Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production
Dainese, Matteo ; Martin, Emily A. ; Aizen, Marcelo A. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Carvalheiro, Luisa G. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Ghazoul, Jaboury ; Grab, Heather ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Karp, Daniel S. ; Kennedy, Christina M. ; Kleijn, David ; Kremen, Claire ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Poveda, Katja ; Rader, Romina ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Badenhausser, Isabelle ; Baensch, Svenja ; Bezerra, Antonio D.M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Boreux, Virginie ; Bretagnolle, Vincent ; Caballero-Lopez, Berta ; Cavigliasso, Pablo ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Chacoff, Natacha P. ; Classen, Alice ; Cusser, Sarah ; Silva E Silva, Felipe D. Da; Groot, A. de; Dudenhöffer, Jan H. ; Ekroos, Johan ; Fijen, Thijs ; Franck, Pierre ; Freitas, Breno M. ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hipólito, Juliana ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Hunt, Lauren ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Jha, Shalene ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Klatt, Björn K. ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Krewenka, Kristin M. ; Krishnan, Smitha ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Lavigne, Claire ; Liere, Heidi ; Maas, Bea ; Mallinger, Rachel E. ; Pachon, Eliana Martinez ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Nesper, Maike ; Nilsson, Lovisa ; O'Rourke, Megan E. ; Peters, Marcell K. ; Plećaš, Milan ; Potts, Simon G. ; L. Ramos, Davi de; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Sáez, Agustín ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schleuning, Matthias ; Schmack, Julia M. ; Sciligo, Amber R. ; Seymour, Colleen ; Stanley, Dara A. ; Stewart, Rebecca ; Stout, Jane C. ; Sutter, Louis ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Viana, Blandina F. ; Westphal, Catrin ; Willcox, Bryony K. ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Yoshioka, Akira ; Zaragoza-Trello, Carlos ; Zhang, Wei ; Zou, Yi ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)10. - ISSN 2375-2548

Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield-related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance of species richness, abundance, and dominance for pollination; biological pest control; and final yields in the context of ongoing land-use change. Pollinator and enemy richness directly supported ecosystem services in addition to and independent of abundance and dominance. Up to 50% of the negative effects of landscape simplification on ecosystem services was due to richness losses of service-providing organisms, with negative consequences for crop yields. Maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystem service providers is therefore vital to sustain the flow of key agroecosystem benefits to society.

Applying the aboveground-belowground interaction concept in agriculture: Spatio-temporal scales matter
Veen, G.F. ; Jasper Wubs, E.R. ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Barrios, Edmundo ; Bradford, Mark A. ; Carvalho, Sabrina ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Vries, Franciska T. de; Giller, Ken E. ; Kleijn, David ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Rossing, Walter A.H. ; Schrama, Maarten ; Six, Johan ; Struik, Paul C. ; Gils, Stijn van; Wiskerke, Johannes S.C. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Vet, Louise E.M. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7 (2019)AUG. - ISSN 2296-701X
Above-belowground biotic interactions - Agroecology - Spatio-temporal scales - Steering communities - Sustainable agriculture

Interactions between aboveground and belowground organisms are important drivers of plant growth and performance in natural ecosystems. Making practical use of such above-belowground biotic interactions offers important opportunities for enhancing the sustainability of agriculture, as it could favor crop growth, nutrient supply, and defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the operation of above-and belowground organisms at different spatial and temporal scales provides important challenges for application in agriculture. Aboveground organisms, such as herbivores and pollinators, operate at spatial scales that exceed individual fields and are highly variable in abundance within growing seasons. In contrast, pathogenic, symbiotic, and decomposer soil biota operate at more localized spatial scales from individual plants to patches of square meters, however, they generate legacy effects on plant performance that may last from single to multiple years. The challenge is to promote pollinators and suppress pests at the landscape and field scale, while creating positive legacy effects of local plant-soil interactions for next generations of plants. Here, we explore the possibilities to improve utilization of above-belowground interactions in agro-ecosystems by considering spatio-temporal scales at which aboveground and belowground organisms operate. We identified that successful integration of above-belowground biotic interactions initially requires developing crop rotations and intercropping systems that create positive local soil legacy effects for neighboring as well subsequent crops. These configurations may then be used as building blocks to design landscapes that accommodate beneficial aboveground communities with respect to their required resources. For successful adoption of above-belowground interactions in agriculture there is a need for context-specific solutions, as well as sound socio-economic embedding.

Transferring biodiversity-ecosystem function research to the management of ‘real-world’ ecosystems
Manning, P. ; Loos, Jacqueline ; Barnes, Andrew D. ; Batáry, Péter ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Fischer, Markus ; Fründ, Jochen ; Grass, Ingo ; Isselstein, Johannes ; Jochum, M. ; Klein, Alexandra M. ; Klingenberg, Esther O.F. ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lepš, Jan ; Lindborg, Regina ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Temperton, Vicky M. ; Westphal, Catrin ; Tscharntke, Teja - \ 2019
In: Advances in Ecological Research Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Ecological Research )
BEF research - Biodiversity experiments - Ecosystem management - Ecosystem services - Grasslands - Knowledge transfer

Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research grew rapidly following concerns that biodiversity loss would negatively affect ecosystem functions and the ecosystem services they underpin. However, despite evidence that biodiversity strongly affects ecosystem functioning, the influence of BEF research upon policy and the management of ‘real-world’ ecosystems, i.e., semi-natural habitats and agroecosystems, has been limited. Here, we address this issue by classifying BEF research into three clusters based on the degree of human control over species composition and the spatial scale, in terms of grain, of the study, and discussing how the research of each cluster is best suited to inform particular fields of ecosystem management. Research in the first cluster, small-grain highly controlled studies, is best able to provide general insights into mechanisms and to inform the management of species-poor and highly managed systems such as croplands, plantations, and the restoration of heavily degraded ecosystems. Research from the second cluster, small-grain observational studies, and species removal and addition studies, may allow for direct predictions of the impacts of species loss in specific semi-natural ecosystems. Research in the third cluster, large-grain uncontrolled studies, may best inform landscape-scale management and national-scale policy. We discuss barriers to transfer within each cluster and suggest how new research and knowledge exchange mechanisms may overcome these challenges. To meet the potential for BEF research to address global challenges, we recommend transdisciplinary research that goes beyond these current clusters and considers the social-ecological context of the ecosystems in which BEF knowledge is generated. This requires recognizing the social and economic value of biodiversity for ecosystem services at scales, and in units, that matter to land managers and policy makers.

A global map of mangrove forest soil carbon at 30 m spatial resolution
Sanderman, Jonathan ; Hengl, Tomislav ; Fiske, Greg ; Solvik, Kylen ; Adame, Maria Fernanda ; Benson, Lisa ; Bukoski, Jacob J. ; Carnell, Paul ; Cifuentes-Jara, Miguel ; Donato, Daniel ; Duncan, Clare ; Eid, Ebrahem M. ; Ermgassen, Philine Zu ; Ewers Lewis, Carolyn J. ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Glass, Leah ; Gress, Selena ; Jardine, Sunny L. ; Jones, Trevor G. ; Nsombo, Eugéne Ndemem ; Rahman, Md Mizanur ; Sanders, Christian J. ; Spalding, Mark ; Landis, Emily - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)5. - ISSN 1748-9318
blue carbon - carbon sequestration - land use change - machine learning

With the growing recognition that effective action on climate change will require a combination of emissions reductions and carbon sequestration, protecting, enhancing and restoring natural carbon sinks have become political priorities. Mangrove forests are considered some of the most carbon-dense ecosystems in the world with most of the carbon stored in the soil. In order for mangrove forests to be included in climate mitigation efforts, knowledge of the spatial distribution of mangrove soil carbon stocks are critical. Current global estimates do not capture enough of the finer scale variability that would be required to inform local decisions on siting protection and restoration projects. To close this knowledge gap, we have compiled a large georeferenced database of mangrove soil carbon measurements and developed a novel machine-learning based statistical model of the distribution of carbon density using spatially comprehensive data at a 30 m resolution. This model, which included a prior estimate of soil carbon from the global SoilGrids 250 m model, was able to capture 63% of the vertical and horizontal variability in soil organic carbon density (RMSE of 10.9 kg m-3). Of the local variables, total suspended sediment load and Landsat imagery were the most important variable explaining soil carbon density. Projecting this model across the global mangrove forest distribution for the year 2000 yielded an estimate of 6.4 Pg C for the top meter of soil with an 86-729 Mg C ha-1 range across all pixels. By utilizing remotely-sensed mangrove forest cover change data, loss of soil carbon due to mangrove habitat loss between 2000 and 2015 was 30-122 Tg C with >75% of this loss attributable to Indonesia, Malaysia and Myanmar. The resulting map products from this work are intended to serve nations seeking to include mangrove habitats in payment-for- ecosystem services projects and in designing effective mangrove conservation strategies.

Optimaal gebruik van paardenmest
Vermeij, Izak - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Wageningen University & Research Wetenschapswinkel rapport 346) - ISBN 9789463435390 - 17
The Paardenkamp Foundation (a rest home for retired horses) wishes to contribute to circularity and is exploring the possibilities to process and apply horse manure with straw on the own farm. Until now, solid horse manure is exported from the farm to be used elsewhere as mushroom substrate and liquid dairy manure from a nearby dairy farm is used for fertilization of the land. The following alternatives are studied:using horse manure for fertilization, composting of horse manure, fermentation and anaerobic digestion of horse manure. The end products differ in physical and chemical characteristics, e.g. application methods for solid and liquid manure products, nutrient levels in the products and gaseous emissions from processing and land application. Also the survival rates of pathogens such as parasites and worms and degradation rates of veterinary medicines may vary between the different technologies. It is concluded that adherence to the current working method (the replacement of horse manure with dairy manure for fertilization of the land)is the best compromise between circularity, soil fertility, animal health and economy of De Paardenkamp.
Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Declerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; O’Rourke, Megan E. ; Rusch, Adrien ; Poveda, Katja ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Schellhorn, Nancy A. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Zhang, Wei ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Adler, Lynn S. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Alignier, Audrey ; Angelella, Gina M. ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Avelino, Jacques ; Batáry, Péter ; Baveco, Johannes M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bohnenblust, Eric W. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Brewer, Michael J. ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Carrière, Yves ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Cayuela, Luis ; Centrella, Mary ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Henri, Dominic Charles ; Chabert, Ariane ; Costamagna, Alejandro C. ; La Mora, Aldo De; Kraker, Joop De; Desneux, Nicolas ; Diehl, Eva ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Eckberg, James O. ; Entling, Martin H. ; Fiedler, Daniela ; Franck, Pierre ; Veen, F.J.F. van; Frank, Thomas ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Getachew, Awraris ; Gonthier, David J. ; Goodell, Peter B. ; Graziosi, Ignazio ; Groves, Russell L. ; Gurr, Geoff M. ; Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary ; Heimpel, George E. ; Herrmann, John D. ; Huseth, Anders S. ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Ingrao, Adam J. ; Iv, Phirun ; Jacot, Katja ; Johnson, Gregg A. ; Jones, Laura ; Kaiser, Marina ; Kaser, Joe M. ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lavandero, Blas ; Lavigne, Claire ; Ralec, Anne Le; Lemessa, Debissa ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Liere, Heidi ; Lu, Yanhui ; Lubin, Yael ; Luttermoser, Tim ; Maas, Bea ; Mace, Kevi ; Madeira, Filipe ; Mader, Viktoria ; Cortesero, Anne Marie ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martinez, Eliana ; Martinson, Holly M. ; Menozzi, Philippe ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Miyashita, Tadashi ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. ; O’Neal, Matthew E. ; Opatovsky, Itai ; Ortiz-Martinez, Sebaastian ; Nash, Michael ; Östman, Örjan ; Ouin, Annie ; Pak, Damie ; Paredes, Daniel ; Parsa, Soroush ; Parry, Hazel ; Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo ; Perović, David J. ; Peterson, Julie A. ; Petit, Sandrine ; Philpott, Stacy M. ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Plećaš, Milan ; Pluess, Therese ; Pons, Xavier ; Potts, Simon G. ; Pywell, Richard F. ; Ragsdale, David W. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Raymond, Lucie ; Ricci, Benoît ; Sargent, Chris ; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre ; Saulais, Julia ; Schäckermann, Jessica ; Schmidt, Nick P. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Sivakoff, Frances S. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin ; Stutz, Sonja ; Szendrei, Zsofia ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thomson, Linda J. ; Tricault, Yann ; Tsafack, Noelline ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Valantin-Morison, Muriel ; Trinh, Mai Van; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Vierling, Kerri T. ; Werling, Ben P. ; Wickens, Jennifer B. ; Wickens, Victoria J. ; Woodcock, Ben A. ; Wyckhuys, Kris ; Xiao, Haijun ; Yasuda, Mika ; Yoshioka, Akira - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7863 - E7870.
IPM
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Climate change mitigation through adaptation : The effectiveness of forest diversification by novel tree planting regimes
Hof, Anouschka R. ; Dymond, Caren C. ; Mladenoff, David J. - \ 2017
Ecosphere 8 (2017)11. - ISSN 2150-8925
Assisted migration - Boreal forest - Carbon stocks - Climate change - Ecosystem services - Forestry - Modeling - Temperate forest
Climate change is projected to have negative implications for forest ecosystems and their dependent communities and industries. Adaptation studies of forestry practices have focused on maintaining the provisioning of ecosystem services; however, those practices may have implications for climate change mitigation as well by increasing biological sinks or reducing emissions. Assessments of the effectiveness of adaptation strategies to mitigate climate change are therefore needed; however, they have not been done for the world’s northern coniferous forests. Diversifying the forest by planting tree species more likely suited to a future climate is a potential adaptation strategy to increase resilience. The efficacy of this strategy to reduce the risks of climate change is uncertain, and other ecosystem services provided by the forest are also likely to be affected. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape modeling framework (LANDIS-II) to simulate the effects of planting a range of native tree species in colder areas than where they are currently planted in a managed temperate coniferous forest landscape in British Columbia, Canada. We investigated impacts on carbon pools, fluxes, tree species diversity, and harvest levels under different climate scenarios for 100 yr (2015–2115) and found that the capacity of our forest landscape to sequester carbon would largely depend on the precipitation rates in the future, rather than on temperature. We further found that, irrespective of the climate prediction model, current planting standards led to relatively low levels of resilience as indicated by carbon fluxes and stocks, net primary productivity (NPP), and species diversity. In contrast, planting a mix of alternative tree species was generally superior in increasing the resilience indicators: carbon stocks and fluxes, NPP, and tree species diversity, but not harvest rates. The second best novel planting regime involved adding Pinus contorta to the stocking standard in three ecoregions; however, that species is susceptible to a high number of insects and pathogens. We conclude that although the capacity of temperate coniferous forest landscapes to sequester carbon in the future is largely dependent on the precipitation regime, negative effects may be counteracted to some extent by increasing resilience through tree species diversity in forests.
Actionable knowledge for ecological intensification of agriculture
Geertsema, Willemien ; Rossing, Walter A.H. ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Rijn, Paul C.J. Van; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Werf, Wopke Van Der - \ 2016
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14 (2016)4. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 209 - 216.

Ecological intensification of agriculture (EI) aims to conserve and promote biodiversity and the sustainable use of associated ecosystem services to support resource-efficient production. In many cases EI requires fundamental changes in farm and landscape management as well as the organizations and institutions that support agriculture. Ecologists can facilitate EI by engaging with stakeholders and, in the process, by generating "actionable knowledge" (that is, knowledge that specifically supports stakeholder decision making and consequent actions). Using three case studies as examples, we propose four principles whereby science can improve the delivery of actionable knowledge for EI: (1) biodiversity conservation helps to ensure the delivery of ecosystem services, (2) management of ecosystem services benefits from a landscape-scale approach, (3) ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies need to be articulated, and (4) EI is associated with complex social dynamics involving farmers, governments, researchers, and related institutions. These principles have the potential to enhance adoption of EI, but institutional and policy challenges remain.

New approaches to the ecological risk assessment of multiple stressors
Brink, Paul J. Van Den; Choung, Catherine Bo ; Landis, Wayne ; Mayer-Pinto, Mariana ; Pettigrove, Vincent ; Scanes, Peter ; Smith, Rachael ; Stauber, Jenny - \ 2016
Marine and Freshwater Research 67 (2016)4. - ISSN 1323-1650 - p. 429 - 439.
adaptive management - anthropogenic stress - aquatic ecosystems.

So as to assess how emerging science and new tools can be applied to study multiple stressors at a large (ecosystem) scale and to facilitate greater integration of approaches among different scientific disciplines, a workshop was organised on 10-12 September 2014 at the Sydney Institute of Marine Sciences, Sydney, Australia. The present paper discusses the limitations of the current risk-assessment approaches and how multiple stressors at large scales can be better evaluated in ecological risk assessments to inform the development of more efficient and preventive management policies based on adaptive management in the future. A future risk-assessment paradigm that overcomes these limitations is presented. This paradigm includes cultural and ecological protection goals, the development of ecological scenarios, the establishment of the relevant interactions among species, potential sources of stressors, their interactions and the development of cause-effect models. It is envisaged that this will be achievable through a greater integration of approaches among different scientific disciplines and through the application of new and emerging tools such as 'big data', ecological modelling and the incorporation of ecosystem service endpoints.

Advances in ecological risk assessment of multiple stressors
Choung, C.B. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Landis, W.G. ; Mayer-Pinto, M. ; Pettigrove, V.J. ; Scanes, P. - \ 2015
Shifts in dynamic regime of an invasive lady beetle are linked to the invasion and insecticidal management of its prey
Bahlai, C.A. ; Werf, W. van der; O'Neal, M. ; Hemerik, L. ; Landis, D.A. - \ 2015
Ecological Applications 25 (2015)7. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1807 - 1818.
The spread and impact of invasive species may vary over time in relation to changes in the species itself, the biological community of which it is part, or external controls on the system. Here we investigate whether there have been changes in dynamic regimes over the last 20 years of two invasive species in the Midwestern US, the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis and the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. We show by model selection that after its 1993 invasion into the American Midwest, the year-to-year population dynamics of H. axyridis were initially governed by a logistic rule supporting gradual rise to a stable carrying capacity. After invasion of the soybean aphid in 2000, food resources at the landscape level became abundant, supporting a higher year-¬to-year growth rate, and a higher but unstable carrying capacity, with 2-year cycles in both aphid and lady beetle abundance as a consequence. During 2005-2007, farmers in the Midwest progressively increased their use of insecticides for managing A. glycines, combining prophylactic seed treatment with curative spraying based on thresholds. This human intervention dramatically reduced the soybean aphid as a major food resource for H. axyridis at landscape level, and corresponded to a reverse shift towards the original logistic rule for year-to-year dynamics. Thus, we document a short episode of major predator-prey fluctuations in an important agricultural system resulting from two biological invasions that were apparently damped by widespread insecticide use. Recent advances in development of plant resistance to A. glycines in soybeans may mitigate the need for pesticidal control and achieve the same stabilization of pest and predator populations at lower cost and environmental burden.
Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses
Tscharntke, T. ; Tylianakis, J.M. ; Rand, T.A. ; Didham, R.K. ; Fahrig, L. ; Batary, P. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Clough, Y. ; Crist, T.O. ; Dormann, C. ; Ewers, R.M. ; Frund, J. ; Holt, R.D. ; Holzschuh, A. ; Klein, A.M. ; Kleijn, D. ; Kremen, C. ; Landis, D.A. ; Laurance, W.F. ; Lindenmayer, D.B. ; Scherber, C. ; Sodhi, N. ; Steffan-Dewenter, I. ; Thies, C. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Westphal, C. - \ 2012
Biological Reviews 87 (2012)3. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 661 - 685.
different spatial scales - agri-environment schemes - land-use intensity - experimentally fragmented landscape - species-area relationships - tropical habitat gradient - soil decomposer community - biological-control agents - natural enemy diversity - food-web str
Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: ‘landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis—the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis—landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: ‘landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis—landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis—spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: ‘landscape moderation of functional trait selection’ includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis—landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis—landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: ‘landscape constraints on conservation management' includes (7) the intermediate landscape-complexity hypothesis—landscape-moderated effectiveness of local conservation management is highest in structurally simple, rather than in cleared (i.e. extremely simplified) or in complex landscapes, and (8) the landscape-moderated biodiversity versus ecosystem service management hypothesis—landscape-moderated biodiversity conservation to optimize functional diversity and related ecosystem services will not protect endangered species. Shifting our research focus from local to landscape-moderated effects on biodiversity will be critical to developing solutions for future biodiversity and ecosystem service management.
Analysing, forecasting and valuating the effects of landscape change on the ecosystem service of biological pest control
Werf, W. van der; Landis, D.A. ; Gardiner, M.M. ; Costamagna, A.C. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Schellhorn, N.C. ; Zhang, W. - \ 2009
In: Integrated Assessment of Agriculture and Sustainable Development: Setting the Agenda for Science and Policy (AgSAP 2009). - Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre - ISBN 9789085854012 - p. 118 - 119.
Modelling and design of pest suppressive landscapes
Werf, W. van der; Landis, D.A. ; Gardiner, M.M. ; Costamagna, A.C. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Schellhorn, N.C. ; Zhang, W. ; Swinton, S.M. - \ 2008
- p. 1 - 4.
Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes
Landis, D.A. ; Gardiner, M.M. ; Werf, W. van der; Swinton, S.M. - \ 2008
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (2008)25. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 20552 - 20557.
soybean aphid - coccinellidae coleoptera - generalist predators - population-growth - pest-control - switchgrass - suppression - management - hemiptera - ethanol
Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock is altering U. S. agricultural landscapes and the ecosystem services they provide. From 2006 to 2007, corn acreage increased 19% nationally, resulting in reduced crop diversity in many areas. Biological control of insects is an ecosystem service that is strongly influenced by local landscape structure. Here, we estimate the value of natural biological control of the soybean aphid, a major pest in agricultural landscapes, and the economic impacts of reduced biocontrol caused by increased corn production in 4 U. S. states (Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin). For producers who use an integrated pest management strategy including insecticides as needed, natural suppression of soybean aphid in soybean is worth an average of $33 ha(-1). At 2007-2008 prices these services are worth at least $239 million y(-1) in these 4 states. Recent biofuel-driven growth in corn planting results in lower landscape diversity, altering the supply of aphid natural enemies to soybean fields and reducing biocontrol services by 24%. This loss of biocontrol services cost soybean producers in these states an estimated $58 million y(-1) in reduced yield and increased pesticide use. For producers who rely solely on biological control, the value of lost services is much greater. These findings from a single pest in 1 crop suggest that the value of biocontrol services to the U. S. economy may be underestimated. Furthermore, we suggest that development of cellulosic ethanol production processes that use a variety of feedstocks could foster increased diversity in agricultural landscapes and enhance arthropod-mediated ecosystem services.
An exponential growth model with decreasing r captures bottom-up effects on the population growth of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Costamagna, A.C. ; Werf, W. van der; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Landis, D.A. - \ 2007
Agricultural and Forest Entomology 9 (2007)4. - ISSN 1461-9555 - p. 297 - 305.
soybean aphid - myzus-persicae - sugar-beet - plant-age - biological-control - natural enemies - virus yellows - predators - homoptera - management
1 There is ample evidence that the life history and population dynamics of aphids are closely linked to plant phenology. Based on life table studies, it has been proposed that the growth of aphid populations could be modeled with an exponential growth model, with r decreasing linearly with time. This model has never been tested under field conditions. 2 The soybean aphid Aphis glycines is a new invasive pest to soybean production in the U.S.A. In the present study, we present five datasets on the growth of colonies of A. glycines, monitored during population growth and decline under predator-free conditions in three soybean fields, from 2003 to 2006. 3 We demonstrate that an exponential growth model, with r decreasing linearly with time, gives a much better description of A. glycines dynamics for all datasets (R2 = 0.94¿0.99) than the exponential (R2 = 0.42¿0.98) or logistic growth models (R2 = 0.77¿0.99). Furthermore, it is shown by cross-validation that the exponential model with decreasing r can be used to make population predictions, as shown by the coefficient of prediction, ranging from 0.55 to 0.97. An improved fit of the model was obtained using both aphid ( ) and soybean ( ) degree-days scales, indicating temperature effects on the phenological time scale for the decrease in r. 4 Our model suggests important bottom-up control of A. glycines population growth, which may interact with other mortality factors. The generality and potential applications of these results are discussed.
Seedling quality testing at the gene level
Landis, T.D. ; Wordragen, M.F. van - \ 2006
In: Forest nursery notes : Summer 2006 / Dumroese, R.K., Central Point : USDA Forest Service - p. 4 - 5.
Early-season predation impacts the establishment of aphids and spread of beet yellows virus in sugar beet.
Landis, D.A. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 1997
Entomophaga 42 (1997)4. - ISSN 0013-8959 - p. 499 - 516.
Reduction in the numbers of antibody-producing cells in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to sublethal doses of phenol before bath immunization.
Anderson, D.P. ; Dixon, O.W. ; Muiswinkel, W.B. van - \ 1990
In: Aquatic toxicology and risk assessment, Vol. 13 / Landis, W.G., van der Schalie, W.H., - p. 331 - 337.
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