However, comparisons of observations with thermodynamical values such as 2-m temperature and longwave radiation showed poor relationships. Overall, quasi-normal scale elimination (QNSE) and MYNN 2.5 PBL schemes simulated the complete fog life cycle correctly with high liquid water content (LWC; 0.5/0.35 g m −3 ), while other schemes only responded during the mature phase.

Root traits and belowground herbivores relate toplant–soil feedback variation among congeners
Wilschut, Rutger ; Putten, W.H. van der; Garbeva, Paolina ; Harkes, Paula ; Konings, W. ; Kulkarni, Purva ; Martens, H.J. ; Geisen, Stefan - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
Plant–soil feedbacks contribute to vegetation dynamics by species-specific interactionsbetween plants and soil biota. Variation in plant–soil feedbacks can be predicted by roottraits, successional position, and plant nativeness. However, it is unknown whether closelyrelated plant species develop more similar plant–soil feedbacks than more distantly relatedspecies. Where previous comparisons included plant species from distant phylogeneticpositions, we studied plant–soil feedbacks of congeneric species. Using eight intra-continentally range-expanding and nativeGeraniumspecies, we tested relations betweenphylogenetic distances, chemical and structural root traits, root microbiomes, and plant–soilfeedbacks. We show that root chemistry and specific root length better predict bacterial andfungal community composition than phylogenetic distance. Negative plant–soil feedbackstrength correlates with root-feeding nematode numbers, whereas microbiome dissimilarity,nativeness, or phylogeny does not predict plant–soil feedbacks. We conclude that rootmicrobiome variation among congeners is best explained by root traits, and that root-feedingnematode abundances predict plant–soil feedbacks.
Soil community conditioning by 8 Geranium species
Wilschut, Rutger ; Putten, Wim van der; Garbeva, Paolina ; Harkes, Paula ; Konings, W. ; Kulkarni, Purva ; Martens, Henk ; Geisen, Stefan - \ 2018
Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
PRJEB29769 - Geranium
In this study we examined communities of bacteria, protists, fungi and nematodes in the rhizospheres of 8 Geranium species. We grew the plants for 14 weeks in pots with soils from 5 different riverine grasslands close to Wageningen, The Netherlands, after which we extracted and amplified DNA using 16S and 18S rDNA primers, to explore variation in the microbiomes.
LAESI mass spectrometry imaging as a tool to differentiate the root metabolome of native and range-expanding plant species
Kulkarni, Purva ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Verhoeven, Koen J.F. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Garbeva, Paolina - \ 2018
Planta 248 (2018)6. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 1515 - 1523.
Ambient imaging - Comparative metabolomics - Mass spectrometry imaging - Metabolic profiling - Plant root - Range expansion

Main conclusion: LAESI-MSI, an innovative high-throughput technique holds a unique potential for untargeted detection, profiling and spatial localization of metabolites from intact plant samples without need for extraction or extensive sample preparation. Our understanding of chemical diversity in biological samples has greatly improved through recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS). MS-based-imaging (MSI) techniques have further enhanced this by providing spatial information on the distribution of metabolites and their relative abundance. This study aims to employ laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MSI as a tool to profile and compare the root metabolome of two pairs of native and range-expanding plant species. It has been proposed that successful range-expanding plant species, like introduced exotic invaders, have a novel, or a more diverse secondary chemistry. Although some tests have been made using aboveground plant materials, tests using root materials are rare. We tested the hypothesis that range-expanding plants possess more diverse root chemistries than native plant species. To examine the root chemistry of the selected plant species, LAESI-MSI was performed in positive ion mode and data were acquired in a mass range of m/z 50–1200 with a spatial resolution of 100 µm. The acquired data were analyzed using in-house scripts, and differences in the spatial profiles were studied for discriminatory mass features. The results revealed clear differences in the metabolite profiles amongst and within both pairs of congeneric plant species, in the form of distinct metabolic fingerprints. The use of ambient conditions and the fact that no sample preparation was required, established LAESI-MSI as an ideal technique for untargeted metabolomics and for direct correlation of the acquired data to the underlying metabolomic complexity present in intact plant samples.

Water governance as a question of justice : Politics, rights, and representation
Roth, Dik ; Zwarteveen, Margreet ; Joy, K.J. ; Kulkarni, Seema - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, Rutgerd, Perreault, Tom, Vos, Jeroen, Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 43 - 58.

Introduction Policy discourses - at the heart of water governance - are seldom explicit about the distributional assumptions and consequences underlying water policies, technologies, and institutions. They treat water problems as natural problems affecting all of us, and proposed solutions are “rendered technical” (Li, 2007) or leave allocation to anonymous markets. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to recognize that water governance is significantly about justice. Therefore, this chapter shows how making water justice issues visible significantly hinges on defining water governance through water distribution and water rights (see also Zwarteveen, 2015). This starts by acknowledging and teasing out how the socio-environmental processes of change that water interventions (involving institutions, technologies and markets) entail alter existing water stocks, flows, quantity and quality, and create new access patterns and mechanisms, establish new rights and forms of in/exclusion, and thus new constellations of winners and losers (Swyngedouw and Heynen, 2003). Contestation and conflict are intrinsic to such changes, which is why “rational organization of dissent” (see Mollinga, 2008) is essential to water governance approaches that take justice seriously. Debate and disagreement may concern direct physical control over water resources; rules and laws governing water allocation, use and management; authority and power to define, decide upon, and enforce such rules; or the discourses and knowledge used to frame or make sense of society-water relations (Boelens and Zwarteveen, 2005; Zwarteveen et al., 2005).To understand water governance in terms of justice, we recognize that many current water governance reforms are part of broader capitalist transformation under globalization. Dominant water governance language and logic are so deeply infused with neoliberalism that it has become difficult to see and recognize them as part of an ideology or belief rather than a (natural or economic) given or a necessity (see Achterhuis et al., 2010; Ahlers and Zwarteveen, 2009; Boelens and Zwarteveen, 2005). The following section shows how India’s rapid economic growth is partly driven by equally rapid (although neither new nor recent) capitalization of nature, increasingly allocating water resources to supposedly more productive uses - industries and private companies - at the expense of supposedly less-productive users, including smallholder farmers or the urban poor. The state actively supports and facilitates this, reforming water law to standardize and privatize water rights (Cullet et al., 2010a).

Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
Feigin, V.L. ; Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; Theadom, A.M. ; Abajobir, A.A. ; Mishra, S.R. ; Ahmed, M.B. ; Abate, K.H. ; Mengistie, M.A. ; Wakayo, T. ; Abd-Allah, F. ; Abdulle, A.M. ; Abera, S.F. ; Mohammed, K.E. ; Abyu, G.Y. ; Asgedom, S.W. ; Atey, T.M. ; Betsu, B.D. ; Mezgebe, H.B. ; Tuem, K.B. ; Woldu, M.A. ; Aichour, A.N. ; Aichour, I. ; Aichour, M.T. ; Akinyemi, R.O. ; Alabed, S. ; Al-Raddadi, R. ; Alvis-Guzman, N. ; Amare, A.T. ; Ansari, H. ; Anwari, P. ; Ärnlöv, J. ; Fereshtehnejad, S. ; Weiderpass, E. ; Havmoeller, R. ; Asayesh, H. ; Avila-Burgos, L. ; Avokpaho, E.F.G.A. ; Afrique, L.E.R.A.S. ; Azarpazhooh, M.R. ; Barac, A. ; Barboza, M. ; Barker-Collo, S.L. ; Bärnighausen, T. ; Farvid, M.S. ; Mohammed, S. ; Bedi, N. ; Beghi, E. ; Giussani, G. ; Bennett, D.A. ; Hay, S.I. ; Goulart, A.C. ; Santos, I.S. ; Bensenor, I.M. ; Lotufo, P.A. ; Berhane, A. ; Jeemon, P. ; Bhaumik, S. ; Dandona, L. ; Dandona, R. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Birlik, S.M. ; Biryukov, S. ; Casey, D. ; Foreman, K.J. ; Goldberg, E.M. ; Khalil, I.A. ; Kyu, H.H. ; Manhertz, T. ; Mokdad, A.H. ; Naghavi, M. ; Nguyen, G. ; Nichols, E. ; Smith, M. ; Carabin, H. ; Roth, G.A. ; Stanaway, J.D. ; Vos, T. ; Ellenbogen, R.G. ; Jakovljevic, M.B. ; Tirschwell, D.L. ; Zunt, J.R. ; Boneya, D.J. ; Hambisa, M. ; Bulto, L.N.B. ; Carabin, H. ; Castañeda-Orjuela, C.A. ; Catalá-López, F. ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, R. ; Chen, H. ; Chitheer, A.A. ; Chowdhury, R. ; Christensen, H. ; Deveber, G.A. ; Dharmaratne, S.D. ; Do, H.P. ; Nguyen, C.T. ; Nguyen, Q.L. ; Nguyen, T.H. ; Nong, V.M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Dorsey, E.R. ; Eskandarieh, S. ; Fischer, F. ; Majeed, A. ; Steiner, T.J. ; Rawaf, S. ; Shakir, R. ; Shoman, H. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Gillum, R.F. ; Gona, P.N. ; Gugnani, H.C. ; Gupta, R. ; Hachinski, V. ; Hamadeh, R.R. ; Hankey, G.J. ; Hareri, H.A. ; Heydarpour, P. ; Sahraian, M.A. ; Kasaeian, A. ; Malekzadeh, R. ; Roshandel, G. ; Sepanlou, S.G. ; Hotez, P.J. ; Javanbakht, M. ; Jonas, J.B. ; Kalkonde, Y. ; Kandel, A. ; Karch, A. ; Kastor, A. ; Rahman, M.H.U. ; Keiyoro, P.N. ; Khader, Y.S. ; Khan, E.A. ; Khang, Y. ; Khoja, A.T.A. ; Tran, B.X. ; Khubchandani, J. ; Kim, D. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Kivimaki, M. ; Kokubo, Y. ; Kosen, S. ; Kravchenko, M. ; Piradov, M.A. ; Varakin, Y.Y. ; Defo, B.K. ; Kulkarni, C. ; Kumar, R. ; Larsson, A. ; Lavados, P.M. ; Li, Y. ; Liang, X. ; Liben, M.L. ; Lo, W.D. ; Logroscino, G. ; Loy, C.T. ; Mackay, M.T. ; Meretoja, A. ; Szoeke, C.E.I. ; Abd El Razek, H.M. ; Mantovani, L.G. ; Massano, J. ; Mazidi, M. ; McAlinden, C. ; Mehata, S. ; Mehndiratta, M.M. ; Memish, Z.A. ; Mendoza, W. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Wijeratne, T. ; Miller, T.R. ; Mohamed Ibrahim, N. ; Mohammadi, A. ; Moradi-Lakeh, M. ; Velasquez, I.M. ; Musa, K.I. ; Ngunjiri, J.W. ; Ningrum, D.N.A. ; Norrving, B. ; Stein, D.J. ; Noubiap, J.J.N. ; Ogbo, F.A. ; Renzaho, A.M.N. ; Owolabi, M.O. ; Pandian, J.D. ; Parmar, P.G. ; Pereira, D.M. ; Petzold, M. ; Phillips, M.R. ; Poulton, R.G. ; Pourmalek, F. ; Qorbani, M. ; Rafay, A. ; Rai, R.K. ; Rajsic, S. ; Ranta, A. ; Rezai, M.S. ; Rubagotti, E. ; Sachdev, P. ; Safiri, S. ; Sahathevan, R. ; Samy, A.M. ; Santalucia, P. ; Sartorius, B. ; Satpathy, M. ; Sawhney, M. ; Saylan, M.I. ; Shaikh, M.A. ; Shamsizadeh, M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Shigematsu, M. ; Silva, D.A.S. ; Sobngwi, E. ; Sposato, L.A. ; Stovner, L.J. ; Suliankatchi Abdulkader, R. ; Tanne, D. ; Thrift, A.G. ; Topor-Madry, R. ; Truelsen, T. ; Ukwaja, K.N. ; Uthman, O.A. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Venketasubramanian, N. ; Vlassov, V.V. ; Wadilo, F. ; Wallin, M.T. ; Westerman, R. ; Wiysonge, C.S. ; Wolfe, C.D. ; Xavier, D. ; Xu, G. ; Yano, Y. ; Yimam, H.H. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Yu, C. ; Zaidi, Z. ; Zaki, M.E. - \ 2017
The Lancet Neurology 16 (2017)11. - ISSN 1474-4422 - p. 877 - 897.

Background Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. Methods We estimated global and country-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological disorders included stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, tetanus, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, migraine, tension-type headache, medication overuse headache, brain and nervous system cancers, and a residual category of other neurological disorders. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility, to identify patterns associated with development and how countries fare against expected outcomes relative to their level of development. Findings Neurological disorders ranked as the leading cause group of DALYs in 2015 (250·7 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 229·1 to 274·7] million, comprising 10·2% of global DALYs) and the second-leading cause group of deaths (9·4 [9·1 to 9·7] million], comprising 16·8% of global deaths). The most prevalent neurological disorders were tension-type headache (1505·9 [UI 1337·3 to 1681·6 million cases]), migraine (958·8 [872·1 to 1055·6] million), medication overuse headache (58·5 [50·8 to 67·4 million]), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (46·0 [40·2 to 52·7 million]). Between 1990 and 2015, the number of deaths from neurological disorders increased by 36·7%, and the number of DALYs by 7·4%. These increases occurred despite decreases in age-standardised rates of death and DALYs of 26·1% and 29·7%, respectively; stroke and communicable neurological disorders were responsible for most of these decreases. Communicable neurological disorders were the largest cause of DALYs in countries with low SDI. Stroke rates were highest at middle levels of SDI and lowest at the highest SDI. Most of the changes in DALY rates of neurological disorders with development were driven by changes in YLLs. Interpretation Neurological disorders are an important cause of disability and death worldwide. Globally, the burden of neurological disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years because of expanding population numbers and ageing, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates from stroke and communicable neurological disorders. The number of patients who will need care by clinicians with expertise in neurological conditions will continue to grow in coming decades. Policy makers and health-care providers should be aware of these trends to provide adequate services. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Responses in the gut of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to oral vaccine candidates against white spot disease
Kulkarni, A.D. - \ 2014
Nord University. Promotor(en): K. Viswanath, co-promotor(en): M. Brinchmann; C.M.A. Caipang. - Aquatic Bioscenses - ISBN 9788293165101
Re-politicising water governance: exploring water re-allocations in terms of justice
Joy, K.J. ; Kulkarni, S. ; Roth, D. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2014
Local Environment 19 (2014)9. - ISSN 1354-9839 - p. 954 - 973.
Contemporary socio-economic transformations in South Asia are creating increasingly serious water problems (scarcity, flooding, pollution) and conflicts. Conflicts over water distribution, water-derived benefits, and risks often play out along axes of social differentiation like caste, wealth, and gender. Those with least power, rights, and voice suffer lack of access, exclusion, dispossession, and further marginalisation, resulting in livelihood insecurity or increased vulnerability to risks. In this paper we propose analysing these problems as problems of justice – problems of distribution, recognition, and political participation. Drawing on wider environmental justice approaches, a specific water justice focus needs to include both the specific characteristics of water as a resource and the access, rights, and equity dimensions of its control. We argue that recognising water problems as problems of justice requires a re-politicisation of water, as mainstream approaches to water resources, water governance, and legislation tend to normalise or naturalise their – basically political – distributional assumptions and implications. An interdisciplinary approach that sees water as simultaneously natural (material) and social is important here. We illustrate these conceptual and theoretical suggestions with evidence from India.
Water rights, conflicts, and justice in South Asia
Roth, D. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. ; Joy, K.J. ; Kulkarni, S. - \ 2014
Local Environment 19 (2014)9. - ISSN 1354-9839 - p. 947 - 953.
Evaluation of immune and apoptosis related gene responses using an RNAi approach in vaccinated Penaeus monodon during oral WSSV infection
Kulkarni, A.D. ; Caipang, C.M.A. ; Kiron, V. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Fernandes, J.M.O. ; Brinchmann, M. - \ 2014
Marine Genomics 18 (2014)part A. - ISSN 1874-7787 - p. 55 - 65.
spot-syndrome-virus - double-stranded-rna - black tiger shrimp - toll-like receptors - litopenaeus-vannamei - molecular-cloning - innate immunity - fenneropenaeus-chinensis - expression analysis - vibrio-anguillarum
In the present study RNA interference was used to elucidate the connection between two endogenous genes [Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) or P. monodon inhibitor of apoptosis (PmIAP)], and selected immune/apoptosis-related genes in orally ‘vaccinated’ shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. P. monodon were vaccinated by feeding them with formalin inactivated WSSV-coated feed. Thereafter, PmRab7 or PmIAP genes were silenced by injecting the shrimps with their respective dsRNA. The resulting groups of shrimps, Rab7 and IAP, were orally infected with WSSV and the expression of three immune-relevant genes in Rab7 group and five apoptosis-related genes in IAP group was evaluated. In the Rab7 group, PmToll, PmPPAE 2 and Pm penaeidin genes were down-regulated. The IAP-silenced shrimps were characterized by down-regulation of Pm caspase, PmERp57, Pm14-3-3 e, Pm ald, and up-regulation of PmSTAT. Thus, silencing of PmRab7/PmIAP has provided important clues on their relationship with selected immune/apoptosis genes in orally vaccinated P. monodon during WSSV infection.
Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrom virus
Kulkarni, A.D. ; Kiron, V. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Brinchmann, M. ; Fernandes, J.M.O. ; Sudheer, N.S. ; Singh, B.I.S. - \ 2014
Proteomics 14 (2014)13-14. - ISSN 1615-9853 - p. 1660 - 1673.
differentially expressed genes - myosin light-chain - fenneropenaeus-chinensis - litopenaeus-vannamei - proteomic analysis - molecular-cloning - arginine kinase - binding-protein - phosphoglycerate kinase - marsupenaeus-japonicus
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate ‘vaccines’, WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism.
Profiles of Penaeus monodon GUT proteins in response to oral WSSV-vaccines
Kulkarni, V. ; Brinchmann, M. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Singh, I.S.B. ; Kiron, V. - \ 2013
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 34 (2013)6. - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 1659 - 1659.
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen and it has been reported that short-lived protection in shrimp, against this virus, can be provided using ‘vaccines’ containing WSSV envelope protein VP28 or formalin-inactivated WSSV. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of protection through these vaccines are not well described. Therefore, the interactions with the shrimp immune system need to be ascertained, in order to improve immunogenicity of the vaccines. In the present study, the aforementioned candidate vaccines were orally intubated in P. monodon and the expression profiles of proteins in the gut were determined by employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The same technique was also used on shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV to identify the differences in protein profiles. Around 90 proteins spots, with an altered expression (at least 1.5 fold), were subjected to mass spectrometry, and further analysed using bioinformatic databases. Based on the biological Gene Ontology terms, these proteins were classified under energy production, phenol oxidase activity, apoptosis, serine proteases, intracellular transport or nucleic acid synthesis. Additionally, spot intensities of some immune relevant proteins were compared with their corresponding mRNA levels (determined by quantitative real-time PCR). The results identified proteins that could be linked to the shrimp's immune response to vaccines.
Truncated VP28 as oral vaccine candidate against WSSV infection in shrimp: an uptake and processing study in the midgut of Penaeus monodon
Kulkarni, V. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Singh, I.S.B. ; Sudheer, N.S. ; Vlak, J.M. ; Caipang, C.M.A. ; Brinchmann, M. ; Kiron, V. - \ 2013
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 34 (2013)1. - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 159 - 166.
spot syndrome virus - prophenoloxidase activating system - cyprinus-carpio l - monoclonal-antibodies - hemocytes - arthropods - exocytosis - protection - immersion - decapoda
Several oral vaccination studies have been undertaken to evoke a better protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a major shrimp pathogen. Formalin-inactivated virus and WSSV envelope protein VP28 were suggested as candidate vaccine components, but their uptake mechanism upon oral delivery was not elucidated. In this study the fate of these components and of live WSSV, orally intubated to black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was investigated by immunohistochemistry, employing antibodies specific for VP28 and haemocytes. The midgut has been identified as the most prominent site of WSSV uptake and processing. The truncated recombinant VP28 (rec-VP28), formalin-inactivated virus (IVP) and live WSSV follow an identical uptake route suggested as receptor-mediated endocytosis that starts with adherence of luminal antigens at the apical layers of gut epithelium. Processing of internalized antigens is performed in endo-lysosomal compartments leading to formation of supra-nuclear vacuoles. However, the majority of WSSV-antigens escape these compartments and are transported to the inter-cellular space via transcytosis. Accumulation of the transcytosed antigens in the connective tissue initiates aggregation and degranulation of haemocytes. Finally the antigens exiting the midgut seem to reach the haemolymph. The nearly identical uptake pattern of the different WSSV-antigens suggests that receptors on the apical membrane of shrimp enterocytes recognize rec-VP28 efficiently. Hence the truncated VP28 can be considered suitable for oral vaccination, when the digestion in the foregut can be bypassed.
Uptake and local immune response of shrimp to WSSV
Kulkarni, V. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Bright Singh, I.S. ; Caipang, C.M.A. ; Brinchmann, M. ; Kiron, V. - \ 2012
Uptake of white spot syndrome virus and WSSV-vaccines in the gut of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon
Kulkarni, V. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Bright Sing, S.I. ; Caipang, C.M.A. ; Brinchmann, M. ; Kiron, V. - \ 2011
BrFLC2 (flowering locus C) as a candidate gene for a vernalization response QTL in Brassica rapa
Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun ; Kulkarni, V. ; Liu, Nini ; Pino del Carpio, D. ; Bonnema, A.B. - \ 2010
Journal of Experimental Botany 61 (2010)6. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1817 - 1825.
quantitative trait loci - arabidopsis-thaliana - flc homologs - time genes - expression - plants - methylation - epigenetics - mechanisms - repressor
Flowering time is an important agronomic trait, and wide variation exists among Brassica rapa. In Arabidopsis, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays an important role in modulating flowering time and the response to vernalization. Brassica rapa contains several paralogues of FLC at syntenic regions. BrFLC2 maps under a major flowering time and vernalization response quantitative trait locus (QTL) at the top of A02. Here the effects of vernalization on flowering time in a double haploid (DH) population and on BrFLC2 expression in selected lines of a DH population in B. rapa are descibed. The effect of the major flowering time QTL on the top of A02 where BrFLC2 maps clearly decreases upon vernalization, which points to a role for BrFLC2 underlying the QTL. In all developmental stages and tissues (seedlings, cotyledons, and leaves), BrFLC2 transcript levels are higher in late flowering pools of DH lines than in pools of early flowering DH lines. BrFLC2 expression diminished after different durations of seedling vernalization in both early and late DH lines. The reduction of BrFLC2 expression upon seedling vernalization of both early and late flowering DH lines was strongest at the seedling stage and diminished in subsequent growth stages, which suggests that the commitment to flowering is already set at very early developmental stages. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that BrFLC2 is a candidate gene for the flowering time and vernalization response QTL in B. rapa
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