Records 1 - 20 / 497
St-corabico : A spatiotemporal object-based bias correction method for storm prediction detected by satellite
Laverde-Barajas, Miguel ; Corzo, Gerald A. ; Poortinga, Ate ; Chishtie, Farrukh ; Meechaiya, Chinaporn ; Jayasinghe, Susantha ; Towashiraporn, Peeranan ; Markert, Amanda ; Saah, David ; Son, Lam Hung ; Khem, Sothea ; Boonya-Aroonnet, Surajate ; Chaowiwat, Winai ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Solomatine, Dimitri P. - \ 2020
Remote Sensing 12 (2020)21. - ISSN 2072-4292 - p. 1 - 19.
Bias correction - Object-based method - Satellite-based precipitation - Spatiotemporal analysis - Storm events
Advances in near real-time rainstorm prediction using remote sensing have offered important opportunities for effective disaster management. However, this information is subject to several sources of systematic errors that need to be corrected. Temporal and spatial characteristics of both satellite and in-situ data can be combined to enhance the quality of storm estimates. In this study, we present a spatiotemporal object-based method to bias correct two sources of systematic error in satellites: displacement and volume. The method, Spatiotemporal Contiguous Object-based Rainfall Analysis for Bias Correction (ST-CORAbico), uses the spatiotemporal rainfall analysis ST-CORA incorporated with a multivariate kernel density storm segmentation for describing the main storm event characteristics (duration, spatial extension, volume, maximum intensity, centroid). Displacement and volume are corrected by adjusting the spatiotemporal structure and the intensity distribution, respectively. ST-CORAbico was applied to correct the early version of the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM-IMERG) over the Lower Mekong basin in Thailand during the monsoon season from 2014 to 2017. The performance of ST-CORABico is compared against the Distribution Transformation (DT) and Gamma Quantile Mapping (GQM) probabilistic methods. A total of 120 storm events identified over the study area were classified into short and long-lived storms by using a k-means cluster analysis method. Examples for both storm event types describe the error reduction due to location and magnitude by ST-CORAbico. The results showed that the displacement and magnitude correction made by ST-CORAbico considerably reduced RMSE and bias of GPM-IMERG. In both storm event types, this method showed a lower impact on the spatial correlation of the storm event. In comparison with DT and GQM, ST-CORAbico showed a superior performance, outperforming both approaches. This spatiotemporal bias correction method offers a new approach to enhance the accuracy of satellite-derived information for near real-time estimation of storm events.
Dietary intake of heme iron is associated with ferritin and hemoglobin levels in Dutch blood donors : Results from Donor InSight
Timmer, Tiffany C. ; Groot, Rosa de; Rijnhart, Judith J.M. ; Lakerveld, Jeroen ; Brug, Johannes ; Perenboom, Corine W.M. ; Baart, Mireille ; Prinsze, Femmeke J. ; Zalpuri, Saurabh ; Ellen van der Schoot, C. ; Kort, Wim L.A.M. de; Hurk, Katja van den - \ 2020
Haematologica 105 (2020)10. - ISSN 0390-6078 - p. 2400 - 2406.
Whole blood donors, especially frequently donating donors, have a risk of iron deficiency and low hemoglobin (Hb) levels, which may affect their health and eligibility to donate. Lifestyle behaviors, such as dietary iron intake and physical activity, may influence iron stores and thereby Hb levels. We aimed to investigate whether dietary iron intake and questionnaire-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were associated with Hb levels, and whether ferritin levels mediated these associations. In Donor InSight-III, a Dutch cohort study of blood and plasma donors, data on heme and non-heme iron intake (mg/day), MVPA (10 minutes/day), Hb levels (mmol/L) and ferritin levels (mg/L) were available in 2,323 donors (1,074 male). Donors with higher heme iron intakes [regression coefficients (β) in men and women: 0.160 and 0.065 mmol/L higher Hb per 1 mg of heme iron, respectively] and lower nonheme iron intakes (β: -0.014 and -0.017, respectively) had higher Hb levels, adjusted for relevant confounders. Ferritin levels mediated these associations [indirect effect (95% confidence interval) in men and women, respectively: 0.074 (0.045; 0.111) and 0.061 (0.030; 0.096) for heme and -0.003 (-0.008;0.001) and -0.008 (-0.013;-0.003) for non-heme]. MVPA was negatively associated with Hb levels in men only (β: -0.005), but not mediated by ferritin levels. In conclusion, higher heme and lower non-heme iron intake were associated with higher Hb levels in donors, via higher ferritin levels. This indicates that donors with high heme iron intake may be more capable of maintaining iron stores to recover Hb levels after blood donation.
Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation
Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
Consequences of transition treatments on fertility and associated metabolic status for dairy cows in early lactation
Ma, Junnan ; Hoeij, Renny J. van; Bruckmaier, Rupert M. ; Kok, Akke ; Lam, Theo J.G.M. ; Kemp, Bas ; Knegsel, Ariette T.M. van - \ 2020
Animals 10 (2020)6. - ISSN 2076-2615 - p. 1 - 21.
Dietary energy level - Dry period length - Metabolic status - Ovarian activity
This study aimed to (1) investigate effects of reducing postpartum dietary energy level for cows after a 0‐d dry period (DP) on resumption of ovarian cyclicity and reproductive performance, (2) relate days open with other reproductive measures, and (3) relate onset of luteal activity (OLA) and days open with metabolic status in early lactation. Holstein‐Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 transition treatments: no DP and low postpartum dietary energy level from 22 days in milk(DIM)onwards (0‐d DP (LOW)) (n = 42), no DP and standard postpartum dietary energy level (0‐d DP (STD)) (n = 43), and a short DP and standard postpartum dietary energy level (30‐d DP (STD)) (n = 43). Milk progesterone concentration was determined three times per week until 100 DIM. Plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were measured weekly until week 7 postpartum. Reducing postpartum dietary energy level in older cows (parity ≥ 3) after no DP and 22 DIM did not affect milk production but prevented a positive energy balance and shortened the interval from calving to OLA. In addition, services per pregnancy and days open were reduced in cows of parity ≥ 3 on 0‐d DP (LOW), compared with cows of parity ≥ 3 with 0‐d DP (STD), but not in cows of parity 2.
Antimicrobial use and farmers' attitude toward mastitis treatment on dairy farms with automatic or conventional milking systems
Deng, Z. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Spaninks, M. ; Heij, N. ; Postema, M. ; Werven, T. van; Koop, G. - \ 2020
Journal of Dairy Science 103 (2020)8. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7302 - 7314.
antimicrobial usage - attitude - automatic milking system - udder health
Mastitis is one of the major causes for antimicrobial use on dairy cattle farms. On farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), diagnostics differ from those with a conventional milking system (CMS), with potentially a different attitude toward mastitis treatment. This may result in differences in antimicrobial usage (AMU) between these 2 types of farms. The aims of this study were (1) to compare AMU between AMS and CMS farms, (2) to identify variables associated with AMU in both types of herds, and (3) to describe the distribution of mastitis-causing pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Data on AMU was collected for 42 AMS and 254 CMS farms in the Netherlands and was expressed as animal-defined daily dose (ADDD). The ADDD variables were total usage (ADDDTOTAL), intramammary usage during lactation (ADDDIMM), usage for dry cow therapy (ADDDDCT), and usage by injection (ADDDINJ). Eighteen AMS farms and 24 CMS farms participated in a survey on factors potentially related to AMU. These farmers collected 5 quarter milk samples from quarters with clinical mastitis or high somatic cell count, which were subjected to bacteriological culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In addition, routinely collected udder health data of these farms were used in the analysis. Nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) was used to explore associations between AMU, udder health, and questionnaire variables. The ADDDTOTAL and ADDDDCT were comparable between AMS and CMS farms, whereas ADDDIMM tended to be lower and ADDDINJ higher on AMS farms than on CMS farms. The NLPCA yielded 3 principal components (PC) that explained 48% of the variation in all these variables. The AMS farms were not distinguished from CMS farms in the principal component space. The 3 PC represented different aspects of udder health, ADDDTOTAL, and treatment strategy. Differences in treatment strategy were unrelated to total antimicrobial usage or overall udder health. The distribution of mastitis-causing pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance were comparable between AMS and CMS farms. In conclusion, our study shows that AMU on AMS farms was similar to that of CMS farms, but AMS farmers tend to apply more injectable and fewer intramammary treatments during lactation than CMS farmers. Across both farm types, farmers' attitudes toward udder health in general and toward mastitis treatment are associated with AMU.
Knowledge, attitude and practices of Swiss dairy farmers towards intramammary antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance : A latent class analysis
Schwendner, Anna Alita ; Lam, Theo J.G.M. ; Bodmer, Michèle ; Cousin, Marie Eve ; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud ; Borne, Bart H.P. van den - \ 2020
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 179 (2020). - ISSN 0167-5877
Behaviour - Clinical mastitis - Critically important antimicrobial - Mindset - Subclinical mastitis - Udder health
Understanding farmers’ mindsets is important to improve antimicrobial stewardship in the dairy industry. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine farmers’ knowledge, attitude, and practices with respect to lactational intramammary antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Swiss dairy herds. Based on their approach towards subclinical mastitis (SCM) and non-severe cases of clinical mastitis (CM), subgroups of farmers were identified and compared regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices towards AMU and AMR. After conducting qualitative interviews to develop a questionnaire, an online survey was sent to 1296 randomly selected Swiss dairy farmers. Information was gathered on demographic data and farmers’ knowledge, attitude, and practices towards AMU and AMR. A latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups of farmers based on management of SCM and non-severe CM cases. Based on the results of 542 completed questionnaires, poor knowledge with respect to AMU and AMR was identified, as well as discrepancies between farmers’ perceptions and their actual practices. Farmers approached cows with SCM and non-severe CM similarly, indicating they perceived both mastitis states as the same disease. Intramammary antimicrobial products containing cefquinome, which is a highest priority critically important antimicrobial, were among the 3 most commonly applied intramammary antimicrobials. Five latent classes of farmers were identified based on their management towards SCM and non-severe CM. One group of farmers (18.5% of respondents) indicated that they did not treat those mastitis cases, one group only treated SCM cases (13.8% of respondents), one group only treated non-severe CM cases (28.6% of respondents) and the largest group treated both mastitis states (39.1% of respondents). The latter group was subdivided into a latent class of farmers following guidelines for AMU/AMR (25.5% of respondents) and a group of farmers that were not strictly following these guidelines (13.7% of respondents). Regional differences between farmers, according to altitude and language region, explained some of the variation in latent class membership. Latent class membership was associated with farmers’ attitude to use antimicrobials as little as possible and with using antimicrobials only after performing bacteriological and susceptibility testing. This study gave detailed insight into Swiss farmers’ knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding AMU and AMR and provides opportunities to improve antimicrobial stewardship in Swiss dairy herds. The identified groups of farmers, based on their management practices regarding SCM and non-severe CM, may help to design tailored intervention strategies for improving prudent AMU in the heterogeneous population of dairy farmers in Switzerland.
Performance of Online Somatic Cell Count Estimation in Automatic Milking Systems
Deng, Zhaoju ; Hogeveen, Henk ; Lam, Theo J.G.M. ; Tol, Rik van der; Koop, Gerrit - \ 2020
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
automatic milking machine - dairy cow - mastitis - on-farm screening tool - online-California mastitis test - somatic cell count - udder health monitoring
Somatic cell count (SCC) is one of the most important and widely used mastitis diagnostics. For detecting (sub)clinical mastitis, online SCC related measurements are more and more used in automatic milking systems (AMS). Sensors such as an automated online California Mastitis Test (O-CMT) allow for high frequency screening of high SCC cows within a herd, which makes it potentially powerful to identify episodes of mastitis. However, the performance of O-CMT measurements, as compared to SCC determined in the laboratory (L-SCC), has only scarcely been described. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the agreement between the O-CMT measurement averaged over different time windows and the corresponding L-SCC measurements; (2) to determine the optimal time window for averaging O-CMT as compared to L-SCC; (3) to explore the added value of time-series of frequent O-CMT measurements in individual cow udder health monitoring compared to L-SCC measurements. Data were collected from 50 farms in 6 different countries that were equipped with AMS using O-CMT measurements and also performed regular L-SCC testing. We found that the overall concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between O-CMT and L-SCC was 0.53 but differed substantially between farms. The CCC between O-CMT and L-SCC improved when averaging O-CMT over multiple milkings, with an optimal time-window of 24 h. Exploration of time series of daily O-CMT recordings show that this is an effective screening tool to find episodes of high SCC. Altogether, we conclude that although O-CMT agrees moderately with L-SCC, because of its high measurement frequency, it is a promising on-farm tool for udder health monitoring.
Consequences of extending the voluntary waiting period for insemination on ovarian cyclicity and reproductive performance in dairy cows
Ma, J. ; Burgers, E.E.A. ; Lam, T.G.J.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2020
In: Wias Annual Conference 2020 WIAS - p. 69 - 69.
Extending lactation length in dairy cows is of interest because it reduces the number of calving events per cow per time unit and herewith possibly reduces the risk for health and fertility problems associated with calving and start of lactation. Extending lactation length can be realized by deliberately delaying first insemination, i.e. extending the voluntary waiting period for first insemination (VWP). Moreover, it can be hypothesized that insemination later in lactation is related with improved ovarian cyclicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an extended VWP on ovarian cyclicity and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (N=150) were blocked by parity, calving season and expected FPCM. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to one of three VWP (50, 125 or 200 days). Cows were artificially inseminated at first estrous after end of VWP. Milk samples were collected three times a week until pregnancy and analysed for progesterone concentration. At least two succeeding milk samples with progesterone concentration of 2 ng/mL or greater were used to indicate the onset of luteal activity (OLA) and to classify ovarian cycles. Ovarian cycles were classified as: normal (ovarian cycles of 18 to 24 days in length), short (ovarian cycles <18 days) and prolonged (ovarian cycles >24 days). Extended VWP of 200-d and 125-d VWP was related with increased number of cycles within first100 DIM compared with 50-d VWP (2.6, 2.8 vs 1.6, P <0.01). During 100 DIM around the end of VWP (-50 till 50 d), 200-d VWP treatment had greater percentage of cows with normal cycles (90.55 vs 53.48, P <0.01) and lower percentage of cows with short (0.79 vs 11.24, P =0.02) or prolonged cycles (8.66 vs 35.28, P=0.01) compared with 50-d VWP treatment. Cows with 200-d VWP had less days till pregnancy after end of VWP compared with cows with 125-d or 50-d VWP (31.17 vs 54.78, 58.33 d, P=0.04). In conclusion, extended VWP could improve reproductive performance, which was related with shorter intervals to pregnancy after end VWP, greater cycle number before insemination and greater percentage of normal cycles around VWP.
Impact of risk-dependent interventions on low haemoglobin deferral rates in whole blood donors
Baart, Mireille A. ; Hurk, Katja van den; Kort, Wim L.A.M. de; Huis in ’t Veld, Elisabeth M.J. - \ 2020
Vox Sanguinis 115 (2020)3. - ISSN 0042-9007 - p. 171 - 181.
dietary advice - donation interval - haemoglobin - Hb deferral - intervention - whole blood donors
Background: Blood donors with a relatively low haemoglobin (Hb) level at their previous donation attempt have an increased risk of Hb deferral at the subsequent donation attempt. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the interventions prolongation of donation interval and/or a dietary advice decrease the Hb deferral rate. Methods: 11 897 whole blood donors with Hb levels from below to 0·2 mmol/l above the cut-off level for donation received either no intervention, a prolongation of the donation interval to six or twelve months, a dietary advice, or both. Deferral rates for low Hb levels at the subsequent donation attempt were compared in the different intervention groups. Additionally, the effects of the interventions on Hb deferral risk and donor return for a subsequent donation attempt were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results: The Hb deferral rate was substantially lower in the group that received a prolongation of the donation interval to six months than in the Control Group (12·9% vs. 6·3% in men and 20·4% vs. 13·4% in women). However, the additional benefit of twelve over 6-month interval prolongation was small, and no benefit of a dietary advice showed up. On the other hand, receiving a dietary advice increased the likelihood of donor return for a subsequent donation attempt. Conclusion: Implementation of a protocol for the prolongation of donation intervals to six months for donors with Hb levels from below to slightly above the cut-off level for donation may reduce the deferral rate for low Hb levels while keeping donor lapse at a minimum.
Effect of growth conditions on the efficiency of cell disruption of Neochloris oleoabundans
Safi, C. ; Olivieri, G. ; Engelen-Smit, N. ; Spekking, W. ; Veloo, R. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Sijtsma, L. - \ 2020
Bioresource Technology 300 (2020). - ISSN 0960-8524
Cell disintegration - Enzymes - High-pressure homogenization - Nitrogen deplete - Nitrogen replete
The impact of four different growth conditions on the cell disruption efficiency of Neochloris oleoabundans was investigated. A mechanical and biological cell disruption methods were evaluated separately and combined. It has been established that microalgae grown in marine water under nitrogen deprivation were the most resistant against cell disruption methods and released the lowest amount of proteins. The release of lipids, however, followed the “hindered molecule diffusion phenomenon” because it did not follow the same release pattern as proteins. The enzymatic treatment was efficient enough to release the majority of the proteins without combining it with high-pressure homogenization. Regarding energy input, Neochloris oleoabundans grown in marine water under nitrogen deprivation required the highest energy input to release proteins (Ep = 13.76 kWh.kg−1) and to break the cells by high-pressure homogenization (Ex – HPH = 1.14 kWh.kg−1) or by the combination of enzymes and High-pressure homogenization (Ex – ENZ = 2.79 kWh.kg−1).
Clostridium difficile in wild rodents and insectivores in the Netherlands
Krijger, I.M. ; Meerburg, B.G. ; Harmanus, C. ; Burt, S.A. - \ 2020
Letters in Applied Microbiology 69 (2020)1. - ISSN 0266-8254 - p. 35 - 40.
animal to human - Clostridioides difficile - farms - house mouse - Mus musculus - Rattus rattus - transmission - zoonotic pathogen
With wild rodents and insectivores being present around humans and their living, working and food production environments, it is important to gain knowledge of the zoonotic pathogens present in these animals. The enteropathogen Clostridium difficile, an opportunistic anaerobic bacteria, can be carried by both animals and humans, and is distributed globally. It is known that there is genetic overlap between human and animal sources of C. difficile. In this study, the aim was to assess the presence of C. difficile in rodents and insectivores trapped on and around pig and cattle farms in the Netherlands. In total 347 rodents and insectivores (10 different species) were trapped and 39·2% tested positive for presence of C. difficile. For all positive samples the ribotype (RT) was determined, and in total there were 13 different RTs found (in descending order of frequency: 057, 010, 029, 005, 073, 078, 015, 035, 454, 014, 058, 062, 087). Six of the RTs isolated from rodents and insectivores are known to be associated with human C. difficile infection; RT005, RT010, RT014, RT015, RT078 and RT087. The presence of rodents and insectivores in and around food production buildings (e.g. farms) could contribute to the spread of C. difficile in the human environment. In order to enable on-farm management for pathogen control, it is essential to comprehend the role of wild rodents and insectivores that could potentially affect the ecology of disease agents on farms. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows that rodents and insectivores in and around food production buildings (e.g. farms) can carry Clostridium difficile ribotypes associated with human C. difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile spores in rodent and insectivore droppings are able to survive in the environment for prolonged periods, leading to host-to-host exposure and transmission. Therefore we can state that rodent and insectivore presence on farms is a risk for zoonotic pathogen transmission of C. difficile.
PlantPROMISE : Public Private Partnership. Plant PROtein Meat alternatIveS using Extrusion
Pouvreau, L.A.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der; Sagis, L.M.C. - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research - 4 p.
Offering attractive and tasty alternatives plant-based meat analogues to the consumer could stimulate the transition from animal to plant proteins.
PlantPROMISE will improve the understanding of physico-chemical changes during processing in the extruder, combined with a better understanding of product attributes like texture, flavour, juiciness, digestibility and sustainability. Together with the partners, these findings will be used to develop meat analogues which offer a better experience to the consumer, while using a cost effective and sustainable approach.
Blue Bioeconomy Forum : Roadmap for the blue bioeconomy
Ligtvoet, A. ; Maier, F. ; Sijtsma, L. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Doranova, A. ; Eaton, D. ; Guznajeva, T. ; Kals, J. ; Gallou, M. Le; Poelman, M. ; Saes, L. ; Zhechkov, R. - \ 2019
Brussels : European Commission - ISBN 9789292027377 - 63 p.
Blue Bioeconomy Forum : Highlights: Summary of the roadmap and a selection of viable and innovative projects
Ligtvoet, A. ; Maier, F. ; Sijtsma, L. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Safi, Carl ; Doranova, A. ; Eaton, D. ; Guznajeva, T. ; Kals, J. ; Gallou, M. Le; Poelman, M. ; Saes, L. ; Zhechkov, R. - \ 2019
Brussels : European Commission (Blue Bioeconomy Forum Newsletter ) - ISBN 9789292027308 - 42 p.
Determining Key Research Areas for Healthier Diets and Sustainable Food Systems in Viet Nam
Raneri, Jessica E. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Nguyen, Trang ; Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Haan, Stef de; Do, Ha Thi Phuong ; Nguyen, Phuong Hong ; Thi, Huong Le ; Mai, Truong Tuyet ; Duong, Thi Thanh Thuy ; Hung, Nguyen ; Nguyen, Tuan ; Huynh, Tuyen ; Nodari, Gulia Rota ; Spellman, Olga ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Duong, Minh-Cam ; Tran, Lam Nguyen ; Bene, Christophe - \ 2019
IFPRI (IFPRI Discussion Paper 1872) - 127 p.
food systems - diet - nutrition - agriculture
Vietnamese food systems are undergoing rapid transformation, with important implications for human and environmental health and economic development. Poverty has decreased, and diet quality and under-nutrition have improved significantly since the end of the Doi Moi reform period (1986-1993) as a result of Viet Nam opening its economy and increasing its regional and global trade. Yet poor diet quality is still contributing the triple burden of malnutrition, with 25 percent stunting among children under age 5, 26 percent and 29 percent of women and children, respectively, anemic, and 21 percent of adults overweight. Agricultural production systems have shifted from predominantly diverse smallholder systems to larger more commercialized and specialized systems, especially for crops, while the ‘meatification’ of the Vietnamese diet is generating serious trade-offs between improved nutrition and sustainability of the Vietnamese food systems. The food processing industry has developed rapidly, together with food imports, resulting in new and processed food products penetrating the food retail outlets, trending towards an increase in the Westernized consumption patterns that are shifting nutrition-related problems towards overweight and obesity and, with it, an increase of non-communicable disease-related health risks. While regulatory policies exist across the food system, these are not systematically implemented, making food safety a major concern for consumers and policy makers alike. Where data exists, it is not easy to aggregate with data from across food system dimensions, making it difficult for Viet Nam to make an informed analysis of current and potential food system trade-offs. In our research, we reviewed existing literature and data, and applied a food systems framework to develop an initial food systems profile for Viet Nam and to identify a comprehensive set a of research questions to fill current data gaps identified through the review. Insights on these would provide the comprehensive evidence needed to inform policy makers on how to develop new food systems policies for Viet Nam, and further refine and improve existing policies to achieve better quality diets and more sustainable food systems in Viet Nam. Based on these, we then engaged with stakeholders to develop research priorities in the Viet Nam context and identified 25 priority research questions. This paper aims to stimulate such reflections by clearly outlining key areas for research, government policy, and development programs on priority investment to build the evidence base around inclusive food systems interventions that aim to result in healthier diets and more sustainable food systems for Viet Nam.
|Diagnostiek Ontwikkeling en Toepassing voor het optimaliseren van uiergezondheid
Griffioen, Karien ; Velthuis, A.G.J. ; Wal, F.J. van der; Mevius, D.J. ; Achterberg, R.P. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Dijkman, Remco ; Heuvelink, Annet E. ; Hop, G.E. ; Holstege, Manon M.C. ; Scherpenzeel, Christian ; Lam, Theo - \ 2019
Corrigendum to “Quantification of lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis”
Aru, Violetta ; Lam, Chloie ; Khakimov, Bekzod ; Hoefsloot, Huub C.J. ; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen ; Lind, Mads Vendelbo ; Schäfer, Hartmut ; Duynhoven, John van; Jacobs, Doris M. ; Smilde, Age K. ; Engelsen, Søren B. - \ 2019
TrAC : Trends in Analytical Chemistry 119 (2019). - ISSN 0165-9936
The authors regret that there was an error in the published Table 2. Wrong literature reference numbers were given in Table 2 making the interpretation of the table very confusing to the reader. Table 2 should be replaced with the following corrected table.
Relationship between resumption of ovarian activity, days open, energy balance and metabolic status in dairy cows with different dry period lengths in early lactation
Ma, J. ; Hoeij, R.J. van; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Bern, Switserland : University of Bern - ISBN 9783906813936 - p. 176 - 176.
Negative energy balance (NEB) in dairy cows results from a fast increase in milk production post calving while feed intake is limited in this period. NEB is accompanied with an altered metabolic status, which triggers metabolic disorders. Metabolic status in early lactation is related with reproductive performance, e.g. reduced concentrations of insulin and IGF-I, which contributes to reduced follicular responsiveness to gonadotrophic stimulation, and thus prevents the dominant follicle to ovulate, resulting in a delay in the resumption of cyclicity. Omitting or shortening the dry period (DP), adjusting dietary energy level or feeding different dietary energy sources is of interest because that could minimize the risk of NEB, postpartum metabolic diseases and suboptimal fertility like delayed resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of DP length, dietary energy level, dietary energy source and interactions among these factors on fertility (resumption of ovarian cyclicity and days open) of dairy cows postpartum. Additionally, the relation between energy balance and metabolic status of dairy cows during early lactation and resumption of ovarian cyclicity and days open will be evaluated.
Data from: Multi-variable approach pinpoints origin of oak wood with higher precision
Akhmetzyanov, L. ; Buras, Allan ; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. ; Ouden, J. den; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Groenendijk, Peter ; García-González, Ignacio - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
dendroprovenancing - earlywood vessels - latewood width - multi-variable approach - region-specific growth patterns - Quercus spp. - wood anatomy - Quercus robur - Quercus petraea - Quercus pyrenaica - Quercus faginea
Aim: Spatial variations of environmental conditions translate into biogeographic growth patterns of tree growth. This fact is used to identify the origin of timber by means of dendroprovenancing. Yet, dendroprovenancing attempts are based on ring-widths measurements, and neglect additional tree-ring parameters. To explore the effect of including additional variables in dendroprovenancing, we investigate whether and, if so, why the incorporation of wood-anatomical parameters can increase the precision of identifying the origin of oak wood. Since such features reflect environmental conditions of different periods – which vary between source regions – we hypothesize that their inclusion allows more precise dendroprovenancing. Location: Europe, Spain. Taxon: Quercus robur L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus faginea Lam., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. Methods: We sampled four oak species resembling a longitudinal and an elevational/continental gradients. We measured multiple tree-ring variables to (1) extract meaningful variables, (2) represent statistical relations among variables, (3) analyse regional-specific growth patterns in individual time series and (4) determine underlying climate-growth relationships. Leave-one-out analyses were used to test whether a combination of selected variables allows dendroprovenancing of a randomly selected tree within the area. Results: A combination of latewood width and earlywood vessels size can be used to pin-point the origin of oak wood with higher precision than latewood width only. Variation in latewood widths appointed the wood to areas across the longitudinal gradient, whereas variation in vessels assigned wood to locations along a latitudinal/topographic gradient. The climatic factors behind these gradients are respectively an East-West gradient in June-July temperature, and a North-South gradient in winter/ spring temperatures. The leave-one-out analyses supported the robustness of the results. Main conclusions: Integration of multiple tree-ring variables in combination with multivariate techniques leads to higher precision in the dendroprovenancing of ring-porous oak species.
Blood and urine analyses after radioembolization of liver malignancies with [166Ho]Ho-acetylacetonate-poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres
Bakker, Robbert C. ; Roos, Remmert de; Tessa Ververs, F.F. ; Lam, Marnix G.E.H. ; Lee, Martijn K. van der; Zonnenberg, Bernard A. ; Krijger, Gerard C. - \ 2019
Nuclear medicine and biology 71 (2019). - ISSN 0969-8051 - p. 11 - 18.
Blood - Holmium - Radioisotope - SIRT - Urine
Background: [ 166 Ho]Ho-acetylacetonate-poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres were used in radioembolization of liver malignancies by intra-arterial administration. The primary aim of this study was to assess the stability and biodistribution of these microspheres. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood and urine samples were obtained from two clinical studies. Patient and in vitro experiment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), gamma-ray spectroscopy, light microscopy, Coulter particle counting, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The median percentage holmium compared to the total amount injected into the hepatic artery was 0.19% (range 0.08–2.8%) and 0.32% (range 0.03–1.8%) in the 1 h blood plasma and 24 h urine, respectively. Both the blood plasma and urine were correlated with the neutron irradiation exposure required for [ 166 Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere production (ρ = 0.616, p = 0.002). After a temporary interruption of the phase 2 clinical study, the resuspension medium was replaced to precipitate [ 166 Ho]Ho 3+ pre-administration using phosphate. The in vitro near-maximum neutron irradiation experiments showed significant [ 166 Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere damage. Conclusion: The amount of holmium in the peripheral blood and urine samples after [ 166 Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere intrahepatic infusion was low. A further decrease was observed after reformulation of the resuspension solution but minimization of production damage is necessary.