Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Global 3-D Simulations of the Triple Oxygen Isotope Signature Δ17O in Atmospheric CO2
Koren, Gerbrand ; Schneider, Linda ; Velde, Ivar R. van der; Schaik, Erik van; Gromov, Sergey S. ; Adnew, Getachew A. ; Mrozek Martino, Dorota J. ; Hofmann, Magdalena E.G. ; Liang, Mao Chang ; Mahata, Sasadhar ; Bergamaschi, Peter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Krol, Maarten C. ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Peters, Wouter - \ 2019
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (2019). - ISSN 2169-897X
O excess (ΔO) - carbon cycle - carbon dioxide (CO) - gross primary production (GPP) - mass-independent fractionation (MIF) - stable isotopes

The triple oxygen isotope signature Δ17O in atmospheric CO2, also known as its “17O excess,” has been proposed as a tracer for gross primary production (the gross uptake of CO2 by vegetation through photosynthesis). We present the first global 3-D model simulations for Δ17O in atmospheric CO2 together with a detailed model description and sensitivity analyses. In our 3-D model framework we include the stratospheric source of Δ17O in CO2 and the surface sinks from vegetation, soils, ocean, biomass burning, and fossil fuel combustion. The effect of oxidation of atmospheric CO on Δ17O in CO2 is also included in our model. We estimate that the global mean Δ17O (defined as Δ17O = ln(δ17O+1)−λRL·ln(δ18O+1) with λRL = 0.5229) of CO2 in the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere is 39.6 per meg, which is ∼20 per meg lower than estimates from existing box models. We compare our model results with a measured stratospheric Δ17O in CO2 profile from Sodankylä (Finland), which shows good agreement. In addition, we compare our model results with tropospheric measurements of Δ17O in CO2 from Göttingen (Germany) and Taipei (Taiwan), which shows some agreement but we also find substantial discrepancies that are subsequently discussed. Finally, we show model results for Zotino (Russia), Mauna Loa (United States), Manaus (Brazil), and South Pole, which we propose as possible locations for future measurements of Δ17O in tropospheric CO2 that can help to further increase our understanding of the global budget of Δ17O in atmospheric CO2.

Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice
Meer, Floor van; Laan, Laura N. van der; Eiben, Gabriele ; Lissner, Lauren ; Wolters, Maike ; Rach, Stefan ; Herrmann, Manfred ; Erhard, Peter ; Molnar, Denes ; Orsi, Gergely ; Viergever, Max A. ; Adan, Roger A.H. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2019
NeuroImage 201 (2019). - ISSN 1053-8119
Decision making - Development - fMRI - Food choice - Overweight

Childhood obesity is a rising problem caused in part by unhealthy food choices. Food choices are based on a neural value signal encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and self-control involves modulation of this signal by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We determined the effects of development, body mass (BMI Cole score) and body mass history on the neural correlates of healthy food choice in children. 141 children (aged 10-17y) from Germany, Hungary and Sweden were scanned with fMRI while performing a food choice task. Afterwards health and taste ratings of the foods were collected. In the food choice task children were asked to consider the healthiness or tastiness of the food or to choose naturally. Overall, children made healthier choices when asked to consider healthiness. However, children who had a higher weight gain per year chose less healthy foods when considering healthiness but not when choosing naturally. Pubertal development stage correlated positively while current body mass correlated negatively with dlPFC activation when accepting foods. Pubertal development negatively and current body mass positively influenced the effect of considering healthiness on activation of brain areas involved in salience and motivation. In conclusion, children in earlier stages of pubertal development and children with a higher body weight exhibited less activation in the dlPFC, which has been implicated in self-control during food choice. Furthermore, pubertal development and body mass influenced neural responses to a health cue in areas involved in salience and motivation. Thus, these findings suggest that children in earlier stages of pubertal development, children with a higher body mass gain and children with overweight may possibly be less susceptible to healthy eating interventions that rely on self-control or that highlight health aspects of food.

Improving smallholder inclusiveness in palm oil production — a global review
Jezeer, Rosalien ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Laan, Carina van der; Pasiecznik, Nick - \ 2019
Tropenbos International (ETFRN News 59) - 15 p.
Summary review from the ETFRN news 59 'Exploring inclusive palm oil production' where the experiences perceptions and perspectives of individuals, companies, institutions and NGOs on what has been done and is being done on the ground to increase the involvement of and benefits to smallholder oil palm farmers are discussed and compared.
Good practice in food-related neuroimaging
Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Dagher, Alain ; Hare, Todd A. ; Kullmann, Stephanie ; Laan, Laura N. van der; Poldrack, Russell A. ; Preissl, Hubert ; Small, Dana ; Stice, Eric ; Veldhuizen, Maria G. - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 491 - 503.
aroma - data sharing - food choice - food viewing - functional magnetic resonance imaging - good practice - neuroimaging - satiation - taste

The use of neuroimaging tools, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, in nutritional research has increased substantially over the past 2 decades. Neuroimaging is a research tool with great potential impact on the field of nutrition, but to achieve that potential, appropriate use of techniques and interpretation of neuroimaging results is necessary. In this article, we present guidelines for good methodological practice in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies and flag specific limitations in the hope of helping researchers to make the most of neuroimaging tools and avoid potential pitfalls. We highlight specific considerations for food-related studies, such as how to adjust statistically for common confounders, like, for example, hunger state, menstrual phase, and BMI, as well as how to optimally match different types of food stimuli. Finally, we summarize current research needs and future directions, such as the use of prospective designs and more realistic paradigms for studying eating behavior.

Onderzoek naar relatie aanspoelen zeekoeten en containerramp
Leopold, Mardik - \ 2019
Global atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rate
Gaubert, Benjamin ; Stephens, Britton B. ; Basu, Sourish ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Deng, Feng ; Kort, Eric A. ; Patra, Prabir K. ; Peters, Wouter ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Saeki, Tazu ; Schimel, David ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der; Wofsy, Steven ; Yin, Yi - \ 2019
Biogeosciences 16 (2019)1. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 117 - 134.

We have compared a suite of recent global CO2 atmospheric inversion results to independent airborne observations and to each other, to assess their dependence on differences in northern extratropical (NET) vertical transport and to identify some of the drivers of model spread. We evaluate posterior CO2 concentration profiles against observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-To-Pole Observations (HIPPO) aircraft campaigns over the mid-Pacific in 2009-2011. Although the models differ in inverse approaches, assimilated observations, prior fluxes, and transport models, their broad latitudinal separation of land fluxes has converged significantly since the Atmospheric Carbon Cycle Inversion Intercomparison (TransCom 3) and the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) projects, with model spread reduced by 80% since TransCom 3 and 70% since RECCAP. Most modeled CO2 fields agree reasonably well with the HIPPO observations, specifically for the annual mean vertical gradients in the Northern Hemisphere. Northern Hemisphere vertical mixing no longer appears to be a dominant driver of northern versus tropical (T) annual flux differences. Our newer suite of models still gives northern extratropical land uptake that is modest relative to previous estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013) and near-neutral tropical land uptake for 2009- 2011. Given estimates of emissions from deforestation, this implies a continued uptake in intact tropical forests that is strong relative to historical estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013). The results from these models for other time periods (2004-2014, 2001-2004, 1992-1996) and reevaluation of the TransCom 3 Level 2 and RECCAP results confirm that tropical land carbon fluxes including deforestation have been near neutral for several decades. However, models still have large disagreements on ocean-land partitioning. The fossil fuel (FF) and the atmospheric growth rate terms have been thought to be the best-known terms in the global carbon budget, but we show that they currently limit our ability to assess regional-scale terrestrial fluxes and ocean-land partitioning from the model ensemble.

Drie wolven dolen misschien nog steeds door het Noorden
Jansman, Hugh - \ 2018

In het voorjaar hebben drie wolven het Noorden aangedaan en diverse schapen aangevallen. Dat blijkt uit DNA-onderzoek van Wageningen Universiteit.

Wereldwijde uitstoot CO2 neemt weer toe
Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der; Peters, Wouter - \ 2018
Global Carbon Budget 2018
Quéré, Corinne ; Andrew, Robbie ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Sitch, Stephen ; Hauck, Judith ; Pongratz, Julia ; Pickers, Penelope ; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan ; Peters, Glen ; Canadell, Josep ; Arneth, Almut ; Arora, Vivek ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bastos, Ana ; Bopp, Laurent ; Ciais, Philippe ; Chini, Louise ; Ciais, Philippe ; Doney, Scott ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Goll, Daniel ; Harris, Ian ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hoffman, Forrest ; Hoppema, Mario ; Houghton, Richard ; Hurtt, George ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul ; Johannessen, Truls ; Jones, Chris ; Kato, Etsushi ; Keeling, Ralph ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Liu, Zhu ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Munro, David ; Nabel, Julia ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Neill, Craig ; Olsen, Are ; Ono, Tsueno ; Patra, Prabir ; Peregon, Anna ; Peters, Wouter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid Van Der - \ 2018
Earth System Science Data 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 2141 - 2194.

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land use and land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2008-2017), EFF was 9.4±0.5 GtC yrĝ'1, ELUC 1.5±0.7 GtC yrĝ'1, GATM 4.7±0.02 GtC yrĝ'1, SOCEAN 2.4±0.5 GtC yrĝ'1, and SLAND 3.2±0.8 GtC yrĝ'1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.5 GtC yrĝ'1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For the year 2017 alone, the growth in EFF was about 1.6 % and emissions increased to 9.9±0.5 GtC yrĝ'1. Also for 2017, ELUC was 1.4±0.7 GtC yrĝ'1, GATM was 4.6±0.2 GtC yrĝ'1, SOCEAN was 2.5±0.5 GtC yrĝ'1, and SLAND was 3.8±0.8 GtC yrĝ'1, with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 405.0±0.1 ppm averaged over 2017. For 2018, preliminary data for the first 6-9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of +2.7 % (range of 1.8 % to 3.7 %) based on national emission projections for China, the US, the EU, and India and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. The analysis presented here shows that the mean and trend in the five components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period of 1959-2017, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yrĝ'1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. A detailed comparison among individual estimates and the introduction of a broad range of observations show (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions, (2) a persistent low agreement among the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent underestimation of the CO2 variability by ocean models, originating outside the tropics. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2018, 2016, 2015a, b, 2014, 2013).

Changes in surface hydrology, soil moisture, and Gross Primary Productivity in the Amazon during the 2015/2016 El Niño
Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der - \ 2018
This zip file contains XX individual NetCDF files with the data used for the publication of van Schaik et al. 2018 in the Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society. Full description of the methodology used to create these numbers is available from the publication and its Supplement.
Changes in surface hydrology, soil moisture and gross primary production in the Amazon during the 2015/2016 El Niño
Schaik, Erik van; Killaars, Lars ; Smith, Naomi E. ; Koren, Gerbrand ; Beek, L.P.H. van; Peters, Wouter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 9 p.
Amazon - El Niño - gross primary productivity - river discharge - soil moisture - tropical terrestrial carbon cycle

The 2015/2016 El Niño event caused severe changes in precipitation across the tropics. This impacted surface hydrology, such as river run-off and soil moisture availability, thereby triggering reductions in gross primary production (GPP). Many biosphere models lack the detailed hydrological component required to accurately quantify anomalies in surface hydrology and GPP during droughts in tropical regions. Here, we take the novel approach of coupling the biosphere model SiBCASA with the advanced hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB to attempt such a quantification across the Amazon basin during the drought in 2015/2016. We calculate 30-40% reduced river discharge in the Amazon starting in October 2015, lagging behind the precipitation anomaly by approximately one month and in good agreement with river gauge observations. Soil moisture shows distinctly asymmetrical spatial anomalies with large reductions across the north-eastern part of the basin, which persisted into the following dry season. This added to drought stress in vegetation, already present owing to vapour pressure deficits at the leaf, resulting in a loss of GPP of 0.95 (0.69 to 1.20) PgC between October 2015 and March 2016 compared with the 2007-2014 average. Only 11% (10-12%) of the reduction in GPP was found in the (wetter) north-western part of the basin, whereas the north-eastern and southern regions were affected more strongly, with 56% (54-56%) and 33% (31-33%) of the total, respectively. Uncertainty on this anomaly mostly reflects the unknown rooting depths of vegetation.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

Widespread reduction in sun-induced fluorescence from the Amazon during the 2015/2016 El Niño
Koren, Gerbrand ; Schaik, Erik van; Araújo, Alessandro C. ; Boersma, K.F. ; Gärtner, Antje ; Killaars, Lars ; Kooreman, Maurits L. ; Kruijt, Bart ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Randow, Celso von; Smith, Naomi E. ; Peters, Wouter - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 10 p.
Amazon rainforest - drought response - El Niño-Southern Oscillation - gross primary production - sun-induced fluorescence - tropical terrestrial carbon cycle

The tropical carbon balance dominates year-to-year variations in the CO2 exchange with the atmosphere through photosynthesis, respiration and fires. Because of its high correlation with gross primary productivity (GPP), observations of sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) are of great interest. We developed a new remotely sensed SIF product with improved signal-to-noise in the tropics, and use it here to quantify the impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño Amazon drought. We find that SIF was strongly suppressed over areas with anomalously high temperatures and decreased levels of water in the soil. SIF went below its climatological range starting from the end of the 2015 dry season (October) and returned to normal levels by February 2016 when atmospheric conditions returned to normal, but well before the end of anomalously low precipitation that persisted through June 2016. Impacts were not uniform across the Amazon basin, with the eastern part experiencing much larger (10-15%) SIF reductions than the western part of the basin (2-5%). We estimate the integrated loss of GPP relative to eight previous years to be 0.34-0.48 PgC in the three-month period October-November-December 2015.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

Global DNA Compaction in Stationary-Phase Bacteria Does Not Affect Transcription
Janissen, Richard ; Arens, Mathia M.A. ; Vtyurina, Natalia N. ; Rivai, Zaïda ; Sunday, Nicholas D. ; Eslami-Mossallam, Behrouz ; Gritsenko, Alexey A. ; Laan, Liedewij ; Ridder, Dick de; Artsimovitch, Irina ; Dekker, Nynke H. ; Abbondanzieri, Elio A. ; Meyer, Anne S. - \ 2018
Cell 174 (2018)5. - ISSN 0092-8674 - p. 1188 - 1199.e14.
DNA condensation - Dps - magnetic tweezers - nucleoid - RNA polymerase - single-molecule biophysics - stationary phase - stress response - transcription

In stationary-phase Escherichia coli, Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells) is the most abundant protein component of the nucleoid. Dps compacts DNA into a dense complex and protects it from damage. Dps has also been proposed to act as a global regulator of transcription. Here, we directly examine the impact of Dps-induced compaction of DNA on the activity of RNA polymerase (RNAP). Strikingly, deleting the dps gene decompacted the nucleoid but did not significantly alter the transcriptome and only mildly altered the proteome during stationary phase. Complementary in vitro assays demonstrated that Dps blocks restriction endonucleases but not RNAP from binding DNA. Single-molecule assays demonstrated that Dps dynamically condenses DNA around elongating RNAP without impeding its progress. We conclude that Dps forms a dynamic structure that excludes some DNA-binding proteins yet allows RNAP free access to the buried genes, a behavior characteristic of phase-separated organelles. Despite markedly condensing the bacterial chromosome, the nucleoid-structuring protein Dps selectively allows access by RNA polymerase and transcription factors at normal rates while excluding other factors such as restriction endonucleases.

Future stewards? Connection to nature starts from childhood experiences in nature areas
Elands, B.H.M. ; Postma, L. ; Schouten-van der Laan, L. - \ 2018
In: The 9th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas (MMV9). - IRSTEA - ISBN 9782955125113 - p. 363 - 364.
CTDAS-Lagrange v1.0 : A high-resolution data assimilation system for regional carbon dioxide observations
He, Wei ; Velde, Ivar R. van der; Andrews, Arlyn E. ; Sweeney, Colm ; Miller, John ; Tans, Pieter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Nehrkorn, Thomas ; Mountain, Marikate ; Ju, Weimin ; Peters, Wouter ; Chen, Huilin - \ 2018
Geoscientific Model Development 11 (2018)8. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 3515 - 3536.

We have implemented a regional carbon dioxide data assimilation system based on the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research meteorological fields (WRF-STILT). With this system, named CTDAS-Lagrange, we simultaneously optimize terrestrial biosphere fluxes and four parameters that adjust the lateral boundary conditions (BCs) against CO2 observations from the NOAA ESRL North America tall tower and aircraft programmable flask packages (PFPs) sampling program. Least-squares optimization is performed with a time-stepping ensemble Kalman smoother, over a time window of 10 days and assimilating sequentially a time series of observations. Because the WRF-STILT footprints are pre-computed, it is computationally efficient to run the CTDAS-Lagrange system. To estimate the uncertainties in the optimized fluxes from the system, we performed sensitivity tests with various a priori biosphere fluxes (SiBCASA, SiB3, CT2013B) and BCs (optimized mole fraction fields from CT2013B and CTE2014, and an empirical dataset derived from aircraft observations), as well as with a variety of choices on the ways that fluxes are adjusted (additive or multiplicative), covariance length scales, biosphere flux covariances, BC parameter uncertainties, and model-data mismatches. In pseudo-data experiments, we show that in our implementation the additive flux adjustment method is more flexible in optimizing net ecosystem exchange (NEE) than the multiplicative flux adjustment method, and our sensitivity tests with real observations show that the CTDAS-Lagrange system has the ability to correct for the potential biases in the lateral BCs and to resolve large biases in the prior biosphere fluxes. Using real observations, we have derived a range of estimates for the optimized carbon fluxes from a series of sensitivity tests, which places the North American carbon sink for the year 2010 in a range from -0.92 to -1.26PgCyr-1. This is comparable to the TM5-based estimates of CarbonTracker (version CT2016, -0.91±1.10PgCyr-1) and CarbonTracker Europe (version CTE2016, -0.91±0.31PgCyr-1). We conclude that CTDAS-Lagrange can offer a versatile and computationally attractive alternative to these global systems for regional estimates of carbon fluxes, which can take advantage of high-resolution Lagrangian footprints that are increasingly easy to obtain.

Increased water-use efficiency and reduced CO2 uptake by plants during droughts at a continental scale
Peters, W. ; Velde, I.R. van der; Schaik, Erik van; Miller, John B. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Duarte, Henrique F. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Molen, M.K. van der; Scholze, M. ; Schaefer, Kevin ; Vidale, Pier Luigi ; Verhoef, Anne ; Wårlind, D. ; Zhu, Dan ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Vaughn, Bruce ; White, James W.C. - \ 2018
Nature Geoscience 11 (2018). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 744 - 748.
Severe droughts in the Northern Hemisphere cause a widespread decline of agricultural yield, the reduction of forest carbon uptake, and increased CO2 growth rates in the atmosphere. Plants respond to droughts by partially closing their stomata to limit their evaporative water loss, at the expense of carbon uptake by photosynthesis. This trade-off maximizes their water-use efficiency (WUE), as measured for many individual plants under laboratory conditions and field experiments. Here we analyse the 13C/12C stable isotope ratio in atmospheric CO2 to provide new observational evidence of the impact of droughts on the WUE across areas of millions of square kilometres and spanning one decade of recent climate variability. We find strong and spatially coherent increases in WUE along with widespread reductions of net carbon uptake over the Northern Hemisphere during severe droughts that affected Europe, Russia and the United States in 2001–2011. The impact of those droughts on WUE and carbon uptake by vegetation is substantially larger than simulated by the land-surface schemes of six state-of-the-art climate models. This suggests that drought-induced carbon–climate feedbacks may be too small in these models and improvements to their vegetation dynamics using stable isotope observations can help to improve their drought response.
Help, ik voel me zo schuldig!
Hooge, Ilona de - \ 2018
Realistische ecologische doelen voor macrofauna in Noord-Brabantse beken
Verdonschot, R. ; Beers, M. ; Samuels, J. ; Brugmans, B. ; Moeleker, M. ; Scheepens, M. ; Laan, I. van der; Verdonschot, P. - \ 2018
H2O online (2018). - 8
In Noord-Brabant worden de ecologische doelen voor de beekmacrofauna vaak niet gehaald. Om de oorzaken hiervan te identificeren, is onderzocht welke kenmerkende soorten voor langzaam stromende laaglandbeken er in het gebied voorkomen en welke verdwenen of nooit aangetroffen zijn. Er is bekeken welke eisen deze soorten stellen aan hun milieu en er is een inschatting gemaakt van de knelpunten voor deze soorten. Een belangrijk knelpunt was een te hoge organische belasting, maar in de bovenlopen speelde ook een typologisch probleem; trajecten met een van nature beperkt verhang werden steevast slecht gewaardeerd.
Global Carbon Budget 2017
Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Sitch, Stephen ; Pongratz, Julia ; Manning, Andrew C. ; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan ; Peters, Glen P. ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Andrews, Oliver D. ; Arora, Vivek K. ; Bakker, Dorothee C.E. ; Barbero, Leticia ; Becker, Meike ; Betts, Richard A. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Cosca, Catherine E. ; Cross, Jessica ; Currie, Kim ; Gasser, Thomas ; Harris, Ian ; Hauck, Judith ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Hunt, Christopher W. ; Hurtt, George ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Kautz, Markus ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Körtzinger, Arne ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Lima, Ivan ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Millero, Frank ; Monteiro, Pedro M.S. ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Nojiri, Yukihiro ; Padin, X.A. ; Peregon, Anna ; Pfeil, Benjamin ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rehder, Gregor ; Reimer, Janet ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Schwinger, Jörg ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Tubiello, Francesco N. ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Werf, Guido R. van der; Heuven, Steven Van; Viovy, Nicolas ; Vuichard, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Watson, Andrew J. ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sönke ; Zhu, Dan - \ 2018
Earth System Science Data 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 405 - 448.
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1δ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4±0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7±0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4±0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0±0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9±0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1±0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6±0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7±1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of-0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND consistent with El Ninõ conditions. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 402.8±0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6-9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of C2.0% (range of 0.8 to 3.0 %) based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP) corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017 (GCP, 2017).
An Even Distribution of Protein Intake Daily Promotes Protein Adequacy but Does Not Influence Nutritional Status in Institutionalized Elderly
Tieland, Michael ; Beelen, Janne ; Laan, Anna C.M. ; Poon, Shirley ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Seeman, Ego ; Wang, Xiaofang ; Iuliano, Sandra - \ 2018
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 33 - 39.
Elderly - Energy intake - Malnutrition - Protein distribution
Objective: Although it has been established that sufficient protein is required to maintain good nutritional status and support healthy aging, it is not clear if the pattern of protein consumption may also influence nutritional status, especially in institutionalized elderly who are at risk of malnutrition. Therefore, we aim to determine the association between protein intake distribution and nutritional status in institutionalized elderly people. Design: Cross-sectional study among 481 institutionalized older adults. Methods: Dietary data from 481 ambulant elderly people (68.8% female, mean age 87.5 ± 6.3 years) residing in 52 aged-care facilities in Victoria, Australia, were assessed over 2 days using plate waste analysis. Nutritional status was determined using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment tool and serum (n = 208) analyzed for albumin, hemoglobin, and IGF-1. Protein intake distribution was classified as: spread (even distribution across 3 meals, n = 65), pulse (most protein consumed in one meal, n = 72) or intermediate (n = 344). Regression analysis was used to investigate associations. Results: Mean protein intakes were higher in the spread (60.5 ± 2.0 g/d) than intermediate group (56.0 ± 0.8 g/d, P = .037), and tended to be higher than those in the pulse group (55.9 ± 1.9 g/d, P = .097). Residents with an even distribution of protein intake achieved a higher level of the recommended daily intake for protein (96.2 ± 30.0%) than the intermediate (86.3 ± 26.2%, P = .008) and pulse (87.4 ± 30.5%, P = .06) groups, and also achieved a greater level of their estimated energy requirements (intermediate; P = .039, pulse; P = .001). Nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) did not differ between groups (pulse; 20.5 ± 4.5, intermediate; 21.0 ± 2.5, spread; 20.5 ± 3.5), nor did any other indices of nutritional status. Conclusions: Meeting protein requirements is required before protein distribution may influence nutritional status in institutionalized elderly. Achieving adequate protein and energy intakes is more likely when protein is distributed evenly throughout the day. Provision of high protein foods especially at breakfast, and in the evening, may support protein adequacy and healthy aging, especially for institutionalized elderly.
Brazilië stelt gebied groter dan Nederland open voor goudwinning
Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der - \ 2017
Considering healthiness promotes healthier choices but modulates medial prefrontal cortex differently in children compared with adults
Meer, Floor van; Laan, Laura N. van der; Viergever, Max A. ; Adan, Roger A.H. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2017
NeuroImage 159 (2017). - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 325 - 333.
Children - Decision making - Development - fMRI - Food choice
Childhood obesity is a rising problem worldwide mainly caused by overconsumption, which is driven by food choices. In adults, food choices are based on a value signal encoded in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This signal is modulated by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), which is involved in self-control. We aimed to examine the neural correlates of food choice in children, and how considering healthiness affects neural activity and choice behavior. 24 children and 28 adults performed a food choice task while being scanned with fMRI and provided health and taste ratings of the foods afterwards. During the choice task participants considered either the healthiness or tastiness of the food or chose naturally. Health rating was a positive predictor of choice in adults, but a negative predictor in children. Children had weaker dlPFC activation than adults during yes vs. no independent of health or taste condition. Both children and adults made healthier choices when considering healthiness. Taste rating modulated mPFC activation in both children and adults. When considering the healthiness, health rating positively modulated mPFC activation in adults, but negatively in children. Considering the healthiness increased connectivity between dlPFC and mPFC in adults, but not in children. In conclusion, considering healthiness can promote healthier choices in both children and adults, but is accompanied by an opposing pattern of brain activation in the mPFC. Since the absolute number of healthy choices remained lower in children, this suggests that children may not yet be geared to modify their choices away from their natural tendency to choose unhealthy tasty foods. Thus, this study suggests that it may be promising to develop interventions that increase children's preference for healthy food, for example by increasing the habitual consumption of healthy foods from a young age.
The CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) v1.0 : Implementation and global carbon balance 2001-2015
Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. Van Der; Velde, Ivar R. Van Der; Veen, Emma Van Der; Tsuruta, Aki ; Stanislawska, Karolina ; Babenhauserheide, Arne ; Fang Zhang, Hui ; Liu, Yu ; He, Wei ; Chen, Huilin ; Masarie, Kenneth A. ; Krol, Maarten C. ; Peters, Wouter - \ 2017
Geoscientific Model Development 10 (2017)7. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 2785 - 2800.
Data assimilation systems are used increasingly to constrain the budgets of reactive and long-lived gases measured in the atmosphere. Each trace gas has its own lifetime, dominant sources and sinks, and observational network (from flask sampling and in situ measurements to space-based remote sensing) and therefore comes with its own optimal configuration of the data assimilation. The CarbonTracker Europe data assimilation system for CO2 estimates global carbon sources and sinks, and updates are released annually and used in carbon cycle studies. CarbonTracker Europe simulations are performed using the new modular implementation of the data assimilation system: The CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS). Here, we present and document this redesign of the data assimilation code that forms the heart of CarbonTracker, specifically meant to enable easy extension and modification of the data assimilation system. This paper also presents the setup of the latest version of CarbonTracker Europe (CTE2016), including the use of the gridded state vector, and shows the resulting carbon flux estimates. We present the distribution of the carbon sinks over the hemispheres and between the land biosphere and the oceans. We show that with equal fossil fuel emissions, 2015 has a higher atmospheric CO2 growth rate compared to 2014, due to reduced net land carbon uptake in later year. The European carbon sink is especially present in the forests, and the average average net uptake over 2001-2015 was 0:17±0:11 PgCyr-1 with reductions to zero during drought years. Finally, we also demonstrate the versatility of CTDAS by presenting an overview of the wide range of applications for which it has been used so far.
Global methane emission estimates for 2000-2012 from CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 v1.0
Tsuruta, Aki ; Aalto, Tuula ; Backman, Leif ; Hakkarainen, Janne ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. Van Der; Krol, Maarten C. ; Spahni, Renato ; Houweling, Sander ; Laine, Marko ; Dlugokencky, Ed ; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J. ; Schoot, Marcel Van Der; Langenfelds, Ray ; Ellul, Raymond ; Arduini, Jgor ; Apadula, Francesco ; Gerbig, Christoph ; Feist, D.G. ; Kivi, Rigel ; Yoshida, Yukio ; Peters, Wouter - \ 2017
Geoscientific Model Development 10 (2017)3. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 1261 - 1289.

We present a global distribution of surface methane (CH4) emission estimates for 2000-2012 derived using the CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 (CTE-CH4) data assimilation system. In CTE-CH4, anthropogenic and biospheric CH4 emissions are simultaneously estimated based on constraints of global atmospheric in situ CH4 observations. The system was configured to either estimate only anthropogenic or biospheric sources per region, or to estimate both categories simultaneously. The latter increased the number of optimizable parameters from 62 to 78. In addition, the differences between two numerical schemes available to perform turbulent vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model TM5 were examined. Together, the system configurations encompass important axes of uncertainty in inversions and allow us to examine the robustness of the flux estimates. The posterior emission estimates are further evaluated by comparing simulated atmospheric CH4 to surface in situ observations, vertical profiles of CH4 made by aircraft, remotely sensed dry-air total column-averaged mole fraction (XCH4) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), and XCH4 from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The evaluation with non-assimilated observations shows that posterior XCH4 is better matched with the retrievals when the vertical mixing scheme with faster interhemispheric exchange is used. Estimated posterior mean total global emissions during 2000-2012 are 516 ± 51 Tg CH4 yr-1, with an increase of 18 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2000-2006 to 2007-2012. The increase is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from South American temperate, Asian temperate and Asian tropical TransCom regions. In addition, the increase is hardly sensitive to different model configurations ( < 2 Tg CH4 yr-1 difference), and much smaller than suggested by EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory (33 Tg CH4 yr-1), which was used for prior anthropogenic emission estimates. The result is in good agreement with other published estimates from inverse modelling studies (16-20 Tg CH4 yr-1). However, this study could not conclusively separate a small trend in biospheric emissions (-5 to +6.9 Tg CH4 yr-1) from the much larger trend in anthropogenic emissions (15-27 Tg CH4 yr-1). Finally, we find that the global and North American CH4 balance could be closed over this time period without the previously suggested need to strongly increase anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the United States. With further developments, especially on the treatment of the atmospheric CH4 sink, we expect the data assimilation system presented here will be able to contribute to the ongoing interpretation of changes in this important greenhouse gas budget.

Goal-Directed Visual Attention Drives Health Goal Priming: An Eye-Tracking Experiment
Laan, Laura N. van der; Papies, E.K. ; Hooge, I.T.C. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2017
Health Psychology 36 (2017)1. - ISSN 0278-6133 - p. 82 - 90.
Objective: Several lab and field experiments have shown that goal priming interventions can be highly effective in promoting healthy food choices. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms by which goal priming affects food choice. This experiment tested the hypothesis that goal priming affects
food choices through changes in visual attention. Specifically, it was hypothesized that priming with the dieting goal steers attention toward goal-relevant, low energy food products, which, in turn, increases the likelihood of choosing these products. Methods: In this eye-tracking experiment, 125 participants chose between high and low energy food products in a realistic online supermarket task while their eye movements were recorded with an eye-tracker. One group was primed with a health and dieting goal, a second group was exposed to a control prime, and a third group was exposed to no prime at all. Results: The health goal prime increased low energy food choices
and decreased high energy food choices. Furthermore, the health goal prime resulted in proportionally longer total dwell times on low energy food products, and this effect mediated the goal priming effect on choices. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the effect of priming on consumer choice may originate from an increase in attention for prime-congruent items. This study
supports the effectiveness of health goal priming interventions in promoting healthy eating and opens up directions for research on other behavioral interventions that steer attention toward healthy foods.
Prediction of the carcinogenic potential of human pharmaceuticals using repeated dose toxicity data and their pharmacological properties
Laan, Jan Willem van der; Buitenhuis, Wenny H.W. ; Wagenaar, Laura ; Soffers, Ans E.M.F. ; Someren, Eugene P. van; Krul, Cyrille A.M. ; Woutersen, Ruud A. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Medicine 3 (2016)OCT. - ISSN 2296-858X
Carcinogenicity - Histopathology - Human pharmaceuticals - Pharmacology - Predictivity

In an exercise designed to reduce animal use, we analyzed the results of rat subchronic toxicity studies from 289 pharmaceutical compounds with the aim to predict the tumor outcome of carcinogenicity studies in this species. The results were obtained from the assessment reports available at the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands for 289 pharmaceutical compounds that had been shown to be non-genotoxic. One hundred forty-three of the 239 compounds not inducing putative preneoplastic lesions in the subchronic study did not induce tumors in the carcinogenicity study [true negatives (TNs)], whereas 96 compounds were categorized as false negatives (FNs) because tumors were observed in the carcinogenicity study. Of the remaining 50 compounds, 31 showed preneoplastic lesions in the subchronic study and tumors in the carcinogenicity study [true positives (TPs)], and 19 only showed preneoplastic lesions in subchronic studies but no tumors in the carcinogenicity study [false positives (FPs)]. In addition, we then re-assessed the prediction of the tumor outcome by integrating the pharmacological properties of these compounds. These pharmacological properties were evaluated with respect to the presence or absence of a direct or indirect proliferative action. We found support for the absence of cellular proliferation for 204 compounds (TN). For 67 compounds, the presence of cellular hyperplasia as evidence for proliferative action could be found (TP). Therefore, this approach resulted in an ability to predict non-carcinogens at a success rate of 92% and the ability to detect carcinogens at 98%. The combined evaluation of pharmacological and histopathological endpoints eventually led to only 18 unknown outcomes (17 categorized as FN and 1 as FP), thereby enhancing both the negative and positive predictivity of an evaluation based upon histopathological evaluation only. The data show the added value of a consideration of the pharmacological properties of compounds in relation to potential class effects, both in the negative and positive direction. A high negative and a high positive predictivity will both result in waiving the need for conducting 2-year rat carcinogenicity studies, if this is accepted by Regulatory Authorities, which will save large numbers of animals and reduce drug development costs and time.

Nocturnal activity as indicator of adaptability of dogs to a shelter environment – preliminary results
Laan, Janneke E. van der; Wal, Annika S. van der; Bril, Lisanne M. ; Borg, J.A.M. van der - \ 2016
Wat gaat de Amazone doen? : laser, satelliet en meetlint vertellen hoe het regenwoud klimaatverandering doorstaat
Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der - \ 2016

Het is vaker droog dan voorheen in de Amazone, en dan produceert ’s werelds grootste oerwoud enorme hoeveelheden CO2. Mogelijk gaat het bos er zelfs aan onderdoor, met grote gevolgen voor het klimaat. Wageningse onderzoekers zien zowel tekenen van stress als een verrassend grote veerkracht.

Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior
Barban, Nicola ; Jansen, Rick ; Vlaming, Ronald de; Vaez, Ahmad ; Mandemakers, Jornt J. ; Tropf, Felix C. ; Shen, Xia ; Wilson, James F. ; Chasman, Daniel I. ; Nolte, Ilja M. ; Tragante, Vinicius ; Laan, Sander W. van der; Perry, John R.B. ; Kong, Augustine ; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. ; Albrecht, Eva ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura ; Atzmon, Gil ; Auro, Kirsi ; Ayers, Kristin ; Bakshi, Andrew ; Ben-Avraham, Danny ; Berger, Klaus ; Bergman, Aviv ; Bertram, Lars ; Bielak, Lawrence F. ; Bjornsdottir, Gyda ; Bonder, Marc Jan ; Broer, Linda ; Bui, Minh ; Barbieri, Caterina ; Cavadino, Alana ; Chavarro, Jorge E. ; Turman, Constance ; Concas, Maria Pina ; Cordell, Heather J. ; Davies, Gail ; Eibich, Peter ; Eriksson, Nicholas ; Esko, Tõnu ; Eriksson, Joel ; Falahi, Fahimeh ; Felix, Janine F. ; Fontana, Mark Alan ; Franke, Lude ; Gandin, Ilaria ; Gaskins, Audrey J. ; Gieger, Christian ; Gunderson, Erica P. ; Guo, Xiuqing ; Hayward, Caroline ; He, Chunyan ; Hofer, Edith ; Huang, Hongyan ; Joshi, Peter K. ; Kanoni, Stavroula ; Karlsson, Robert ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Kifley, Annette ; Kluttig, Alexander ; Kraft, Peter ; Lagou, Vasiliki ; Lecoeur, Cecile ; Lahti, Jari ; Li-Gao, Ruifang ; Lind, Penelope A. ; Liu, Tian ; Makalic, Enes ; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto ; Matteson, Lindsay ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; McArdle, Patrick F. ; McMahon, George ; Meddens, S.F.W. ; Mihailov, Evelin ; Miller, Mike ; Missmer, Stacey A. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Most, Peter J. van der; Myhre, Ronny ; Nalls, Mike A. ; Nutile, Teresa ; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota ; Porcu, Eleonora ; Prokopenko, Inga ; Rajan, Kumar B. ; Rich-Edwards, Janet ; Rietveld, Cornelius A. ; Robino, Antonietta ; Rose, Lynda M. ; Rueedi, Rico ; Ryan, Kathleen A. ; Saba, Yasaman ; Schmidt, Daniel ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Stolk, Lisette ; Streeten, Elizabeth ; Tönjes, Anke ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Ulivi, Sheila ; Wedenoja, Juho ; Wellmann, Juergen ; Willeit, Peter ; Yao, Jie ; Yengo, Loic ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Zhao, Wei ; Zhernakova, Daria V. ; Amin, Najaf ; Andrews, Howard ; Balkau, Beverley ; Barzilai, Nir ; Bergmann, Sven ; Biino, Ginevra ; Bisgaard, Hans ; Bønnelykke, Klaus ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Buring, Julie E. ; Campbell, Harry ; Cappellani, Stefania ; Ciullo, Marina ; Cox, Simon R. ; Cucca, Francesco ; Toniolo, Daniela ; Davey-Smith, George ; Deary, Ian J. ; Dedoussis, George ; Deloukas, Panos ; Duijn, Cornelia M. van; Geus, Eco J.C. de; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Evans, Denis A. ; Faul, Jessica D. ; Sala, Cinzia Felicita ; Froguel, Philippe ; Gasparini, Paolo ; Girotto, Giorgia ; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen ; Greiser, Karin Halina ; Groenen, Patrick J.F. ; Haan, Hugoline G. de; Haerting, Johannes ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Heikkilä, Kauko ; Hofman, Albert ; Homuth, Georg ; Holliday, Elizabeth G. ; Hopper, John ; Hyppönen, Elina ; Jacobsson, Bo ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Johannesson, Magnus ; Jugessur, Astanand ; Kähönen, Mika ; Kajantie, Eero ; Kardia, Sharon L.R. ; Keavney, Bernard ; Kolcic, Ivana ; Koponen, Päivikki ; Kovacs, Peter ; Kronenberg, Florian ; Kutalik, Zoltan ; Bianca, Martina la; Lachance, Genevieve ; Iacono, William G. ; Lai, Sandra ; Lehtimäki, Terho ; Liewald, David C. ; Lindgren, Cecilia M. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Luben, Robert ; Lucht, Michael ; Luoto, Riitta ; Magnus, Per ; Magnusson, Patrik K.E. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; McGue, Matt ; McQuillan, Ruth ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Meisinger, Christa ; Mellström, Dan ; Metspalu, Andres ; Traglia, Michela ; Milani, Lili ; Mitchell, Paul ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis ; Mutsert, Renée de; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Olsen, Jørn ; Ong, Ken K. ; Paternoster, Lavinia ; Pattie, Alison ; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. ; Perola, Markus ; Peyser, Patricia A. ; Pirastu, Mario ; Polasek, Ozren ; Power, Chris ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Raffel, Leslie J. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Raitakari, Olli ; Ridker, Paul M. ; Ring, Susan M. ; Roll, Kathryn ; Rudan, Igor ; Ruggiero, Daniela ; Rujescu, Dan ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Schlessinger, David ; Schmidt, Helena ; Schmidt, Reinhold ; Schupf, Nicole ; Smit, Johannes ; Sorice, Rossella ; Spector, Tim D. ; Starr, John M. ; Stöckl, Doris ; Strauch, Konstantin ; Stumvoll, Michael ; Swertz, Morris A. ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Thurik, A.R. ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Tung, Joyce Y. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Vaccargiu, Simona ; Viikari, Jorma ; Vitart, Veronique ; Völzke, Henry ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Vuckovic, Dragana ; Waage, Johannes ; Wagner, Gert G. ; Wang, Jie Jin ; Wareham, Nicholas J. ; Weir, David R. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Willeit, Johann ; Wright, Alan F. ; Zondervan, Krina T. ; Stefansson, Kari ; Krueger, Robert F. ; Lee, James J. ; Benjamin, Daniel J. ; Cesarini, David ; Koellinger, Philipp D. ; Hoed, Marcel den; Snieder, Harold ; Mills, Melinda C. - \ 2016
Nature Genetics 48 (2016)12. - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 1462 - 1472.
The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior—age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)—has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.
Developmental differences in the brain response to unhealthy food cues : An fMRI study of children and adults
Meer, Floor van; Laan, Laura N. van der; Charbonnier, Lisette ; Viergever, Max A. ; Adan, Roger A.H. ; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2016
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 104 (2016)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1515 - 1522.
Childhood obesity - Children - FMRI - Food viewing - Healthy food

Background: Food cues are omnipresent and may trigger overconsumption. In the past 2 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically. Because children's brains are still developing, especially in areas important for inhibition, children may be more susceptible than adults to tempting food cues. Objective: We examined potential developmental differences in children's and adults' responses to food cues to determine how these responses relate to weight status. Design: We included 27 children aged 10-12 y and 32 adults aged 32-52 y. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during a food-viewing task in which unhealthy and healthy food pictures were presented. Results: Children had a stronger activation in the left precentral gyrus than did adults in response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. In children, unhealthy foods elicited stronger activation in the right inferior temporal and middle occipital gyri, left precentral gyrus, bilateral opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus, left hippocampus, and left middle frontal gyrus. Adults had stronger activation in the bilateral middle occipital gyrus and the right calcarine sulcus for unhealthy compared with healthy foods. Children with a higher body mass index (BMI) had lower activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while viewing unhealthy compared with healthy foods. In adults there was no correlation between BMI and neural response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. Conclusions: Unhealthy foods might elicit more attention both in children and in adults. Children had stronger activation while viewing unhealthy compared with healthy foods in areas involved in reward, motivation, and memory. Furthermore, children activated a motivation and reward area located in the motor cortex more strongly than did adults in response to unhealthy foods. Finally, children with a higher BMI had less activation in inhibitory areas in response to unhealthy foods, which may mean they are more susceptible to tempting food cues.

Can cruisers make a difference?
Franeker, Jan Andries van - \ 2016

Wageningen Marine

Inferring 222Rn soil fluxes from ambient 222Rn activity and eddy covariance measurements of CO2
Laan, Sander van der; Manohar, Swagath ; Vermeulen, Alex ; Bosveld, Fred ; Meijer, Harro ; Manning, Andrew ; Molen, Michiel van der; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der - \ 2016
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9 (2016)11. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 5523 - 5533.
We present a new methodology, which we call Single Pair of Observations Technique with Eddy Covariance (SPOT-EC), to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn from tower-based observations of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 mole fractions and direct CO2 flux measurements from eddy covariance. For specific events, the regional (222Rn) surface flux is calculated from short-term changes in ambient (222Rn) activity concentration scaled by the ratio of the mean CO2 surface flux for the specific event to the change in its observed mole fraction. The resulting 222Rn surface emissions are integrated in time (between the moment of observation and the last prior background levels) and space (i.e. over the footprint of the observations). The measurement uncertainty obtained is about ±15 % for diurnal events and about ±10 % for longer-term (e.g. seasonal or annual) means. The method does not provide continuous observations, but reliable daily averages can be obtained. We applied our method to in situ observations from two sites in the Netherlands: Cabauw station (CBW) and Lutjewad station (LUT). For LUT, which is an intensive agricultural site, we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.29 ± 0.02) atoms cm−2 s−1 with values  > 0.5 atoms cm−2 s−1 to the south and south-east. For CBW we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.63 ± 0.04) atoms cm−2 s−1. The highest values were observed to the south-west, where the soil type is mainly river clay. For both stations good agreement was found between our results and those from measurements with soil chambers and two recently published 222Rn soil flux maps for Europe. At both sites, large spatial and temporal variability of 222Rn surface fluxes were observed which would be impractical to measure with a soil chamber. SPOT-EC, therefore, offers an important new tool for estimating regional-scale 222Rn surface fluxes. Practical applications furthermore include calibration of process-based 222Rn soil flux models, validation of atmospheric transport models and performing regional-scale inversions, e.g. of greenhouse gases via the SPOT 222Rn-tracer method.
Global Carbon Budget 2016
Quéré, C. Le; Andrew, R.M. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Sitch, Stephen ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Peters, Glen P. ; Manning, Andrew C. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Alin, Simone ; Andrews, Oliver D. ; Anthoni, Peter ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bopp, Laurent ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Currie, Kim ; Delire, Christine ; Doney, Scott C. ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Harris, Ian ; Hauck, Judith ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hoppema, Mario ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Körtzinger, Arne ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Melton, Joe R. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Millero, Frank ; Monteiro, Pedro M.S. ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro ; O'Brien, Kevin ; Olsen, Are ; Omar, Abdirahman M. ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Salisbury, Joe ; Schuster, Ute ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Werf, Guido R. Van Der; Viovy, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sönke - \ 2016
Global Carbon Budget 2016
Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Sitch, Stephen ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Peters, Glen P. ; Manning, Andrew C. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Alin, Simone ; Andrews, Oliver D. ; Anthoni, Peter ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bopp, Laurent ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Currie, Kim ; Delire, Christine ; Doney, Scott C. ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Harris, Ian ; Hauck, Judith ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hoppema, Mario ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Körtzinger, Arne ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Melton, Joe R. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Millero, Frank ; Monteiro, Pedro M.S. ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, S. ; O'Brien, Kevin ; Olsen, Are ; Omar, Abdirahman M. ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Salisbury, Joe ; Schuster, Ute ; Schwinger, Jörg ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Werf, Guido R. van der; Viovy, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sönke - \ 2016
Earth System Science Data 8 (2016)2. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 605 - 649.
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006–2015), EFF was 9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.5 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. For year 2015 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, showing a slowdown in growth of these emissions compared to the average growth of 1.8 % yr−1 that took place during 2006–2015. Also, for 2015, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.3 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 1.9 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. GATM was higher in 2015 compared to the past decade (2006–2015), reflecting a smaller SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 399.4 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2015. For 2016, preliminary data indicate the continuation of low growth in EFF with +0.2 % (range of −1.0 to +1.8 %) based on national emissions projections for China and USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. In spite of the low growth of EFF in 2016, the growth rate in atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to be relatively high because of the persistence of the smaller residual terrestrial sink (SLAND) in response to El Niño conditions of 2015–2016. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2016, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach 565 ± 55 GtC (2075 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2016, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.
Prediction of carcinogenic potential of chemicals using repeated-dose (13-week) toxicity data
Woutersen, Ruud A. ; Soffers, Ans E.M.F. ; Kroese, E.D. ; Krul, Cyrille A.M. ; Laan, Jan Willem van der; Benthem, Jan van; Luijten, Mirjam - \ 2016
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 81 (2016). - ISSN 0273-2300 - p. 242 - 249.
Carcinogenicity - Non-genotoxic carcinogens - Predictivity - Preneoplastic lesions - Rat - Risk assessment - Sub-chronic toxicity - Tumours

Sub-chronic toxicity studies of 163 non-genotoxic chemicals were evaluated in order to predict the tumour outcome of 24-month rat carcinogenicity studies obtained from the EFSA and ToxRef databases. Hundred eleven of the 148 chemicals that did not induce putative preneoplastic lesions in the sub-chronic study also did not induce tumours in the carcinogenicity study (True Negatives). Cellular hypertrophy appeared to be an unreliable predictor of carcinogenicity. The negative predictivity, the measure of the compounds evaluated that did not show any putative preneoplastic lesion in de sub-chronic studies and were negative in the carcinogenicity studies, was 75%, whereas the sensitivity, a measure of the sub-chronic study to predict a positive carcinogenicity outcome was only 5%. The specificity, the accuracy of the sub-chronic study to correctly identify non-carcinogens was 90%. When the chemicals which induced tumours generally considered not relevant for humans (33 out of 37 False Negatives) are classified as True Negatives, the negative predictivity amounts to 97%. Overall, the results of this retrospective study support the concept that chemicals showing no histopathological risk factors for neoplasia in a sub-chronic study in rats may be considered non-carcinogenic and do not require further testing in a carcinogenicity study.

Data-architectuur natuur
Bulens, J.D. ; Boss, M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2737) - 35 p.
milieumonitoring - ecologie - monitoring - informatiemanagement - milieuwetgeving - natuur - environmental monitoring - ecology - information management - environmental legislation - nature
Het Rijk en de provincies werken samen aan één samenhangend systeem voor de ecologische
monitoring en natuurinformatie. Er wordt gezamenlijk gewerkt aan een samenhangend systeem van
onder andere landelijke en gebiedsgerichte ecologische monitoring om efficiënt gegevens in te winnen
en doelmatig met middelen om te gaan. Vaak is nu nog onbekend welke data nu precies beschikbaar
zijn, waar en in welke vorm. Juist omdat geput wordt uit diverse databronnen, is het belangrijk deze
inzichtelijk en vergelijkbaar voor betrokkenen beschikbaar te stellen. Het samenbrengen en
harmoniseren van data heeft een grote toegevoegde waarde om transparant en eenduidig deze data
te kunnen gebruiken. De beschreven data-architectuur als basis voor een informatievoorziening is
daarvoor een onmisbaar uitgangsprincipe.
In dit rapport is beschreven wat de basis is om tot een informatievoorziening te komen. Dit omvat het
ontwikkelen van domeinstandaarden (informatiemodellen), de inrichting van een infrastructuur en het
vormgeven van samenhangende processen of systemen om onder andere tot natuurrapportages te
komen. Dit laatste is in 2015 is in een aantal inventarisaties vastgelegd met aangegeven wat de
huidige situatie (IST) en de toekomstige, gewenste situatie (SOLL) van het natuurnetwerk in
Nederland is. Samen met deze inventarisaties maakt dit het beeld compleet. Dit vormt een kader om
komende, nieuwe ontwikkelingen aan te toetsen.
Voor de data-architectuur voor de informatievoorziening Natuur wordt in dit rapport als basis een
grondplaat geschetst en gevisualiseerd, waarin de basisobjecten voor de informatievoorziening zijn
benoemd. De Nederlandse referentie-architecturen, NORA en PETRA, zijn goed bruikbaar met de
aanvulling dat, uitstijgend boven de eigen organisatie, goede afspraken gemaakt moeten worden met
partners in de natuurinformatieketen. In het rapport Monitoring en Informatievoorziening
Natuurrapportages [Batenburg 2015] is dit aspect benoemd en uitgewerkt. Voor het samenbrengen en
harmoniseren is het belangrijk het principe van het scheiden van data en processen voor informatie
verwerkende systemen te hanteren. Voor een beschrijving in de vorm van objecten met
eigenschappen is het cruciaal dat er eenduidige definities worden gebruikt. Hiervoor moeten
bestaande definities afkomstig uit verschillenden bronnen goed op elkaar afgestemd zijn. Het verdient
aanbeveling definities in een gegevenscatalogus bij elkaar te brengen en centraal via een register te
ontsluiten.
Dit betekent ook dat de data los van de gebruikte systemen opgeslagen moeten worden. Deze komen
zo ook beschikbaar voor andere processen. Hergebruik vergroot dan in sterke mate de waarde van de
gegenereerde data. Scheiding van data enerzijds en processen en regels anderzijds zijn daarmee
cruciaal en kunnen veel meerwaarde creëren. Ruwe (maar wel gevalideerde) data zijn de basis voor
afgeleide data en informatie. Het is daarom van belang te investeren in kwalitatief goede basisdata.
Houd de data (informatie) bij de bron. Daar is de kennis voor het onderhoud en beheer van de
inhoudelijk component het best belegd. Maar realiseer wel slechts één toegang tot alle informatie voor
Natuur. Dit kan in de vorm van een landelijke voorziening, informatiehuis of soortgelijk. In dit licht zijn
relevante ontwikkelingen als het Digitale Stelsel Omgevingswet (voorheen de Laan van de
Leefomgeving) en INSPIRE lopende ontwikkelingen waarop aansluiting moet worden gezocht.
De amazone slaat minder CO2 op
Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der - \ 2016
Onderzoekers slaan alarm: Amazone verstikt door droogte
Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der - \ 2016
In de Trouw (krant)In de Trouw (krant)
Regional atmospheric CO2 inversion reveals seasonal and geographic differences in Amazon net biome exchange
Alden, C.B. ; Miller, J.B. ; Gatti, L.V. ; Gloor, M.M. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Krol, M.C. ; Guan, K. ; Michalak, A.M. ; Touma, T. ; Andrew, A. ; Basso, L.S. ; Correia, C.S.C. ; Domingues, L.G. ; Joiner, J. ; Lyapustin, A. ; Peters, W. ; Shiga, Y.P. ; Thoning, K. ; Velde, I.R. van der; Leeuwen van, T.T. ; Yadav, V. ; Diffenbaugh, N.S. - \ 2016
Global Change Biology 22 (2016)10. - ISSN 1354-1013
Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate–carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance
for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on
process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (~1–8 9 106 km2) NBE variations. We
develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere–atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first
guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon
emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of
increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and
find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE
changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub-Basin estimates have not been previously available.
Heritability of body surface temperature in hens estimated by infrared thermography at normal or hot temperatures and genetic correlations with egg and feather quality
Loyau, T. ; Zerjal, T. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Fablet, J. ; Tixier-Boichard, M. ; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H. ; Mignon-Grasteau, S. - \ 2016
Animal 10 (2016)10. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1594 - 1601.
adaptation - egg quality - genotype–environment interaction - heat stress - laying hens

Exposure of laying hens to chronic heat stress results in loss of egg production. It should be possible to improve hen resilience to chronic heat stress by genetic selection but measuring their sensitivity through internal temperature is time consuming and is not very precise. In this study we used infrared thermography to measure the hen’s capacity to dissipate heat, in a commercial line of laying hens subjected to cycles of neutral (N, 19.6°C) or high (H, 28.4°C) ambient temperatures. Mean body temperatures (BT) were estimated from 9355 infrared images of wing, comb and shank taken from 1200 hens. Genetic parameters were estimated separately for N and H temperatures. Correlations between BT and plumage condition were also investigated. Wing temperature had low heritability (0.00 to 0.09), consistent with the fact that wing temperature mainly reflects the environmental temperature and is not a zone of heat dissipation. The heritability of comb temperature was higher, from 0.15 to 0.19 in N and H conditions, respectively. Finally, the shank temperature provided the highest heritability estimates, with values of 0.20 to 0.22 in H and N conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results show that heat dissipation is partly under genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic correlation between plumage condition and shank and comb temperatures indicated that birds with poor condition plumage also had the possibility to dissipate heat through featherless areas. Genetic correlations of temperature measurements with egg quality showed that temperatures were correlated with egg width and weight, yolk brightness and yellowness and Haugh units only under H conditions. In contrast, shell colour was correlated with leg temperature only at thermo-neutrality.

Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought
Wolf, Sebastian ; Keenan, Trevor F. ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Baldocchi, Dennis D. ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Richardson, Andrew D. ; Scott, Russell L. ; Law, Beverly E. ; Litvak, Marcy E. ; Brunsell, Nathaniel A. ; Peters, Wouter ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. Van Der - \ 2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (2016)21. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 5880 - 5885.
Biosphere Atmosphere feedbacks - Carbon uptake - Climate anomalies - Ecosystem fluxes - Eddy covariance

The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world's fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inverse modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphereatmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks.

Inverse modeling of GOSAT-retrieved ratios of total column CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010
Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. ; Gatti, Luciana V. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Miller, John B. ; Detmers, Rob ; Machida, Toshinobu ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2016
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 (2016)8. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 5043 - 5062.

This study investigates the constraint provided by greenhouse gas measurements from space on surface fluxes. Imperfect knowledge of the light path through the atmosphere, arising from scattering by clouds and aerosols, can create biases in column measurements retrieved from space. To minimize the impact of such biases, ratios of total column retrieved CH4 and CO2 (Xratio) have been used. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The ratio inversion method uses the measured Xratio as a weak constraint on CO2 fluxes. In contrast, the more common approach of inverting proxy CH4 retrievals (Frankenberg et al., 2005) prescribes atmospheric CO2 fields and optimizes only CH4 fluxes. The TM5-4DVAR (Tracer Transport Model version 5-variational data assimilation system) inverse modeling system is used to simultaneously optimize the fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy inversions using model-derived CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2model) from CarbonTracker and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis CO2 product. The performance of the inverse models is evaluated using measurements from three aircraft measurement projects. Xratio and XCO2model are compared with TCCON retrievals to quantify the relative importance of errors in these components of the proxy XCH4 retrieval (XCH4proxy). We find that the retrieval errors in Xratio (mean Combining double low line 0.61%) are generally larger than the errors in XCO2model (mean Combining double low line 0.24 and 0.01% for CarbonTracker and MACC, respectively). On the annual timescale, the CH4 fluxes from the different satellite inversions are generally in agreement with each other, suggesting that errors in XCO2model do not limit the overall accuracy of the CH4 flux estimates. On the seasonal timescale, however, larger differences are found due to uncertainties in XCO2model, particularly over Australia and in the tropics. The ratio method stays closer to the a priori CH4 flux in these regions, because it is capable of simultaneously adjusting the CO2 fluxes. Over tropical South America, comparison to independent measurements shows that CO2 fields derived from the ratio method are less realistic than those used in the proxy method. However, the CH4 fluxes are more realistic, because the impact of unaccounted systematic uncertainties is more evenly distributed between CO2 and CH4. The ratio inversion estimates an enhanced CO2 release from tropical South America during the dry season of 2010, which is in accordance with the findings of Gatti et al. (2014) and Van der Laan et al. (2015). The performance of the ratio method is encouraging, because despite the added nonlinearity due to the assimilation of Xratio and the significant increase in the degree of freedom by optimizing CO2 fluxes, still consistent results are obtained with respect to other CH4 inversions.

Preventieve gezondheidszorg. Een nieuwe rol voor de verloskundige?
Wagemakers, A. ; Aalhuizen, I. ; Laan, Nalonya van der; Vaandrager, L. - \ 2016
Tijdschrift voor verloskundigen 2016 (2016)01. - ISSN 0378-1925 - 8 p.
Supersize my brain: a cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry study on the association between self-reported dietary restraint and regional grey matter volumes
Laan, Laura N. van der; Charbonnier, L. ; Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Kroese, F.M. ; Rijn, I. van; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2016
Biological Psychology 117 (2016). - ISSN 0301-0511 - p. 108 - 116.
Restrained eaters do not eat less than their unrestrained counterparts. Proposed underlying mechanisms are that restrained eaters are more reward sensitive and that they have worse inhibitory control. Although fMRI studies assessed these mechanisms, it is unknown how brain anatomy relates to dietary restraint. Voxel-based morphometry was performed on anatomical scans from 155 normal-weight females to investigate how regional grey matter volume correlates with restraint. A positive correlation was found in several areas, including the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, striatum and the amygdala (bilaterally, p < 0.05, corrected). A negative correlation was found in several areas, including the inferior frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, middle cingulate cortex and precentral gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected). That higher restraint relates to higher grey matter volume in reward-related areas and lower grey matter volume in regions involved in inhibition, provides a neuroanatomical underpinning of theories relating restraint to increased reward sensitivity and reduced inhibitory capacity.
Top-down assessment of the Asian carbon budget since the mid 1990s
Thompson, R.L. ; Patra, P.K. ; Chevallier, F. ; Maksyutov, S. ; Law, R.M. ; Ziehn, T. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. Van Der; Peters, W. ; Ganshin, A. ; Zhuravlev, R. ; Maki, T. ; Nakamura, T. ; Shirai, T. ; Ishizawa, M. ; Saeki, T. ; Machida, T. ; Poulter, B. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Ciais, P. - \ 2016
Nature Communications 7 (2016). - ISSN 2041-1723

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principal driver of anthropogenic climate change. Asia is an important region for the global carbon budget, with 4 of the world's 10 largest national emitters of CO2. Using an ensemble of seven atmospheric inverse systems, we estimated land biosphere fluxes (natural, land-use change and fires) based on atmospheric observations of CO2 concentration. The Asian land biosphere was a net sink of -0.46 (-0.70-0.24) PgC per year (median and range) for 1996-2012 and was mostly located in East Asia, while in South and Southeast Asia the land biosphere was close to carbon neutral. In East Asia, the annual CO2 sink increased between 1996-2001 and 2008-2012 by 0.56 (0.30-0.81) PgC, accounting for ∼35% of the increase in the global land biosphere sink. Uncertainty in the fossil fuel emissions contributes significantly (32%) to the uncertainty in land biosphere sink change.

Subtypes of trait impulsivity differentially correlate with neural responses to food choices
Laan, Laura N. van der; Barendse, Marjolein E.A. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2016
Behavioural Brain Research 296 (2016). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 442 - 450.
Impulsivity is a personality trait that is linked to unhealthy eating and overweight. A few studies assessed how impulsivity relates to neural responses to anticipating and tasting food, but it is unknown how impulsivity relates to neural responses during food choice. Although impulsivity is a multi-faceted construct, it is unknown whether impulsivity subtypes have different underlying neural mechanisms. We investigated how impulsivity correlates with brain responses during food choice and in how far different impulsivity subtypes modulate brain responses during food choice differently. Twenty weight-concerned females performed an fMRI task in which they indicated for high and low energy snacks whether or not they wanted to eat them. Impulsivity subtypes were measured by the monetary delay discounting task and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (total BIS-11 and subscales). Only temporal subtypes of impulsivity, namely delay discounting and the BIS-11 non-planning subscale, modulated responses to food choice; both measures correlated positively with striatum activation during high versus low energy choices. However, only delay discounting predicted high energy choices, whereas BIS-11 non-planning independently related to a striatum region that reflects subjective stimulus value. To conclude, the brain mechanisms underlying subtypes of impulsivity have a common ground but differ in specific aspects of food-related
decision-making. The findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates of different impulsivity subtypes in the food domain.
Standardized food images: A photographing protocol and image database
Charbonnier, L. ; Meer, F. van der; Laan, L.N. van der; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2016
Appetite 96 (2016). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 166 - 173.
The regulation of food intake has gained much research interest because of the current obesity epidemic. For research purposes, food images are a good and convenient alternative for real food because many dietary decisions are made based on the sight of foods. Food pictures are assumed to elicit anticipatory responses similar to real foods because of learned associations between visual food characteristics and post-ingestive consequences. In contemporary food science, a wide variety of images are used which introduces between-study variability and hampers comparison and meta-analysis of results. Therefore, we created an easy-to-use photographing protocol which enables researchers to generate high resolution food images appropriate for their study objective and population. In addition, we provide a high quality standardized picture set which was characterized in seven European countries. With the use of this photographing protocol a large number of food images were created. Of these images, 80 were selected based on their recognizability in Scotland, Greece and The Netherlands. We collected image characteristics such as liking, perceived calories and/or perceived healthiness ratings from 449 adults and 191 children. The majority of the foods were recognized and liked at all sites. The differences in liking ratings, perceived calories and perceived healthiness between sites were minimal. Furthermore, perceived caloric content and healthiness ratings correlated strongly (r = 0.8) with actual caloric content in both adults and children. The photographing protocol as well as the images and the data are freely available for research use on http://nutritionalneuroscience.eu/. By providing the research community with standardized images and the tools to create their own, comparability between studies will be improved and a head-start is made for a world-wide standardized food image database.
Global Carbon Budget 2015
Quéré, C. Le; Moriarty, R. ; Andrew, R.M. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Sitch, S. ; Korsbakken, J.I. ; Friedlingstein, P. ; Peters, G.P. ; Andres, R.J. ; Houghton, R.A. ; House, J.I. ; Keeling, R.F. ; Tans, P.P. ; Arneth, A. ; Bakker, D. ; Barbero, L. ; Bopp, L. ; Chang, J. ; Chevallier, F. ; Chini, L.P. ; Ciais, P. ; Feely, R.A. ; Gkritzalis, T. ; Harris, I. ; Hauck, J. ; Ilyina, T. ; Jain, A.K. ; Kato, E. ; Kitidis, V. ; Klein-Goldewijk, K. ; Koven, C. ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lauvset, S.K. ; Lefèvre, N. ; Metzl, N. ; Millero, F. ; Munro, D.R. ; Murata, A. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, S. ; Nojiri, Y. ; O'Brien, Kate ; Olson, A. ; Ono, T. ; Pérez, N. ; Pfeil, B. ; Pierrot, D. ; Poulter, B. ; Rehder, G. ; Rödenbeck, C. ; Saito, S. ; Schuster, U. ; Schwinger, J. ; Séférian, R. ; Steinhoff, T. ; Stocker, B.D. ; Sutton, A.J. ; Takahashi, T. ; Tilbrook, B. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Werf, G.R. van de; Heuven, S. Van; Vandemark, D. ; Viovy, N. ; Wiltshire, A. ; Zaehle, S. ; Zeng, N. - \ 2015
Global Carbon Budget 2015
Quéré, C. Le; Moriarty, R. ; Andrew, R.M. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Sitch, S. ; Korsbakken, J.I. ; Friedlingstein, P. ; Peters, G.P. ; Andres, R.J. ; Boden, T.A. ; Houghton, R.A. ; House, J.I. ; Keeling, R.F. ; Tans, P. ; Arneth, A. ; Bakker, D.C.E. ; Barbero, L. ; Bopp, L. ; Chang, J. ; Chevallier, F. ; Chini, L.P. ; Ciais, P. ; Fader, M. ; Feely, R.A. ; Gkritzalis, T. ; Harris, I. ; Hauck, J. ; Ilyina, T. ; Jain, A.K. ; Kato, E. ; Kitidis, V. ; Klein Goldewijk, K. ; Koven, C. ; Landschützer, P. ; Lauvset, S.K. ; Lefèvre, N. ; Lenton, A. ; Lima, I.D. ; Metzl, N. ; Millero, F. ; Munro, D.R. ; Murata, A. ; Nabel, J.E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, S. ; Nojiri, Y. ; O'Brien, K. ; Olsen, A. ; Ono, T. ; Pérez, F.F. ; Pfeil, B. ; Pierrot, D. ; Poulter, B. ; Rehder, G. ; Rödenbeck, C. ; Saito, S. ; Schuster, U. ; Schwinger, J. ; Séférian, R. ; Steinhoff, T. ; Stocker, B.D. ; Sutton, A.J. ; Takahashi, T. ; Tilbrook, B. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. Van Der; Werf, G.R. Van Der; Heuven, S. Van; Vandemark, D. ; Viovy, N. ; Wiltshire, A. ; Zaehle, S. ; Zeng, N. - \ 2015
Earth System Science Data 7 (2015)2. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 349 - 396.

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yrg'1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yrg'1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yrg'1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yrg'1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yrg'1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yrg'1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of g'0.6 [range of g'1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP-2015).

Een nieuwe rol voor de verloskundige : Evaluatie van lessen op het VMBO
Wagemakers, A. ; Aalhuizen, I. ; Laan, N. van der; Vaandrager, L. - \ 2015
Bevorderen van de seksuele gezondheid van laagopgeleide jongeren: een nieuwe rol voor de verloskundige.
Wagemakers, A. ; Laan, N. van der; Aalhuizen, I. ; Vaandrager, L. - \ 2015
A Achtergrond en doelstelling De Wageningse verloskundigen willen hun taken op het gebied van gezondheidsbevordering uitbreiden. Om jongeren te bereiken en omdat het aantal tienerzwangerschappen onder laagopgeleide jongeren in Wageningen is toegenomen hebben verloskundigen lessen over de gezonde zwangerschap verzorgd op een VMBO school. Vanuit de Wageningen UR Wetenschapswinkel is actiebegeleidend onderzoek gedaan met het doel inzicht te krijgen in de kansen en belemmeringen voor het verzorgen van lessen seksuele educatie door verloskundigen. B Aanpak/methode Voor het opzetten van de lessen is literatuuronderzoek uitgevoerd en zijn semi-gestructureerde interviews gehouden met stakeholders in Zweden, Friesland en Amsterdam waar verloskundigen ervaring hebben met educatie aan jongeren. Drie lessen verzorgd door een verloskundige zijn geëvalueerd met behulp van een vragenlijst onder 48 leerlingen, een interview met de docent en de verloskundige, een focus groep gesprek met leerlingen, observatie tijdens de lessen en verslagen van 24 leerlingen over de les. C Resultaten/opbrengsten Kansen zijn dat de lessen resulteren in kennistoename van leerlingen over de ontwikkeling van de foetus, medicijngebruik, rauw vlees en foliumzuur en de diensten van de verloskundige. Leerlingen waarderen de lessen omdat de verloskundige een open houding heeft, beschikt over expertise en autoriteit uitstraalt. Leerlingen willen meer weten over de bevalling en het beroep van de verloskundige. Belemmeringen zijn dat kennis over anticonceptie, (niet) roken en gezonde voeding al aanwezig was en leerlingen hier geen interesse in hebben. Voor verloskundigen was het lastig om contact met de school te leggen. D Conclusie(s) en aanbevelingen Het geven van seksuele educatie door verloskundigen op scholen is nieuw, sluit aan bij hun deskundigheid en biedt de kans om seksuele gezondheid van laagopgeleide jongeren te bevorderen. Aanbevelingen zijn dat verloskundigen zich scholen in didactiek en dat zij samenwerken met organisaties zoals de gemeente en GGD voor het realiseren van de lessen.
Educatie over de gezonde zwangerschap
Wagemakers, A. ; Aalhuizen, I. ; Laan, N. van der; Vaandrager, L. - \ 2015
Tijdschrift voor verloskundigen 40 (2015)05. - ISSN 0378-1925 - p. 28 - 33.
De Bakermat, verloskundige praktijk in Wageningen, wil haar taken op het gebied van gezondheidsbevordering uitbreiden. Om jongeren te bereiken en omdat het aantal tienerzwangerschappen onder laagopgeleide jongeren in Wageningen is toegenomen, hebben verloskundigen op een vmbo-school lessen over de gezonde zwangerschap verzorgd. De Bakermat vroeg de Wetenschapswinkel van de Wageningen University om een proces- en effectevaluatie van de lessen uit te voeren. In dit artikel beschrijven wij de opzet van de lessen en de resultaten van de evaluatie. De lessen resulteren in kennistoename van leerlingen over de ontwikkeling van de foetus, het risico van medicijngebruik en rauw vlees, het belang van het slikken van foliumzuur en de diensten van de verloskundige. Leerlingen hebben behoefte aan informatie over voor hen nieuwe onderwerpen, zoals gezond zwanger worden, de bevalling en het werk van de verloskundige.
Evaluating atmospheric methane inversion model results for Pallas, northern Finland
Tsuruta, A. ; Aalto, T. ; Backman, L. ; Peters, W. ; Krol, M.C. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Hatakka, J. ; Heikkinen, P. ; Dlugokencky, E.J. ; Spahni, R. ; Paramonova, N.N. - \ 2015
Boreal environment research 20 (2015)4. - ISSN 1239-6095 - p. 506 - 525.
A state-of-the-art inverse model, CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS), was used to optimize estimates of methane (CH4) surface fluxes using atmospheric observations of CH4 as a constraint. The model consists of the latest version of the TM5 atmospheric chemistry-transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter based data assimilation system. The model was constrained by atmospheric methane surface concentrations, obtained from the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). Prior methane emissions were specified for five sources: biosphere, anthropogenic, fire, termites and ocean, of which biosphere and anthropogenic emissions were optimized. Atmospheric CH4 mole fractions for 2007 from northern Finland calculated from prior and optimized emissions were compared with observations. It was found that the root mean squared errors of the posterior estimates were more than halved. Furthermore, inclusion of NOAA observations of CH4 from weekly discrete air samples collected at Pallas improved agreement between posterior CH4 mole fraction estimates and continuous observations, and resulted in reducing optimized biosphere emissions and their uncertainties in northern Finland.
Comparison of continuous in situ CO2 observations at Jungfraujoch using two different measurement techniques
Schibig, M.F. ; Steinbacher, M. ; Buchmann, B. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Laan, S. van der; Ranjan, S. ; Leuenberger, M.C. - \ 2015
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 8 (2015). - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 57 - 68.
Since 2004, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is being measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch by the division of Climate and Environmental Physics at the University of Bern (KUP) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer (NDIR) in combination with a paramagnetic O2 analyzer. In January 2010, CO2 measurements based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) as part of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network were added by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa). To ensure a smooth transition – a prerequisite when merging two data sets, e.g., for trend determinations – the two measurement systems run in parallel for several years. Such a long-term intercomparison also allows the identification of potential offsets between the two data sets and the collection of information about the compatibility of the two systems on different time scales. A good agreement of the seasonality, short-term variations and, to a lesser extent mainly due to the short common period, trend calculations is observed. However, the comparison reveals some issues related to the stability of the calibration gases of the KUP system and their assigned CO2 mole fraction. It is possible to adapt an improved calibration strategy based on standard gas determinations, which leads to better agreement between the two data sets. By excluding periods with technical problems and bad calibration gas cylinders, the average hourly difference (CRDS – NDIR) of the two systems is -0.03 ppm ± 0.25 ppm. Although the difference of the two data sets is in line with the compatibility goal of ±0.1 ppm of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the standard deviation is still too high. A significant part of this uncertainty originates from the necessity to switch the KUP system frequently (every 12 min) for 6 min from ambient air to a working gas in order to correct short-term variations of the O2 measurement system. Allowing additional time for signal stabilization after switching the sample, an effective data coverage of only one-sixth for the KUP system is achieved while the Empa system has a nearly complete data coverage. Additionally, different internal volumes and flow rates may affect observed differences.
Response of the Amazon carbon balance to the 2010 drought derived with CarbonTracker South America
Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Velde, I.R. van der; Krol, M.C. ; Gatti, L.V. ; Domingues, L.G. ; Correia, C.S.C. ; Miller, J.B. ; Gloor, M. ; Leeuwen, T.T. van; Kaiser, J.W. ; Wiedinmyer, C. ; Basu, S. ; Clerbaux, C. ; Peters, W. - \ 2015
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29 (2015)7. - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 1092 - 1108.
Two major droughts in the past decade had large impacts on carbon exchange in the Amazon. Recent analysis of vertical profile measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CO by Gatti et al. (2014) suggests that the 2010 drought turned the normally close-to-neutral annual Amazon carbon balance into a substantial source of nearly 0.5 PgC/yr, revealing a strong drought response. In this study, we revisit this hypothesis and interpret not only the same CO2/CO vertical profile measurements but also additional constraints on carbon exchange such as satellite observations of CO, burned area, and fire hot spots. The results from our CarbonTracker South America data assimilation system suggest that carbon uptake by vegetation was indeed reduced in 2010 but that the magnitude of the decrease strongly depends on the estimated 2010 and 2011 biomass burning emissions. We have used fire products based on burned area (Global Fire Emissions Database version 4), satellite-observed CO columns (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), fire radiative power (Global Fire Assimilation System version 1), and fire hot spots (Fire Inventory from NCAR version 1), and found an increase in biomass burning emissions in 2010 compared to 2011 of 0.16 to 0.24 PgC/yr. We derived a decrease of biospheric uptake ranging from 0.08 to 0.26 PgC/yr, with the range determined from a set of alternative inversions using different biomass burning estimates. Our numerical analysis of the 2010 Amazon drought results in a total reduction of carbon uptake of 0.24 to 0.50 PgC/yr and turns the balance from carbon sink to source. Our findings support the suggestion that the hydrological cycle will be an important driver of future changes in Amazonian carbon exchange.
Over het welzijn van in zee gevangen vis
Jonge, F.H. de; Boon, N. ; Brauner, M. ; Dakriet, N. ; Kumar Ghosh, A. ; Jansen, J. ; Hamoen, J. ; Kok, J. de; Hürlimann, R. ; Laan, R. ; Marbus, S. ; Merema, P. ; Pijcke, N. ; Rooijen, K. van; Stolwijk, D. ; Vissia, S. ; Vrijenhoek, M. ; Willemsma, A. ; Zaalberg, R. ; Zagenia, F. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 322) - 57
dierenwelzijn - vis - wilde dieren - diergezondheid - visserij - zeevisserij - vismethoden - animal welfare - fish - wild animals - animal health - fisheries - marine fisheries - fishing methods
De Stichting Vissenbescherming heeft de hulp van de wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR ingeroepen. Zij vraagt haar te ondersteunen met onderzoek dat een stap voorwaarts kan betekenen op weg naar een vissenwelzijnskeurmerk voor in het wild gevangen (zee)vis. In totaal 19 studenten (3 studententeams en 2 masterstudenten) deden voor de wetenschapswinkel (literatuur)onderzoek naar a) welzijn van vissen (met name platvis) in relatie tot de visserij en b) maatschappelijke agendering op het gebied van vissenwelzijn. Op grond van een literatuurstudie wordt geconcludeerd dat steeds meer wetenschappelijke argumenten erop wijzen dat ook vissen pijn lijden en emoties kunnen ervaren. Voor diegenen die deze argumenten in twijfel trekken wordt door Elder bepleit het “voorzorgsprincipe” te hanteren, waarbij ernaar gestreefd wordt het risico op pijn en leed bij vissen zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen.
Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger
Charbonnier, L. ; Laan, L.N. van der; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject’s low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food’s biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.
You are what you eat: a neuroscience perspective on consumers' personality characteristics as determinants of eating behavior
Laan, L.N. van der; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2015
Current Opinion in Food Science 3 (2015). - ISSN 2214-7993 - p. 11 - 18.
Evidence for a link between personality characteristics and eating behavior is mounting. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review and meta-analysis we summarize the current knowledge on personality characteristics in relation to food-induced brain responses and suggest topics for future research. Overall, the number of studies is low and there is significant variability in findings: the variability in findings related to single personality characteristics was of similar magnitude as that between different personality characteristics. Nevertheless, many food-specific personality characteristics are interrelated and modulate food-induced brain responses in similar brain areas as more general personality characteristics do. To advance the field and improve consumer profiling, standardized measures of food-related brain responses and personality characteristics are required.
What you see is what you eat: An ALE meta-analysis of the neural correlates of food viewing in children and adolescents
Meer, F. van; Laan, L.N. van der; Adan, R.A.H. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2015
NeuroImage 104 (2015). - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 35 - 43.
prader-willi-syndrome - high-calorie foods - orbitofrontal cortex - cognitive control - brain responses - visual-cortex - individual-differences - reward sensitivity - anterior cingulate - obese individuals
Food cues are omnipresent and may enhance overconsumption. In the last two decades the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically all over the world, largely due to overconsumption. Understanding children's neural responses to food may help to develop better interventions for preventing or reducing overconsumption. We aimed to determine which brain regions are concurrently activated in children/adolescents in response to viewing food pictures, and how these relate to adult findings. Two activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were performed: one with studies in normal weight children/adolescents (aged 8–18, 8 studies, 137 foci) and one with studies in normal weight adults (aged 18–45, 16 studies, 178 foci). A contrast analysis was performed for children/adolescents vs. adults. In children/adolescents, the most concurrent clusters were in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the bilateral fusiform gyrus, and the right superior parietal lobule. In adults, clusters in similar areas were found. Although the number of studies for a direct statistical comparison between the groups was relatively low, there were indications that children/adolescents may not activate areas important for cognitive control. Overall, the number of studies that contributed to the significant clusters was moderate (6–75%). In summary, the brain areas most consistently activated in children/adolescents by food viewing are part of the appetitive brain network and overlap with those found in adults. However, the age range of the children studied was rather broad. This study offers important recommendations for future research; studies making a direct comparison between adults and children in a sufficiently narrow age range would further elucidate how neural responses to food cues change during development.
Do you like what you see? The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice
Laan, L.N. van der; Hooge, I.T.C. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 39 (2015)2015. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 46 - 55.
gaze bias - visual-attention - decision-making - eyetracking data - eye-movements - food - preference - system - brain - vmpfc
Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the influence of the first fixation on consumer choice, and (2) to disentangle two factors driving total fixation duration, namely preference formation (the process of establishing a preference for one of the items of the choice set) and the decision goal (task instruction). Participants chose between two products while their eye movements were measured. To investigate the influence of first fixation location on choice, first fixation location was manipulated in half of the trials. To disentangle effects of preference formation and the decision goal, participants selected either the product they wanted, or the product they did not want. Our findings showed that manipulating the first fixation towards an alternative did not influence its likelihood of being chosen. Although total fixation duration was mainly determined by the decision goal, it was also influenced by preference formation. The results provide important implications for the interpretation of eye tracking results and in-store marketing.
Protein redesign by learning from data
Berg, B.A. van den; Reinders, M.J.T. ; Laan, J.M. van der; Roubos, J.A. ; Ridder, D. de - \ 2014
Protein Engineering, Design & Selection 27 (2014)9. - ISSN 1741-0126 - p. 281 - 288.
computational enzyme design - aspergillus - stabilization - optimization - generation - prediction - secretion - hydrolase - peptides - tools
Protein redesign methods aim to improve a desired property by carefully selecting mutations in relevant regions guided by protein structure. However, often protein structural requirements underlying biological characteristics are not well understood. Here, we introduce a methodology that learns relevant mutations from a set of proteins that have the desired property and demonstrate it by successfully improving production levels of two enzymes by Aspergillus niger, a relevant host organism for industrial enzyme production. We validated our method on two enzymes, an esterase and an inulinase, creating four redesigns with 5-45 mutations. Up to 10-fold increase in production was obtained with preserved enzyme activity for small numbers of mutations, whereas production levels and activities dropped for too aggressive redesigns. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of protein redesign by learning. Such an approach has great potential for improving production levels of many industrial enzymes and could potentially be employed for other design goals.
Estimating Asian terrestrial carbon fluxes from CONTRAIL aircraft and surface CO2 observations for the period 2006 to 2010
Zhang, H.F. ; Chen, B.Z. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Machida, T. ; Matsueda, H. ; Sawa, Y. ; Peters, W. - \ 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14 (2014)11. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 5807 - 5824.
atmospheric co2 - interannual variability - parameterization sib2 - model formulation - transport models - dioxide exchange - north-america - south-asia - east-asia - china
Current estimates of the terrestrial carbon fluxes in Asia show large uncertainties particularly in the boreal and mid-latitudes and in China. In this paper, we present an updated carbon flux estimate for Asia ("Asia" refers to lands as far west as the Urals and is divided into boreal Eurasia, temperate Eurasia and tropical Asia based on TransCom regions) by introducing aircraft CO2 measurements from the CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airline) program into an inversion modeling system based on the CarbonTracker framework. We estimated the averaged annual total Asian terrestrial land CO2 sink was about -1.56 Pg C yr-1 over the period 2006–2010, which offsets about one-third of the fossil fuel emission from Asia (+4.15 Pg C yr-1). The uncertainty of the terrestrial uptake estimate was derived from a set of sensitivity tests and ranged from -1.07 to -1.80 Pg C yr-1, comparable to the formal Gaussian error of ±1.18 Pg C yr-1 (1-sigma). The largest sink was found in forests, predominantly in coniferous forests (-0.64 ± 0.70 Pg C yr-1) and mixed forests (-0.14 ± 0.27 Pg C yr-1); and the second and third large carbon sinks were found in grass/shrub lands and croplands, accounting for -0.44 ± 0.48 Pg C yr-1 and -0.20 ± 0.48 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The carbon fluxes per ecosystem type have large a priori Gaussian uncertainties, and the reduction of uncertainty based on assimilation of sparse observations over Asia is modest (8.7–25.5%) for most individual ecosystems. The ecosystem flux adjustments follow the detailed a priori spatial patterns by design, which further increases the reliance on the a priori biosphere exchange model. The peak-to-peak amplitude of inter-annual variability (IAV) was 0.57 Pg C yr-1 ranging from -1.71 Pg C yr-1 to -2.28 Pg C yr-1. The IAV analysis reveals that the Asian CO2 sink was sensitive to climate variations, with the lowest uptake in 2010 concurrent with a summer flood and autumn drought and the largest CO2 sink in 2009 owing to favorable temperature and plentiful precipitation conditions. We also found the inclusion of the CONTRAIL data in the inversion modeling system reduced the uncertainty by 11% over the whole Asian region, with a large reduction in the southeast of boreal Eurasia, southeast of temperate Eurasia and most tropical Asian areas.
Net CO2 surface emissions at Bern, Switzerland inferred from ambient observations of CO2, d(O2/N2), and 222Rn using a customized radon tracer inversion
Laan, S. van der; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Zimmermann, L. ; Conen, F. ; Leuenberger, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119 (2014)3. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 1580 - 1591.
carbon-dioxide - netherlands - methane - rn-222 - air
The 222Radon tracer method is a powerful tool to estimate local and regional surface emissions of, e.g., greenhouse gases. In this paper we demonstrate that in practice, the method as it is commonly used, produces inaccurate results in case of nonhomogeneously spread emission sources, and we propose a different approach to account for this. We have applied the new methodology to ambient observations of CO2 and 222Radon to estimate CO2 surface emissions for the city of Bern, Switzerland. Furthermore, by utilizing combined measurements of CO2 and d(O2/N2) we obtain valuable information about the spatial and temporal variability of the main emission sources. Mean net CO2 emissions based on 2 years of observations are estimated at (11.2¿±¿2.9) kt km-2 a-1. Oxidative ratios indicate a significant influence from the regional biosphere in summer/spring and fossil fuel combustion processes in winter/autumn. Our data indicate that the emissions from fossil fuels are, to a large degree, related to the combustion of natural gas which is used for heating purposes.
Atmospheric CO2, d(O2/N2), APO and oxidative ratios from aircraft flask samples over Fyodorovskoye, Western Russia
Laan, S. van der; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Rödenbeck, C. ; Varlagin, A. ; Shironya, I. ; Neubert, R.E.M. - \ 2014
Atmospheric Environment 97 (2014). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 174 - 181.
southern taiga - carbon-cycle - oxygen - o-2/n-2 - siberia - air - climatology - variability - network - tower
We present atmospheric CO2 and d(O2/N2) from flask samples taken on board aircraft over Fyodorovskoye (56°27'N, 32°55'E) at heights of 3000 m and 100 m between 1998 and 2008. The long-term trends for CO2 and d(O2/N2) are similar for both sampling heights, and also similar to observations from marine background station Mace Head (Ireland) and coastal station Lutjewad (the Netherlands). The seasonal CO2 amplitude at 100 m was almost twice as large as at 3000 m and a phase shift in the seasonality of about two weeks between both sampling heights was observed. This indicates a dominant influence on CO2 in the boundary layer from the regional biosphere which is confirmed by analysis of the d(O2/N2) to CO2 oxidative ratio (OR). Together with simulations with the TM3 model, our data suggest that the observed OR of -1.7 ± 0.2 in the free troposphere is mainly driven by exchange processes with the ocean. Within the boundary layer an OR of -0.89 ± 0.12 was observed which supports the results of other recent studies suggesting the commonly used value of -1.1 for biospheric OR is likely too low.
Simulating the integrated summertime d14CO2 signature from anthropogenic emissions over Western Europe
Bozhinova, D.N. ; Molen, M.K. van der; Velde, I.R. van der; Krol, M.C. ; Laan, S. van der; Meijer, H.A.J. ; Peters, W. - \ 2014
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14 (2014)14. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 7273 - 7290.
fossil-fuel co2 - carbon-dioxide - atmospheric co2 - field campaign - (co2)-c-14 observations - transport models - c-14 discharges - mixing ratios - radiocarbon - cycle
Radiocarbon dioxide (14CO2, reported in d14CO2) can be used to determine the fossil fuel CO2 addition to the atmosphere, since fossil fuel CO2 no longer contains any 14C. After the release of CO2 at the source, atmospheric transport causes dilution of strong local signals into the background and detectable gradients of d14CO2 only remain in areas with high fossil fuel emissions. This fossil fuel signal can moreover be partially masked by the enriching effect that anthropogenic emissions of 14CO2 from the nuclear industry have on the atmospheric d14CO2 signature. In this paper, we investigate the regional gradients in 14CO2 over the European continent and quantify the effect of the emissions from nuclear industry. We simulate the emissions and transport of fossil fuel CO2 and nuclear 14CO2 for Western Europe using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem) for a period covering 6 summer months in 2008. We evaluate the expected CO2 gradients and the resulting d14CO2 in simulated integrated air samples over this period, as well as in simulated plant samples. We find that the average gradients of fossil fuel CO2 in the lower 1200 m of the atmosphere are close to 15 ppm at a 12 km × 12 km horizontal resolution. The nuclear influence on d14CO2 signatures varies considerably over the domain and for large areas in France and the UK it can range from 20 to more than 500% of the influence of fossil fuel emissions. Our simulations suggest that the resulting gradients in d14CO2 are well captured in plant samples, but due to their time-varying uptake of CO 2, their signature can be different with over 3‰ from the atmospheric samples in some regions. We conclude that the framework presented will be well-suited for the interpretation of actual air and plant 14CO2 samples. © Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License.
Activation in inhibitory brain regions during food choice correlates with temptation strength and self-regulatory success in weight-concerned women
Laan, L.N. van der; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
Frontiers in Neuroscience 8 (2014). - ISSN 1662-4548 - 11 p.
lateral orbitofrontal cortex - cognitive dietary restraint - scales valid measures - neural responses - decision-making - frontal-cortex - human volition - data suggest - sex matters - behavior
Food choices constitute a classic self-control dilemma involving the trade-off between immediate eating enjoyment and the long term goal of being slim and healthy, especially for weight-concerned women. For them, decision-making concerning high (HE) and low energy (LE) snacks differs when it comes to the need for self-control. In line, our first study aim was to investigate which brain regions are activated during food choices during HE compared to LE energy snacks in weight-concerned women. Since it is particularly difficult to resist HE snacks when they are very tasty, our second aim was to investigate in which brain regions choice-related activation varies with the food's tastiness. Our third aim was to assess in which brain regions choice-related activation varies with individual differences in self-regulatory success. To this end, 20 weight-concerned women indicated for 100 HE or LE snacks whether they wanted to eat them or not, while their brains were scanned using fMRI. HE snacks were refused more often than equally-liked LE snacks. HE snack choice elicited stronger activation in reward-related brain regions [medial to middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), caudate]. Highly tasty HE snacks were more difficult to resist and, accordingly, activation in inhibitory areas (inferior frontal gyrus, lateral OFC) was negatively associated with tastiness. More successful self-controllers showed increased activation in the supplementary motor area during HE food choices. In sum, the results suggest that HE snacks constitute a higher reward for weight-concerned women compared to (equally-liked) LE snacks, and that activation during food choice in brain regions involved in response inhibition varied with tastiness and individual differences in self-regulatory success. These findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates of food choice and point to new avenues for investigating explanations for self-regulatory failure.
Sweet lies: neural, visual, and behavioral measures reveal a lack of self-control conflict during food choice in weight-concerned women.
Laan, L.N. van der; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Charbonnier, L. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 8 (2014). - ISSN 1662-5153
anterior cingulate cortex - scales valid measures - dietary restraint - cognitive reappraisal - implicit measures - brain activation - data suggest - sex matters - responses - temptations
Despite their intentions, weight-concerned individuals generally fail to control their eating behavior. However, it is unknown whether this failure is due to a lack of effortful self-control, or to not experiencing an internal conflict between weight goals and food temptations. The present study used fMRI, eye tracking and reaction times to assess the degree of conflict experienced by weight-concerned women during food choices that posed either a self-control dilemma (i.e., requiring a choice between healthy and palatable foods), or not. Contrary to the common assumption in self-control theory that food choices posing a self-control dilemma evoke internal conflict, we found that choices requiring self-control induced no conflict, as demonstrated by lower reaction times, fixation durations, number of gaze switches between snacks, and lower activation of the anterior cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that self-control failure might be due to a lack of experienced conflict, rather than to failing to act upon the perception of such conflict. This implies that effectiveness of weight maintenance interventions might be improved if they also focus on increasing the ability to detect a self-control dilemma, in addition to the current focus on increasing self-regulatory capacity.
Net terrestrial CO2 exchange over China during 2001-2010 estimated with an ensemble data assimilation system for atmospheric CO 2
Zhang, H.F. ; Chen, B.Z. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Peters, W. ; Chen, J. ; Xu, G. ; Yan, J.W. ; Zhou, X. ; Fukuyama, Y. ; Tans, P.P. - \ 2014
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119 (2014)6. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 3500 - 3515.
carbon-dioxide exchange - flux inversion - north-america - ecosystems - sinks - transport - surface - temperature - forests - trends
In this paper we present an estimate of net ecosystem CO2 exchange over China for the years 2001–2010 using the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation System for CO2 (CTDAS). Additional Chinese and Asian CO2 observations are used in CTDAS to improve our estimate. We found that the combined terrestrial ecosystems in China absorbed about -0.33 Pg C yr-1 during 2001–2010. The uncertainty on Chinese terrestrial carbon exchange estimates as derived from a set of sensitivity experiments suggests a range of -0.29 to -0.64 Pg C yr-1. This total Chinese terrestrial CO2 sink is attributed to the three major biomes (forests, croplands, and grass/shrublands) with estimated CO2 fluxes of -0.12 Pg C yr-1 (range from -0.09 to -0.19 Pg C yr-1), -0.12 Pg C yr-1 (range from -0.09 to -0.26 Pg C yr-1), and -0.09 Pg C yr-1 (range from -0.09 to -0.17 Pg C yr-1), respectively. The peak-to-peak amplitude of interannual variability of the Chinese terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux is 0.21 Pg C yr-1 (~64% of mean annual average), with the smallest CO2 sink (-0.19 Pg C yr-1) in 2003 and the largest CO2 sink (-0.40 Pg C yr-1) in 2007. We stress that our estimate of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 uptake based on inverse modeling strongly depends on a limited number of atmospheric CO2 observations used. More observations in China specifically and in Asia in general are needed to improve the accuracy of terrestrial carbon budgeting for this region
Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion
Smit, H.H. ; Meijaard, E. ; Laan, C. van der; Mantel, S. ; Budiman, A. ; Verweij, P. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 12 p.
land-use - conservation - deforestation - biodiversity - biomass - kalimantan - landscape - biofuels - malaysia - amazon
Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance.
Global atmospheric carbon budget: results from an ensemble of atmospheric CO2 inversions.
Peylin, P. ; Law, R.M. ; Gurney, K.R. ; Chevallier, F. ; Jacobsen, A.R. ; Maki, T. ; Niwa, Y. ; Patra, P.K. ; Peters, W. ; Rayner, P.J. ; Rödenbeck, C. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Zhang, X. - \ 2013
Biogeosciences 10 (2013). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 6699 - 6720.
interannual variability - dioxide exchange - transport model - sinks - fluxes - sensitivity - ocean - land - cycle - emissions
Atmospheric CO2 inversions estimate surface carbon fluxes from an optimal fit to atmospheric CO2 measurements, usually including prior constraints on the flux estimates. Eleven sets of carbon flux estimates are compared, generated by different inversions systems that vary in their inversions methods, choice of atmospheric data, transport model and prior information. The inversions were run for at least 5 yr in the period between 1990 and 2010. Mean fluxes for 2001-2004, seasonal cycles, interannual variability and trends are compared for the tropics and northern and southern extra-tropics, and separately for land and ocean. Some continental/basin-scale subdivisions are also considered where the atmospheric network is denser. Four-year mean fluxes are reasonably consistent across inversions at global/latitudinal scale, with a large total (land plus ocean) carbon uptake in the north (-3.4 Pg C yr(-1) (+/- 0.5 Pg C yr(-1) standard deviation), with slightly more uptake over land than over ocean), a significant although more variable source over the tropics (1.6 +/- 0.9 Pg C yr(-1)) and a compensatory sink of similar magnitude in the south (-1.4 +/- 0.5 Pg C yr(-1)) corresponding mainly to an ocean sink. Largest differences across inversions occur in the balance between tropical land sources and southern land sinks. Interannual variability (IAV) in carbon fluxes is larger for land than ocean regions (standard deviation around 1.06 versus 0.33 Pg C yr(-1) for the 1996-2007 period), with much higher consistency among the inversions for the land. While the tropical land explains most of the IAV (standard deviation similar to 0.65 Pg C yr(-1)), the northern and southern land also contribute (standard deviation similar to 0.39 Pg C yr(-1)). Most inversions tend to indicate an increase of the northern land carbon uptake from late 1990s to 2008 (around 0.1 Pg C yr(-1)), predominantly in North Asia. The mean seasonal cycle appears to be well constrained by the atmospheric data over the northern land (at the continental scale), but still highly dependent on the prior flux seasonality over the ocean. Finally we provide recommendations to interpret the regional fluxes, along with the uncertainty estimates.
Atmospheric CO2, d(O2/N2) and d13CO2 measurements at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland: results from a flask sampling intercomparison program
Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Laan, S. van der; Uglietti, C. ; Schibig, M.F. ; Neubert, R.E.M. ; Meijer, H.A.J. ; Brand, W.A. ; Jordan, A. ; Richter, J.M. ; Rothe, M. ; Leuenberger, M.C. - \ 2013
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6 (2013). - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 1805 - 1815.
isotope-ratio - mass-spectrometry - greenhouse gases - carbon sinks - air samples - tall tower - oxygen - network - o-2 - delta-c-13
We present results from an intercomparison program of CO2, d(O2/N2) and d13CO2 measurements from atmospheric flask samples. Flask samples are collected on a bi-weekly basis at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch in Switzerland for three European laboratories: the University of Bern, Switzerland, the University of Groningen, the Netherlands and the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena, Germany. Almost 4 years of measurements of CO2, d(O2/N2) and d13CO2 are compared in this paper to assess the measurement compatibility of the three laboratories. While the average difference for the CO2 measurements between the laboratories in Bern and Jena meets the required compatibility goal as defined by the World Meteorological Organization, the standard deviation of the average differences between all laboratories is not within the required goal. However, the obtained annual trend and seasonalities are the same within their estimated uncertainties. For d(O2/N2) significant differences are observed between the three laboratories. The comparison for d13CO2 yields the least compatible results and the required goals are not met between the three laboratories. Our study shows the importance of regular intercomparison exercises to identify potential biases between laboratories and the need to improve the quality of atmospheric measurements
Kwekers houden Verticillium onder controle
Berg, E. van den; Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2013
De Boomkwekerij 2013 (2013)21. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 18 - 19.
boomkwekerijen - straatbomen - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - biologische grondontsmetting - verticillium dahliae - cultuurmethoden - vermeerderingsmateriaal - bedrijfshygiëne - bodemkwaliteit - grondanalyse - forest nurseries - street trees - ornamental woody plants - biological soil sterilization - cultural methods - propagation materials - industrial hygiene - soil quality - soil analysis
Er is vooralsnog geen remedie tegen de bodemschimmel Verticillium dahliae. Door de aandacht voor de juiste teeltpercelen, een goede bodemgezondheid en secuur werken, kunnen kwekers van laan- en sierbomen de aantasting echter behoorlijk onder controle houden.
Logistiek Biobased Economy: toekomstbeelden 2025 & agenda 2013-2017
Annevelink, E. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Donk, D.P. van; Dullaert, W.E.H. ; Inghels, D. ; Laan, E.A. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food &amp; Biobased Research nr. 1381) - ISBN 9789461736055 - 36
biobased economy - logistiek - biomassa - economische ontwikkeling - agro-industriële ketens - nederland - logistics - biomass - economic development - agro-industrial chains - netherlands
Naast de afzetmogelijkheden van biobased producten (markten) en de technologische verwerkingsmogelijkheden, bepalen de beschikbaarheid, handel en logistiek in sterke mate de wijze waarop de biobased economy in Nederland zich zal ontwikkelen. Het is noodzakelijk in de komende jaren duurzame, economisch rendabele logistieke biomassaketens op te zetten. Op dit terrein bestaat nog veel onduidelijkheid. Het doel van het project is het vormen van: gedragen toekomstbeelden van de logistiek in de biobased economy in 2025 en een gedragen agenda met actiepunten voor 2013-2017 (ofwel waarmee moeten we starten in de eerstkomende 5 jaar om de toekomstbeelden te bereiken).
Trends in zeevisserij : innovatie loont
Staalduinen, Laan van - \ 2013
marine fisheries - innovations - organization
Drift en driftreducerende spuittechnieken voor onkruidbestrijding in de boomteelt : referentie techniek en driftreducerende spuitdoppen veldmetingen 2010-2011
Stallinga, H. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Lans, A.M. van der; Velde, P. van; Michielsen, J.M.G.P. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosysteemkunde (Rapport / Plant Research International 454) - 54
boomteelt - onkruidbestrijding - spuiten - drift - meting - veldspuiten - spuitdoppen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - emissiereductie - herbiciden - arboriculture - weed control - spraying - measurement - field sprayers - fan nozzles - agricultural research - emission reduction - herbicides
Voor neerwaartse bespuitingen in de boomteelt (laan - en parkbomen, bos- en haagplantsoen, vruchtbomen, rozestruiken , sierconiferen, etc.) wordt nu gebruik gemaakt van de driftcijfers voor veldspuiten. Deze driftcijfers zijn afgeleid van bespuitingen in aardappelen met een veldspuit. Onkruidbestrijding wordt in de boomteelt echter vooral uitgevoerd met onkruidspuiten met spuitboompjes die laag boven het grond oppervlak (max. 30 cm) bewegen met neerwaarts gerichte spuitdoppen. Aangenomen mag worden dat de drift bij deze toepassing aanzienlijk lager zal zijn dan bij een bespuiting van aardappelen (50 cm boomhoogte boven een gewas van 50 - 75 cm hoog). Om de optredende drift bij onkruidbespuitingen in de boomteelt te kwantificeren en aan te tonen dat de drift bij bespuitingen met een onkruidspuit lager is dan het nu gehanteerde driftpercentage in het Toelatingsbeleid (1%) zijn in 2010 en 2011 veldmetingen uitgevoerd in een perceel laanbomen.
Voeding van ouderen
Binsbergen, J.J. van; Schols, J.M.G.A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
In: Het geriatrie formularium / Jansen, P.A.F., van der Laan, J.R., Schols, J.M.G.A., Houten : Bohn Stafleu van Loghum - ISBN 9789031392643 - p. 64 - 82.
Drift kappenspuit bij onkruidbestrijding in de boomteelt : veldmetingen 2011
Stallinga, H. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Lans, A.M. van der; Velde, P. van; Michielsen, J.M.G.P. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosysteemkunde (Rapport / Plant Research International 455) - 30
boomteelt - onkruidbestrijding - methodologie - spuitdoppen - drift - monitoring - efficiëntie - arboriculture - weed control - methodology - fan nozzles - efficiency
Voor neerwaartse bespuitingen in de boomteelt (laan - en parkbomen, bos - en haagplantsoen, vruchtbomen, rozestruiken, sierconiferen, etc.) wordt nu gebruik gemaakt van de driftcijfers voor veldspuiten. Deze driftcijfers zijn afgeleid van bespuitingen in aardappelen met een veldspuit. Onkruidbestrijding wordt in de boomteelt echter vooral uitgevoerd met spuitboompjes die laag boven het grondoppervlak (max. 3 0 cm) bewegen met neerwaarts gerichte spuitdoppen. Aangenomen mag worden dat de drift bij deze toepassing aanzienlijk lager zal zijn dan bij een bespuiting van aardappelen (50 cm boomhoogte boven een gewas van 50 - 75 cm hoog). Om de optredende drift bij onkruidbespuitingen in de boomteelt te kwantificeren en aan te tonen dat de drift lager is dan het nu gehanteerde driftpercentage in het Toelatingsbeleid (Ctgb, 2012; 1% driftdepositie op wateroppervlak) zijn in 2010 en 2011 veldmetingen uitgevo erd in een perceel laanbomen (Stallinga et al. , 2012). De percelen waren beschikbaar omdat daar driftmetingen bij gebruik van een mastspuit in de hoge laanbomen uitgevoerd werden (Stallinga et al. , 2011). In de boomteelt worden bespuitingen ook uitgevoerd met een zogenaamde kappenspuit. De spuitdoppen worden hierbij afgeschermd met een kap, zodat uitsluitend het onkruid geraakt wordt en niet de gewasplanten. Om de mate van driftbeperking door een kappenspuit vast te stellen zijn in 2011 veldmetingen uitgevoerd.
Appearance Matters: Neural Correlates of Food Choice and Packaging Aesthetics
Laan, L.N. van der; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
decision-making - orbitofrontal cortex - color-perception - consumers - valuation - signals - attention - brain - fmri - activations
Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several regions, among which the bilateral striatum, were more strongly activated in response to preferred food packages. Food choices could be predicted with an accuracy of up to 61.2% by activation patterns in brain regions previously found to be involved in healthy food choices (superior frontal gyrus) and visual processing (middle occipital gyrus). In conclusion, this study shows that mass-univariate analysis can detect small package-induced differences in product preference and that MVPA can successfully predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices from functional MRI data.
Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Charbonnier, L. ; Meer, F. van der; Laan, L.N. van der; Spetter, M.S. - \ 2012
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 71 (2012)4. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 511 - 520.
body-mass index - human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - central-nervous-system - neural responses - individual-differences - selective attention - gastric distension - obese adolescents - taste stimuli
The brain governs food intake behaviour by integrating many different internal and external state and trait-related signals. Understanding how the decisions to start and to stop eating are made is crucial to our understanding of (maladaptive patterns of) eating behaviour. Here, we aim to (1) review the current state of the field of 'nutritional neuroscience' with a focus on the interplay between food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour and (2) highlight research needs and techniques that could be used to address these. The brain responses associated with sensory stimulation (sight, olfaction and taste), gastric distension, gut hormone administration and food consumption are the subject of increasing investigation. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined relations between brain responses and eating behaviour. However, the neural circuits underlying eating behaviour are to a large extent generic, including reward, self-control, learning and decision-making circuitry. These limbic and prefrontal circuits interact with the hypothalamus, a key homeostatic area. Target areas for further elucidating the regulation of food intake are: (eating) habit and food preference formation and modification, the neural correlates of self-control, nutrient sensing and dietary learning, and the regulation of body adiposity. Moreover, to foster significant progress, data from multiple studies need to be integrated. This requires standardisation of (neuroimaging) measures, data sharing and the application and development of existing advanced analysis and modelling techniques to nutritional neuroscience data. In the next 20 years, nutritional neuroscience will have to prove its potential for providing insights that can be used to tackle detrimental eating behaviour.
Drift door Laag Volume Strooier (LVS) NK80LT van Agricult bij omkruidbestrijding om de boomteelt : veldmetingen 2011
Stallinga, H. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Lans, A.M. van der; Velde, P. van; Michielsen, J.G.P. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosysteemkunde (Rapport / Plant Research International 456) - 48
boomteelt - gewasbescherming - spuiten - preventie - drift - spuitvloeistoffen - kleinvolume spuiten - meting - onkruidbestrijding - arboriculture - plant protection - spraying - prevention - sprays - low volume spraying - measurement - weed control
Voor neerwaartse bespuitingen in de boomteelt (laan - en parkbomen, bos - en haagplantsoen, vruchtbomen, rozen - struiken, sierconiferen, etc.) wordt nu gebruik gemaakt van de driftcijfers voor veldspuiten. Deze driftcijfers zijn afgeleid van bespuitingen in aardappelen met een veldspuit. Onkruidbestrijding wordt in de boomteelt echter vooral uitgevoerd met spuitboompjes die laag over het grondoppervlak (max. 30 cm ) bewegen met neerwaarts g erichte spuitdoppen. Aangenomen mag worden dat de drift bij deze toepassing aanzienlijk lager zal zijn dan bij een bespuiting van aardappelen (50 cm boomhoogte boven een gewas van 50 - 75 cm hoog). Een nieuwe ontwikkeling bij de onkruid - bestrijding in de boomteelt is het gebruik van het Laag Volume Strooier (LVS) systeem van Agricult. Bij praktijk - bespuitingen van onkruiden met het LVS systeem werd een besparing in de orde van grootte van 50% van middel gerealiseerd. Boomkwekers kunnen momenteel het LVS s yst eem niet toepassen binnen 14 meter van een water - voerende sloot omdat de drift en de driftreductie van het systeem niet is vastgesteld. Op basis van de uitgebrachte druppelgroottes en het laag bij de grond spuiten van dit systeem wordt een aanzienlijke dri ftreductie verwacht. Om de mate van driftbeperking door het Laag Volume Strooier (LVS) systeem van Agricult vast te stellen zijn in 2011 veldmetingen uitgevoerd. Driftreducerende maatregelen worden uitgedrukt ten opzichte van de drift gemeten met een refer entietechniek. Als referentie techniek voor de onkruidbestrijding in de boomteelt werd een onkruidspuit gebruikt met een spuitboom op 30 cm hoogte boven grondoppervlak en neerwaarts gerichte standaard spleet - doppen (TeeJet XR 110.04, 2 bar spuitdruk, 30 cm dopafstand)
Toekomst voor de iep : Resistentie, vermeerdering en gebruikswaarde van het huidige sortiment
Hiemstra, J.A. ; Buitenveld [sic], J. ; Kopinga, J. - \ 2012
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving BBF - 59
straatbomen - ulmus - rassen (planten) - boomveredeling - resistentieveredeling - plantenziekten - plantenvermeerdering - gebruikswaarde - nieuwe cultivars - street trees - varieties - tree breeding - resistance breeding - plant diseases - propagation - use value - new cultivars
De iep was aan het begin van de 20e eeuw de belangrijkste laanboomsoort in Nederland. Door de problemen met iepziekte nam het belang van de iep in de loop van de 20e eeuw sterk af. De iep is echter een ideale laan-en straatboom die in grote delen van Nederland niet gemist kan worden. Inmiddels zijn er nieuwe rassen die veel beter bestand zijn tegen de iepziekte. Deze rassen worden door onbekendheid en gebrek aan vertrouwen bij de beheerders nog te weinig gebruikt. Om de iep in Nederland weer toekomst te geven is in 2006 door PPO i.s.m. Alterra, de gemeente Amsterdam en Boomkwekerij de Bonte Hoek een project gestart wat zich richtte op het testen en vergelijken van de nieuwe rassen uit Nederland en Amerika onder Nederlandse omstandigheden. Daarbij zijn drie aspecten onderzocht: de resistentie tegen iepziekte, de gebruikswaarde en de invloed van de wijze van vermeerdering op de beworteling en stabiliteit.
ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria
Houben, D. ; Demangel, C. ; Ingen, J. van; Perez, J. ; Baldeon, L. ; Abdallah, A.M. ; Caleechurn, L. ; Bottal, D. ; Zon, M. van; Punder, K. de; Laan, T. van der; Kant, A. ; Willemsen, P. ; Bitter, W. ; Soolingen, D. ; Brosch, R. ; Wel, N. van der - \ 2012
Cellular Microbiology 14 (2012)8. - ISSN 1462-5814 - p. 1287 - 1298.
t-cell antigen - listeria-monocytogenes - alveolar macrophages - phagosomal membranes - clinical-relevance - phospholipases-c - vii secretion - bovis bcg - tuberculosis - leprae
Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence.
Inverse carbon dioxide flux estimates for the Netherlands
Meesters, A.G.C.A. ; Tolk, L.F. ; Peters, W. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Vellinga, O.S. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Vermeulen, A.T. ; Laan, S. van der; Neubert, R. ; Meijer, H.A.J. ; Dolman, A.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117 (2012). - ISSN 2169-897X - 13 p.
transport models - atmospheric co2 - regional-scale - tower - emissions - exchange
CO2 fluxes for the Netherlands and surroundings are estimated for the year 2008, from concentration measurements at four towers, using an inverse model. The results are compared to direct CO2 flux measurements by aircraft, for 6 flight tracks over the Netherlands, flown multiple times in each season. We applied the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Modeling system (RAMS) coupled to a simple carbon flux scheme (including fossil fuel), which was run at 10 km resolution, and inverted with an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The domain had 6 eco-regions, and inversions were performed for the four seasons separately. Inversion methods with pixel-dependent and -independent parameters for each eco-region were compared. The two inversion methods, in general, yield comparable flux averages for each eco-region and season, whereas the difference from the prior flux may be large. Posterior fluxes co-sampled along the aircraft flight tracks are usually much closer to the observations than the priors, with a comparable performance for both inversion methods, and with best performance for summer and autumn. The inversions showed more negative CO2 fluxes than the priors, though the latter are obtained from a biosphere model optimized using the Fluxnet database, containing observations from more than 200 locations worldwide. The two different crop ecotypes showed very different CO2 uptakes, which was unknown from the priors. The annual-average uptake is practically zero for the grassland class and for one of the cropland classes, whereas the other cropland class had a large net uptake, possibly because of the abundance of maize there.
Progestagen Supplementation During Early Pregnancy does not Improve Embryo Survival in Pigs
Soede, N.M. ; Bouwman, E.G. ; Laan, I. van der; Hazeleger, W. ; Jourquin, J. ; Langendijk, P. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2012
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 47 (2012)5. - ISSN 0936-6768 - p. 835 - 841.
accessory sperm count - to-conception interval - primiparous sows - altrenogest treatment - exogenous progesterone - follicular development - fertilization rate - lactation length - ovarian-function - litter size
Progesterone supplementation during early pregnancy may increase embryo survival in pigs. The current study evaluated whether oral supplementation with an analogue of progesterone, altrenogest (ALT), affects embryo survival. A first experiment evaluated the effect of a daily 20-mg dosage of ALT during days 1–4 or 2–4 after onset of oestrus on embryo survival at day 42 of pregnancy. A control group (CTR1) was not treated. The time of ovulation was estimated by transrectal ultrasound at 12-h intervals. Altrenogest treatment significantly reduced pregnancy rate when start of treatment was before or at ovulation: 25% (5/20) compared to later start of treatment [85% (28/33)] and non-treated CTR1 [100% (23/23)]. Altrenogest treatment also reduced (p <0.05) number of foetuses, from 14.6 ± 2.6 in CTR1 to 12.5 ± 2.5 when ALT started 1–1.5 days from ovulation and 10.7 ± 2.9 when ALT started 0–0.5 days from ovulation. In a second experiment, sows with a weaning-to-oestrous interval (WOI) of 6, 7 or 8–14 days were given ALT [either 20 mg (ALT20; n = 49) or 10 mg (ALT10; n = 48)] at day 4 and day 6 after onset of oestrus or were not treated (CTR2; n = 49), and farrowing rate and litter size were evaluated. Weaning-to-oestrous interval did not affect farrowing rate or litter size. ALT did not affect farrowing rate (86% vs 90% in CTR2), but ALT20 tended to have a lower litter size compared with CTR2 (11.7 ± 4.1 vs 13.3 ± 3.1; p = 0.07) and ALT10 was intermediate (12.3 ± 2.9). In conclusion, altrenogest supplementation too soon after ovulation reduces fertilization rate and embryo survival rate and altrenogest supplementation at 4–6 days of pregnancy reduces litter size. As a consequence, altrenogest supplementation during early pregnancy may reduce both farrowing rate and litter size and cannot be applied at this stage in practice as a remedy against low litter size.
Het Voeding Formularium : Een praktische leidraad
Binsbergen, J.J. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Dommelen, J.A. van; Laan, J.R. van der - \ 2011
Houten : Bohn Stafleu van Loghum - ISBN 9789031360468 - 344 p.
voeding - dieetrichtlijnen - voeding en gezondheid - voedingsonderzoek - nutrition - dietary guidelines - nutrition and health - nutrition research
Het Voeding Formularium is een praktische leidraad in zakformaat voor de huisarts waarin de achtergronden van voedingsadviezen voor specifieke aandoeningen worden uiteengezet.
Climate related shifts in the NCP ecosystem, and consequences for future spatial planning
Meer, J. van der; Lindeboom, H.J. ; Woerd, H.J. van der; Eleveld, M.A. ; Gilbert, A.J. ; Peters, S.W.M. ; Peperzak, L. ; Duineveld, G.C.A. ; Bergman, M.J.N. ; Lavaleye, M.S.S. ; Daan, R. ; Saraiva, A.S. ; Hal, R. van; Tulp, I. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Daan, N. ; Labberton, R. ; Stuke, F. ; Teal, L.R. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Witbaard, R. ; Ruardij, P. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Baar, H.J.W. ; Meijer, H.A.J. ; Thomas, H. ; Johannesen, T. ; Zemmelink, H.J. ; Omari, A. ; Straten, H.J. ; Klunder, M. ; Salt, L. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der - \ 2011
Amsterdam : Programme Office Climate changes Spatial Planning - ISBN 9789088150180 - 36
klimaatverandering - mariene gebieden - landgebruiksplanning - aquatische ecosystemen - broeikasgassen - noordzee - climatic change - marine areas - land use planning - aquatic ecosystems - greenhouse gases - north sea
Een uitgebreide meetinspanning op de Noordzee, in combinatie met wiskundige en statistische modellering, laat zien dat de klimaatveranderingen in de vorm van een verandering in de overheersende windrichting, een toename van de windsnelheid, een toename van de zeewatertemperatuur, als wel als een toenemende CO2 concentratie van de atmosfeer, niet alleen leidt tot een verandering van de samenstelling van het zeewater in de vorm van bijvoorbeeld opgelost anorganisch koolstof en zuurgraad, maar ook tot een, zei het beperkte, verlaging van de productiviteit van op en in de zeebodem levende filterende organismen, die op hun beurt het voedsel zijn van bodembewonende vissen.
A SEM-EDS Study of Cultural Heritage Objects with Interpretation of Constituents and Their Distribution Using PARC Data Analysis
Hoek, C.J.G. van; Roo, M. ; Veer, G. van der; Laan, S.R. der - \ 2011
Microscopy and Microanalysis 17 (2011)5. - ISSN 1431-9276 - p. 656 - 660.
Two cultural heritage objects studied with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are presented in this article: (1) archeological iron present in a soil sample and (2) a chip from a purple-colored area of an undisclosed 17th century painting. Novel PARC software was used to interpret the data in terms of quantitative distribution of mineral and organo-mineral phases as well as their chemical composition. The study serves to demonstrate the power of PARC rather than solving specific archeological issues. The observations on archeological iron potentially can assist in (1) studing the source of iron-metal and the style of forging, (2) learning about alteration processes of artifacts in the particular soil from which the sample originated, and (3) determining the nature of the fractures in the Fe-oxide envelope (desiccation of the sample after excavation, or as primary feature caused by volume change from oxidation). In the paint chip, 11 consecutive layers can be distinguished using the PARC software. In general, each layer consists of a carrier supporting inorganic fragments. In the basal layer the fragments are dominant; in the superimposed layers the carrier usually is. Both organic and inorganic carriers appear to be present. Organic carriers can contain typically inorganic constituents (e. g., Pb, Al), beyond the chemical spatial resolution of EDS (i. e., <1 mu m).
The first taste is always with the eyes: A meta-analysis on the neural correlates of processing visual food cues
Laan, L.N. van der; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2011
NeuroImage 55 (2011)1. - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 296 - 303.
high-calorie foods - prader-willi-syndrome - false discovery rate - brain activation - functional mri - orbitofrontal cortex - ale metaanalysis - appetizing foods - human amygdala - reward
Food selection is primarily guided by the visual system. Multiple functional neuro-imaging studies have examined the brain responses to visual food stimuli. However, the results of these studies are heterogeneous and there still is uncertainty about the core brain regions involved in the neural processing of viewing food pictures. The aims of the present study were to determine the concurrence in the brain regions activated in response to viewing pictures of food and to assess the modulating effects of hunger state and the food's energy content. We performed three Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses on data from healthy normal weight subjects in which we examined: 1) the contrast between viewing food and nonfood pictures (17 studies. 189 foci), 2) the modulation by hunger state (five studies, 48 foci) and 3) the modulation by energy content (seven studies, 86 foci). The most concurrent brain regions activated in response to viewing food pictures, both in terms of ALE values and the number of contributing experiments, were the bilateral posterior fusiform gyrus, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the left middle insula. Hunger modulated the response to food pictures in the right amygdala and left lateral OFC, and energy content modulated the response in the hypothalamus/ventral striatum. Overall, the concurrence between studies was moderate: at best 41% of the experiments contributed to the clusters for the contrast between food and nonfood. Therefore, future research should further elucidate the separate effects of methodological and physiological factors on between-study variations.
SUPRO Report 4. Marketing and branding of lowland vegetables. Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Production (SUPRO)
Stallen, M. ; Laan, M. van der; Dewayanti, R. - \ 2011
Lelystad : PPO AGV - 39 p.
Potential and requirements for a standarized pan-European food consumption survey using the EPIC-Soft software
Ocke, M.C. ; Slimani, N. ; Brants, H.A.M. ; Buurma-Rethans, E. ; Casagrande, C. ; Nicolas, G. ; Dofkova, M. ; Donne, C. le; Freisling, H. ; Geelen, A. ; Huybrechts, I. ; Keyzer, W. de; Laan, J.D. van der; Lafay, L. ; Lillegaard, I.T.L. ; Niekerk, E.M. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Boer, E.J. de - \ 2011
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (2011). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S48 - S57.
24-hour diet recall - plasma carotenoids - level correlations - nutrient intake - nutrition - cancer - recommendations - questionnaires - calibration - validation
Background/Objectives: To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to discuss potentials and barriers for a harmonized pan-European food consumption survey. Subjects/Methods: The paper is based on the experiences in the ‘European Food Consumption and Validation’ Project, which included updating six existing and preparing one new country-specific EPIC-Soft version, applying EPIC-Soft in validation and feasibility studies, and estimating the intake of nutrients and flavoring substances. The experiences were discussed in the September 2009 workshop ‘Pan-European Food Consumption Surveys—for Standardized and Comparable Transnational Data Collection’. Results: EPIC-Soft is suitable for detailed and standardized food consumption data collection in pan-European food consumption surveys. A thorough preparation of all aspects of the food consumption survey is important for the quality and efficiency during data collection and processing. The preparation and data-handling phase of working with EPIC-Soft is labor intensive and requires trained, motivated and qualified personnel. Conclusions: Given the suitability of EPIC-Soft as standardized dietary assessment tool in European dietary monitoring, the proposed strategy toward a pan-European food consumption survey is to prepare well, to allow flexibility in national extensions and to start with a limited number of countries that are interested
Changes in mineralogical and leaching properties of converter steel slag resulting from accelerated carbonation at low CO2 pressure.
Zomeren, A. van; Laan, S.R. der; Kobesen, H.B.A. ; Huijgen, W.J.J. ; Comans, R.N.J. - \ 2011
Waste Management 31 (2011)11. - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 2236 - 2244.
bottom ash - sequestration
Steel slag can be applied as substitute for natural aggregates in construction applications. The material imposes a high pH (typically 12.5) and low redox potential (Eh), which may lead to environmental problems in specific application scenarios. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of accelerated steel slag carbonation, at relatively low pCO2 pressure (0.2bar), to improve the environmental pH and the leaching properties of steel slag, with specific focus on the leaching of vanadium. Carbonation experiments are performed in laboratory columns with steel slag under water-saturated and -unsaturated conditions and temperatures between 5 and 90°C. Two types of steel slag are tested; free lime containing (K3) slag and K1 slag with a very low free lime content. The fresh and carbonated slag samples are investigated using a combination of leaching experiments, geochemical modelling of leaching mechanisms and microscopic/mineralogical analysis, in order to identify the major processes that control the slag pH and resulting V leaching. The major changes in the amount of sequestered CO2 and the resulting pH reduction occurred within 24h, the free lime containing slag (K3-slag) being more prone to carbonation than the slag with lower free lime content (K1-slag). While carbonation at these conditions was found to occur predominantly at the surface of the slag grains, the formation of cracks was observed in carbonated K3 slag, suggesting that free lime in the interior of slag grains had also reacted. The pH of the K3 slag (originally pH±12.5) was reduced by about 1.5 units, while the K1 slag showed a smaller decrease in pH from about 11.7 to 11.1. However, the pH reduction after carbonation of the K3 slag was observed to lead to an increased V-leaching. Vanadium leaching from the K1 slag resulted in levels above the limit values of the Dutch Soil Quality Decree, for both the untreated and carbonated slag. V-leaching from the carbonated K3 slag remained below these limit values at the relatively high pH that remained after carbonation. The V-bearing di-Ca silicate (C2S) phase has been identified as the major source of the V-leaching. It is shown that the dissolution of this mineral is limited in fresh steel slag, but strongly enhanced by carbonation, which causes the observed enhanced release of V from the K3 slag. The obtained insights in the mineral transformation reactions and their effect on pH and V-leaching provide guidance for further improvement of an accelerated carbonation technology. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Sustainable Inland Transportation
Bloemhof, J.M. ; Laan, E.A. van der; Beijer, C. - \ 2011
International Journal of Business Insights and Transformation 3 (2011)3. - ISSN 0974-5874 - p. 26 - 33.
Inland navigation is often mentioned as a ‘green’ alternative for the two other main inland transport modes: rail and road transport. In order to investigate the opportunities for inland navigation we first analyze the competitive position of inland navigation vis-à-vis the other main inland transport modes. To this end, we perform a comparative study on the current sustainability performance of the three modes. Second, through a case study, we analyze a recent initiative for sustainable innovation of inland navigation in order to assess the barriers and opportunities for improving the competitive position of sustainable inland navigation.
Strengthening insights into host responses to mastitis infection in ruminants by combining heterogeneous microarray data sources
Genini, S. ; Badaoui, B. ; Sclep, G. ; Bishop, S.C. ; Waddington, D. ; Pinard van der Laan, M.H. ; Klopp, C. ; Cabau, C. ; Seyfert, H.M. ; Petzl, W. ; Jensen, K. ; Glass, E.J. ; Greeff, A. de; Smith, H.E. ; Smits, M.A. ; Olsaker, I. ; Boman, G.M. ; Pisoni, G. ; Moroni, P. ; Castiglioni, B. ; Cremonesi, P. ; Corvo, M. del; Foulon, E. ; Foucras, G. ; Rupp, R. ; Giuffra, E. - \ 2011
BMC Genomics 12 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 17 p.
acute-phase response - endoplasmic-reticulum stress - data integration methodology - unfolded protein response - cytokine interferon-gamma - negative-energy balance - open-access-publication - multiple cancer types - gene-expression - escherichia-coli
Background - Gene expression profiling studies of mastitis in ruminants have provided key but fragmented knowledge for the understanding of the disease. A systematic combination of different expression profiling studies via meta-analysis techniques has the potential to test the extensibility of conclusions based on single studies. Using the program Pointillist, we performed meta-analysis of transcription-profiling data from six independent studies of infections with mammary gland pathogens, including samples from cattle challenged in vivo with S. aureus, E. coli, and S. uberis, samples from goats challenged in vivo with S. aureus, as well as cattle macrophages and ovine dendritic cells infected in vitro with S. aureus. We combined different time points from those studies, testing different responses to mastitis infection: overall (common signature), early stage, late stage, and cattle-specific. Results - Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of affected genes showed that the four meta-analysis combinations share biological functions and pathways (e.g. protein ubiquitination and polyamine regulation) which are intrinsic to the general disease response. In the overall response, pathways related to immune response and inflammation, as well as biological functions related to lipid metabolism were altered. This latter observation is consistent with the milk fat content depression commonly observed during mastitis infection. Complementarities between early and late stage responses were found, with a prominence of metabolic and stress signals in the early stage and of the immune response related to the lipid metabolism in the late stage; both mechanisms apparently modulated by few genes, including XBP1 and SREBF1. The cattle-specific response was characterized by alteration of the immune response and by modification of lipid metabolism. Comparison of E. coli and S. aureus infections in cattle in vivo revealed that affected genes showing opposite regulation had the same altered biological functions and provided evidence that E. coli caused a stronger host response. Conclusions - This meta-analysis approach reinforces previous findings but also reveals several novel themes, including the involvement of genes, biological functions, and pathways that were not identified in individual studies. As such, it provides an interesting proof of principle for future studies combining information from diverse heterogeneous sources.
Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions in the Netherlands using Delta 14C, CO and 222Radon
Laan, S. van der; Karstens, U. ; Neubert, R.E.M. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der - \ 2010
Tellus Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 62 (2010)5. - ISSN 0280-6509 - p. 389 - 402.
klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - emissie - brandstoffen - schatting - monitoring - nederland - climatic change - carbon dioxide - emission - fuels - estimation - monitoring - netherlands - atmospheric co2 - carbon-dioxide - regional-scale - europe - transport - methane - inversions - (co2)-c-14 - ratios - oceans
Surface emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion (¿FFCO2) are estimated for the Netherlands for the period of May 2006–June 2009 using ambient atmospheric observations taken at station Lutjewad in the Netherlands (6°21'E, 53°24'N, 1 m. a.s.l.). Measurements of ¿14C on 2-weekly integrations of CO2 and CO mixing ratios are combined to construct a quasi-continuous proxy record (FFCO2*) from which surface fluxes (¿FFCO2*) are determined using the 222Rn flux method. The trajectories of the air masses are analysed to determine emissions, which are representative for the Netherlands. We compared our observationally based estimates to the national inventories and we evaluated our methodology using the regional atmospheric transport model REMO. Based on 3 yr of observations we find annual mean ¿FFCO2* emissions of (4.7 ± 1.6) kt km-2 a-1 which is in very good agreement with the Dutch inventories of (4.5 ± 0.2) kt km-2 a-1 (average of 2006–2008).
Continuous measurements of atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide on a North Sea gas platform
Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Neubert, R.E.M. ; Laan, S. van der; Meijer, H.A.J. - \ 2010
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 3 (2010)1. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 113 - 125.
klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - emissie - meting - noordzee - climatic change - carbon dioxide - emission - measurement - north sea - o-2/n-2 ratio - co2 - air - o-2 - cycle - sinks - analyzer - trend
A new atmospheric measurement station has been established on the North Sea oil and gas production platform F3, 200 km north off the Dutch coast (54°51' N, 4°44' E). Atmospheric concentrations of O2 and CO2 are continuously measured using fuel cell technology and compact infrared absorption instruments, respectively. Furthermore, the station includes an automated air flask sampler for laboratory analysis of the atmospheric concentrations of CO2, CH4, CO and O2 and isotope measurements of d13C, d18O and ¿14C from CO2. This station is the first fixed sea based station with on-site continuous O2 and CO2 measurements and therefore yields valuable information about the CO2 uptake in coastal marine regions, specifically the North Sea. This paper presents the measurement station and the used methodologies in detail. In comparison to land-based stations, the data show low day-to-day variability, as they are practically free of nightly inversions as well as human influences, due to the station’s remoteness. Therefore, the data set collected at this measurement station serves directly as background data for the coastal northwest European region. Additionally, the first data are presented showing the seasonal cycle as expected during August 2008 through June 2009. Furthermore, some short-term O2 and CO2 signals are presented. The observations at the platform include several large and fast changing negative atmospheric O2 excursions without an accompanying change in the CO2 signal, which most likely indicate marine O2 uptake
CO2, dO2/N2 and APO: observations from the Lutjewad, Mace Head and F3 platform flask sampling network
Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Karstens, U. ; Steinbach, J. ; Gerbig, C. ; Sirignano, C. ; Neubert, R.E.M. ; Laan, S. van der; Meijer, H.A.J. - \ 2010
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10 (2010)21. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 10691 - 10704.
atmospheric oxygen measurements - global carbon-cycle - gas-chromatograph - o-2/n-2 ratio - o-2 - air - variability - dioxide - sinks - emissions
We report results from our atmospheric flask sampling network for three European sites: Lutjewad in the Netherlands, Mace Head in Ireland and the North Sea F3 platform. The air samples from these stations are analyzed for their CO2 and O2 concentrations. In this paper we present the CO2 and O2 data series from these sites between 1998 and 2009, as well as the atmospheric potential oxygen (APO). The seasonal pattern and long term trends agree to a large extent between our three measurement locations. We however find a changing gradient between Mace Head and Lutjewad, both for CO2 and O2. To explain the potential contribution of fossil fuel emissions to this changing gradient we use an atmospheric transport model in combination with CO2 emission data and information on the fossil fuel mix per region. Using the APO trend from Mace Head we obtain an estimate for the global oceanic CO2 uptake of 1.8 ± 0.8 PgC/year.
Parental child-feeding strategies in relation to Dutch children's fruit and vegetable intake
Zeinstra, G.G. ; Koelen, M.A. ; Kok, F.J. ; Laan, N. van der; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Public Health Nutrition 13 (2010)6. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 787 - 796.
food preferences - consumption - context - family - taste - questionnaire - willingness - information - validity - beliefs
Objective: To identify parental child-feeding strategies that may increase children's fruit or vegetable intake, since the relationship between these strategies and children's intake has never been investigated for fruit and vegetables as two separate food groups. Design: A survey study, where parents provided information about their practices in relation to feeding their children and about their own and their children's fruit and vegetable intake. Children completed a preference questionnaire about fruit and vegetables. To find underlying parental child-feeding strategies, factor analysis was applied to parents' practices in relation to fruit and vegetables separately. Regression analysis was used to predict the effect of these strategies on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The impact of the strategies was further analysed by estimating children's intake based on the frequency of use of specific strategies. Setting: The study was conducted at three primary schools in The Netherlands. Subjects: A total of 259 children between 4 and 12 years old and their parents (n242). Results: Parents used different strategies for fruit as compared with vegetables. The vegetable-eating context was more negative than the fruit-eating context. Parental intake and presenting the children with choice were positive predictors of children's intake of both fruit and vegetables. The intake difference based on frequency of use of the strategy 'Choice' was 40 g/d for vegetables and 72 g/d for fruit (P
Voeding en osteoporose
Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Staveren, W.A. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2010
In: Het Voeding Formularium : Een praktische leidraad / van Binsbergen, J.J., van Dommelen, J.A., Geleijnse, J.M., van der Laan, J.R., Houten : Bohn Stafleu van Loghum (Formularium ) - ISBN 9789031360468 - p. 262 - 273.
'Wetenschapper: Op de Grote Markt moeten bomen komen' (nterview met S. Lenzholzer)
Laan, M. van der; Lenzholzer, S. - \ 2010
Dagblad van het Noorden (2010). - 1 p.
Sustainable inland transportation
Laan, A.E. van der; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Beijer, C. - \ 2010
Inland navigation is often mentioned as a ‘green’ alternative for the two other main inland transport modes: rail and road transport. In order to investigate the opportunities for inland navigation we first analyze the competitive position of inland navigation vis-àvis the other main inland transport modes. For that, we perform a comparative study on the current sustainability performance of the three modes. Second, through a case study, we analyze a recent initiative for sustainable innovation of inland navigation in order to assess the barriers and opportunities for improving the competitive position of sustainable inland navigation.
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