Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Variable demand as a mean to sustainable first generation biofuels and biobased materials
Quist-Wessel, Foluke ; Gursel, Iris Vural ; Elbersen, Wolter ; Langeveld, Hans - \ 2019
In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings. - Lisbon, Portugal : ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - p. 1528 - 1535.
Agricultural productivity - Biobased chemicals - Biofuel policy - Biofuels - Food security - ILUC

This paper evaluates possible impacts of a variable biofuel demand (VBD) policy, i.e. a policy that adjusts biofuel production to changes in biomass availability as determined by variations in crop yield. The aim is to stimulate investments and enhancing efficiency in crop production while limiting competition with food in years of reduced crop availability.

Correction to: In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5470 - 5470.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The email address Dr. Wen-Quan Zou, one of the corresponding authors should be written as “wxz6@case.edu” instead of “wxz@case.edu”.

In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5456 - 5469.
Humanized transgenic mice - Polymorphism - Prion - Prion disease - Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) - Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) - Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr)

Both sporadic variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the prion protein (PrP) V180I mutation (fCJDV180I) have been found to share a unique pathological prion protein (PrPSc) that lacks the protease-resistant PrPSc glycosylated at residue 181 because two of four PrP glycoforms are apparently not converted into the PrPSc from their cellular PrP (PrPC). To investigate the seeding activity of these unique PrPSc molecules, we conducted in vitro prion conversion experiments using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays with different PrPC substrates. We observed that the seeding of PrPSc from VPSPr or fCJDV180I in the sPMCA reaction containing normal human or humanized transgenic (Tg) mouse brain homogenates generated PrPSc molecules that unexpectedly exhibited a dominant diglycosylated PrP isoform along with PrP monoglycosylated at residue 181. The efficiency of PrPSc amplification was significantly higher in non-CJDMM than in non-CJDVV human brain homogenate, whereas it was higher in normal TgVV than in TgMM mouse brain homogenate. PrPC from the mixture of normal TgMM and Tg mouse brain expressing PrPV180I mutation (Tg180) but not TgV180I alone was converted into PrPSc by seeding with the VPSPr or fCJDV180I. The RT-QuIC seeding activity of PrPSc from VPSPr and fCJDV180I was significantly lower than that of sCJD. Our results suggest that the formation of glycoform-selective prions may be associated with an unidentified factor in the affected brain and the glycoform-deficiency of PrPSc does not affect the glycoforms of in vitro newly amplified PrPSc.

Recent insights on uncertainties present in integrated catchment water quality modelling
Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz ; Bellos, Vasilis ; Schellart, Alma ; Moreno-Rodenas, Antonio ; Muthusamy, Manoranjan ; Langeveld, Jeroen ; Clemens, Francois ; Benedetti, Lorenzo ; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel ; Carvalho, Rita Fernandes de; Breuer, Lutz ; Shucksmith, James ; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M. ; Tait, Simon - \ 2019
Water Research 150 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 368 - 379.
Complexity management - Integrated catchment modelling - Sub-models of integrated modelling - Uncertainty - Water quality

This paper aims to stimulate discussion based on the experiences derived from the QUICS project (Quantifying Uncertainty in Integrated Catchment Studies). First it briefly discusses the current state of knowledge on uncertainties in sub-models of integrated catchment models and the existing frameworks for analysing uncertainty. Furthermore, it compares the relative approaches of both building and calibrating fully integrated models or linking separate sub-models. It also discusses the implications of model linkage on overall uncertainty and how to define an acceptable level of model complexity. This discussion includes, whether we should shift our attention from uncertainties due to linkage, when using linked models, to uncertainties in model structure by necessary simplification or by using more parameters. This discussion attempts to address the question as to whether there is an increase in uncertainty by linking these models or if a compensation effect could take place and that overall uncertainty in key water quality parameters actually decreases. Finally, challenges in the application of uncertainty analysis in integrated catchment water quality modelling, as encountered in this project, are discussed and recommendations for future research areas are highlighted.

Evaluation of dietary taste patterns as assessed by FFQ against 24-h recalls and biomarkers of exposure
Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Teo, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2019
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (2019)1. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 132 - 140.
Background/objective: Taste is of key importance in food choice and dietary patterns, but studies on taste profiles are limited. We previously assessed dietary taste patterns by 24 h recalls (24hR), but for epidemiological studies food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) may also be suitable. This study compared dietary taste patterns based on FFQ against 24hR and biomarkers of exposure. Subjects/methods: A taste database including 467 foods’ sweet, sour, bitter, salt, umami and fat sensation values was combined with food intake data to assess dietary taste patterns: the contribution to energy intake of 6 taste clusters. The FFQ’s reliability was assessed against 3-d 24hR and urinary biomarkers for sodium (Na) and protein intake (N) in Dutch men (n = 449) and women (n = 397) from the NQplus validation study (mean age 53 ± 11 y, BMI 26 ± 4 kg/m2). Results: Correlations of dietary taste patterns ranged from 0.39–0.68 between FFQ and 24hR (p < 0.05). Urinary Na levels, but not N levels, were positively associated with % energy intake from ‘salt, umami & fat’ tasting foods (Na; FFQ, r = 0.24, 24hR, r = 0.23, p < 0.001, N; FFQ, r = 0.08, p = 0.1394, 24hR, r = 0.05, p = 0.3427). Conclusions: The FFQ’s reliability against 24hR was acceptable to good for ranking of adults’ dietary taste patterns. Associations between dietary taste patterns and urinary Na and N were similar for FFQ and 24hR. These findings suggests that both FFQ and 24hR can be used in combination with our taste database, to investigate potential relationships between dietary taste patterns and subgroups at risk of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease.
Mobile Technology to Enable Tailor-Made Fertilizer Advice for Maize Smallholders in Western Kenya
Jindo, Keiji ; Schut, A.G.T. ; Langeveld, Hans ; Linders, René ; Hermelink, Marleen ; Munikah, Lydia ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
In: ESA2018 XVe European Society for Agronomy Congress. - - p. 86 - 86.
Important lessons from new tailor-made services for smallholder farmers
Schut, A.G.T. ; Jindo, Keiji ; Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Rijerse, M. ; Munika, L. ; Matyoko, P. - \ 2018
In: Symposium Proceedings 13th European International Farming Systems Association (IFSA) Symposium. - IFSA - 13 p.
Mobile phone technology enables farmers to share information and receive tailor-made advice on farming practices. The objective of this work is to evaluate farmer perspectives on tailor-made services for improved on-farm nutrient application on smallholder farms in Western Kenya and Northern Tanzania. The service included agronomic advice and delivery of blended NPK fertilizer and hybrid maize seeds on credit. Advice on NPK fertilizer was based on best available geo-information in combination with a field quality assessment of the farmer. Pre- and post-season interviews were held with farmers in 46 villages in Northern Tanzania and Western Kenya. Soil samples were analysed and grain yields were measured in demarked plots. Impacts of the service on food self-sufficiency were evaluated by comparisons with a group of control farmers without tailored and farmers who received the service. Application of blended fertilizers increased grain weights when compared to plots without fertilizer. There were, however, no significant differences between farmers receiving tailored services and the to control group who often used fertilizers from other sources. We conclude that the technology might help to improve farm productivity, but only when combined with a complete agronomic package including pest control, local demonstrations and support of local agents or extension officers in environments where farmers have been exposed to hybrid seed and fertilizer.
'De opleiding organic agriculture is springlevend' : Aan Wageningen Universiteit neemt biologische landbouw een volwaardige plek in
Langeveld, C.A. - \ 2018
Ekoland (2018)4. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 20 - 21.
Gezond eten is minder smaakvol
Langeveld, Astrid van - \ 2018
Valorizing nutrients from palm oil mill effluent (Pome) digestate
Voogt, Juliën ; Elbersen, Wolter ; Meesters, Koen ; Blankenborg, Stefan ; Langeveld, Hans ; Quist-Wessel, Foluke - \ 2018
In: 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings. - Florence : ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - ISBN 9788889407189 - p. 72 - 76.
Circular economy - Digestate - Economics - Palm oil - Recycling - Technology

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is considered a problematic waste, causing pollution problems: greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution with organic material, and nutrient pollution. POME is well suited for treatment in digestion tanks, generating methane for energy production. A technology screening showed membrane technology as the most promising technology for further processing of POME digestate into a mineral concentrate and high quality water. However, a techno-economic evaluation showed that the estimated costs related to further processing of POME digestate are currently higher than the potential savings. Options for cost reduction of the membrane technology and of the handling of the mineral concentrate should be explored. In an optimistic scenario the potential savings exceed the costs. If the concept is further developed, processing of POME digestate can contribute to the economic viability of digestion systems and to reducing the environmental impact of palm oil mills.

Matters of taste : Dietary taste patterns in the Netherlands
Langeveld, Astrid W.B. van - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K. de Graaf, co-promotor(en): M. Mars; J.H.M. de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432979 - 230
Dietary taste patterns by sex and weight status in the Netherlands
Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Teo, P.S. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. - \ 2018
The British journal of nutrition 119 (2018)10. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1195 - 1206.
Taste is a key driver of food choice and intake. Taste preferences are widely studied, unlike the diet’s taste profile. This study assessed dietary taste patterns in the Netherlands by sex, BMI, age and education. A taste database, containing 476 foods’ taste values, was combined with 2-d 24-h recalls in two study populations. The percentage of energy intake from six taste clusters was assessed in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS 2007–2010; n 1351) and in an independent observational study: the Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study (2011–2013; n 944). Dietary taste patterns were similar across study populations. Men consumed relatively more energy from ‘salt, umami and fat’ (DNFCS; 24 % energy, NQplus study; 23 %)- and ‘bitter’ (7 %)-tasting foods compared with women (21 %, P<0·001, 22 %, P=0·005; 3 %, P<0·001, 4 %, P<0·001, respectively). Women consumed more % energy from ‘sweet and fat’ (15 %)- and ‘sweet and sour’ (13 %, 12 %, respectively)-tasting foods compared with men (12 %, P<0·001, 13 %, P=0·001; 10 %, P<0·001). Obese individuals consumed more % energy from ‘salt, umami and fat’- and less from ‘sweet and fat’-tasting foods than normal-weight individuals (‘salt, umami and fat’, men; obese both studies 26 %, normal-weight DNFCS 23 %, P=0·037, NQplus 22 %, P=0·001, women; obese 23 %, 24 %, normal weight 20 %, P=0·004, P=0·011, respectively, ‘sweet and fat’, men; obese 11 %, 10 %, normal weight 13 %, P<0·05, 14 %, P<0·01, women; obese 14 %, 15 %, normal weight 16 %, P=0·12, P=0·99). In conclusion, our taste database can be used to deepen our understanding of the role of taste in dietary intake in the Netherlands by sex, BMI, age and education.
Similar taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed Dutch and Malaysian foods
Teo, Pey Sze ; Langeveld, Astrid W.B. van; Pol, Korrie ; Siebelink, Els ; Graaf, Cees de; Yan, See Wan ; Mars, Monica - \ 2018
Appetite 125 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 32 - 41.
Commonly consumed - Cross-cultural - Foods - Nutrient content - Taste intensity
Three recent studies showed that taste intensity signals nutrient content. However, current data reflects only the food patterns in Western societies. No study has yet been performed in Asian culture. The Malaysian cuisine represents a mixture of Malay, Chinese and Indian foods. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste intensity and nutrient content in commonly consumed Dutch (NL) and Malaysian (MY) foods. Perceived intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation were assessed for 469 Dutch and 423 Malaysian commonly consumed foods representing about 83% and 88% of an individual's average daily energy intake in each respective country. We used a trained Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) with quantitative sensory Spectrum™ 100-point rating scales and reference solutions, R1 (13-point), R2 (33-point) and R3 (67-point). Dutch and Malaysian foods had relatively low mean sourness and bitterness (
Training of a Dutch and Malaysian sensory panel to assess intensities of basic tastes and fat sensation of commonly consumed foods
Teo, Pey Sze ; Langeveld, Astrid W.B. van; Pol, Korrie ; Siebelink, Els ; Graaf, Cees de; Martin, Christophe ; Issanchou, Sylvie ; Yan, See Wan ; Mars, Monica - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 49 - 59.
Cross-cultural - Panel performance - Spectrum - Taste profiling - Trained panel
Taste has a nutrient sensing function and guides food choices. Therefore, investigating taste profiles of dietary patterns - within and across cultures - is highly relevant for nutritional research. However, this demands for accurately described food-taste databases, which are supported with data on the reliability and performance of the sensory panel that determined the taste values.This study aimed to assess the performance of a trained Dutch and Malaysian sensory panel. More importantly, we assessed whether the standardized training procedure in the two countries yielded similar taste profiles with respect to 15 basic taste solutions, and 19 foods differing in tastes.A Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) were trained for 56-63 h, using basic taste solutions and reference foods on 6 scales, i.e. sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation. Performance of both panels was described by discrimination, repeatability (RMSE), and agreement. Nineteen products with different sensory characteristics were profiled in the Netherlands and Malaysia; subsequently the obtained taste profiles were compared.Both panels were able to discriminate between solutions and products (all p < .001). A vast majority of the taste values could be reproduced; the RMSEs of the different taste values varied between 2.3 and 13.3%. Panel agreement was achieved after the training with solutions; however not for all attributes of the reference foods. Some taste values of the 19 foods were significantly different, however most of these differences were small (<10. points).Our descriptive training procedure yielded two panels from different cultures that were similar in panel performance. More importantly, they obtained similar taste profiles for 19 different foods. This implies that food-taste databases obtained with valid and standardized training procedures may be used to quantify the sensory profiles of dietary patterns of populations.
Low fraction of the 222K PrP variant in the protease-resistant moiety of PrPres in heterozygous scrapie positive goats
Mazza, M. ; Guglielmetti, Chiara ; Ingravalle, Francesco ; Brusadore, Sonia ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Casalone, C. ; Acutis, P.L. - \ 2017
Journal of General Virology 98 (2017)7. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1963 - 1967.
The presence of lysine (K) at codon 222 has been associated with resistance to classical scrapie in goats, but few scrapie cases have been identified in 222Q/K animals. To investigate the contribution of the 222K variant to PrPres formation in natural and experimental Q/K scrapie cases, we applied an immunoblotting method based on the use of two different monoclonal antibodies, F99/97.6.1 and SAF84, chosen for their different affinities to 222K and 222Q PrP variants. Our finding that PrPres seems to be formed nearly totally by the 222Q variant provides evidence that the 222K PrP variant confers resistance to conversion to PrPres formation and reinforces the view that this mutation has a protective role against classical scrapie in goats.
Research Overview, Gaps, and Recommendations
Panoutsou, Calliope ; Langeveld, Hans ; Fritsche, Uwe R. ; Elbersen, Berien ; Dzene, Ilze ; Janssen, Rainer ; Kerckow, Birger ; Stojiljkovic, Dragoslava D. ; Gvero, Petar M. - \ 2017
In: Modeling and Optimization of Biomass Supply Chains Elsevier - ISBN 9780128123034 - p. 253 - 269.
Assessments - Biomass supply - Future research - Modeling tools

Modeling biomass supply and logistics has been included both directly and indirectly in European research and several initiatives have taken place through the last 15 years. Research has evolved from narrow assessments covering single or a few feedstock types and specific regions to harmonized approaches with consistent algorithms applied across Europe at different regional and temporal scales.The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of research work in the area, identify gaps in research knowledge, and provide recommendations for future to research in the field of modeling biomass supply and logistics.

Genetic resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in goats
Ricci, A. ; Allende, A. ; Bolton, A. ; Chemaly, Marianne ; Davies, R. ; Fernandez Escamez, Pablo Salvador ; Girones, R. ; Herman, L. ; Koutsoumanis, K. ; Lindqvist, R. ; Norrung, Birgit ; Robertson, L.W. ; Ru, G. ; Sanaa, M. ; Skandamis, P.N. ; Speybroeck, Niko ; Simmons, Marion ; Kuile, Benno Ter; Threlfall, John ; Wahlstrom, H. ; Acutis, P.L. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Goldmann, Wilfred ; Langeveld, J. ; Windig, J.J. ; Palaez, A.O. ; Snary, E. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)8. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 8 p.
Biomass Supply Assessments in Europe: Research Context and Methodologies
Panoutsou, C. ; Bauen, A. ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Dees, M. ; Stojadinovic, D. ; Glavonjic, B. ; Zheliezna, T. ; Wenzelides, L. ; Langeveld, Hans - \ 2017
In: Modelling and Optimisation of Biomass Supply Chains / Panoutsou, C., Academic Press - ISBN 9780128123034 - p. 1 - 24.
Since early 2000, several biomass assessment studies were delivered at European and global level mostly driven by the increasing demand for the development of bioenergy and biofuels, and the need to secure sustainable, continuous supply for the emerging plants. Ongoing research and development and industrial development plus increased drivers to use renewable raw materials in industrial sectors beyond energy have seen the focus of the biomass markets widen to include value chains for bio-based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other materials. Consequently, research is now exploring increasingly varied configurations of value chains with the aims of understanding which types and quantifying how much biomass can be extracted sustainably, generate financial returns, and help the industry achieving high-quality products for consumers.
This chapter sets the scene for research on biomass supply assessments in Europe and reviews 40 studies delivered during the last 14 years. It analyzes context, key components in terms of terminology, framework conditions and assumptions, models used, and evidence provided so far for policy, research, and industry. It further discusses the main challenges, identifies gaps, and provides recommendations.
Protecting effect of PrP codons M142 and K222 in goats orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions
Fast, C. ; Goldmann, W. ; Berthon, P. ; Tauscher, Kerstin ; Andréoletti, O. ; Lantier, I. ; Rossignol, C. ; Bossers, A. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Hunter, N. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Lantier, F. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2017
Veterinary Research 48 (2017)1. - ISSN 0928-4249
Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and experimental studies have provided evidence for several amino acid polymorphisms that are associated with resistance to scrapie, but only limited data are available concerning the susceptibility of caprine PRNP genotypes to BSE. In this study, goat kids representing five PRNP genotypes based on three polymorphisms (M142, Q211 and K222 and the wild type I142, R211 and Q222) were orally challenged with bovine or goat BSE. Wild type goats were killed with clinical signs between 24-28 months post inoculation (mpi) to both challenges, and goats with genotype R/Q211 succumbed between 29-36 mpi. I/M142 goats developed clinical signs at 44-45 mpi and M/M142 goats remained healthy until euthanasia at 48 mpi. None of the Q/K222 goats showed definite clinical signs. Taken together the highest attack ratios were seen in wild type and R/Q211 goats, and the lowest in I/M142, M/M142 and Q/K222. In all genotype groups, one or more goats remained healthy within the incubation period in both challenges and without detectable PrP deposition in the tissues. Our data show that both the K222 and M142 polymorphisms lengthen the incubation period significantly compared to wild type animals, but only K222 was associated with a significant increase in resistance to BSE infection after oral exposure to both BSE sources.
Variation in the prion protein in Dutch goats for selective breeding to eradicate Scrapie
Windig, Jack ; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2017
Genetic management without pedigree: effectiveness of a breeding circle in a rare sheep breed
Windig, Jack ; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2017
EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats
Meloni, Daniela ; Bozzetta, Elena ; Langeveld, Jan P.M. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Goldmann, Wilfred ; Andrèoletti, Olivier ; Lantier, Isabelle ; Keulen, Lucien Van; Bossers, Alex ; Pitardi, Danilo ; Nonno, Romolo ; Sklaviadis, Theodoros ; Ingravalle, Francesco ; Peletto, Simone ; Colussi, Silvia ; Acutis, Pier Luigi - \ 2017
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29 (2017)2. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 232 - 236.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy - diagnosis - EU - goats - rapid tests - scrapie - sensitivity - surveillance
We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity, with the IDEXX test significantly more sensitive than the 2 Bio-Rad tests. All tests detected 100% of samples from goats with clinical scrapie, but missed 8% (IDEXX) to 33% (Bio-Rad SG) of samples from preclinical goats. Importantly, only IDEXX picked up all samples from clinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected goats, whereas the other 2 rapid tests missed 15% (Bio-Rad SG) to 25% (Bio-Rad SAP). These results show that a fraction of preclinical scrapie infections are likely missed by EU surveillance, with sensitivity of detection strongly dependent on the choice of the rapid test. Moreover, a significant proportion of clinical BSE infections are underestimated by using either Bio-Rad test. Assuming that the same sensitivity on preclinical goats would also occur in BSE-infected goats, our data suggest that IDEXX is likely the most sensitive test for detecting preclinical field cases of BSE infection in goats, although with an 8% failure rate. These results raise some concerns about the reliability of current EU surveillance figures on BSE infection in goats.
The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States
Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Gibbons, Shannon ; Koelliker, Yvonne ; Civille, Gail V. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 57 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this relationship (liquid, semi-solid or solid), in a range of commercially available foods from the United States. Basic taste intensities (sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness) of 237 processed foods were obtained by an expert sensory panel using the Spectrum™ method. Sweet taste intensity was associated with mono- and disaccharides (r = 0.70, p < 0.001), but not energy content (r = 0.11, p > 0.05). Salt taste intensity was associated with sodium (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and protein (r = 0.39, p < 0.001), and fat (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and energy content (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). Contrary to expectations, associations between taste and nutrient content were not stronger in liquids than in (semi-)solids. Cluster analysis on taste revealed 3 food groups: a sweet, salty and neutral tasting food group. Saltiness was associated with sodium content in salty foods (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) but not in sweet foods (r = 0.30, p > 0.05). Sweetness was associated with mono- and disaccharides in sweet foods (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and in salty foods (r = 0.33, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that sweet and salt taste intensity can signal the presence of nutrients, in particular mono- and disaccharides and sodium. However, the relationship between taste and nutrients may be weaker in complex foods with competing tastes. The effect of food form on this relationship is more difficult to demonstrate in real-life foods.
Genetic, histochemical and biochemical studies on goat TSE cases from Cyprus
Niedermeyer, Susanne ; Eiden, Martin ; Toumazos, Pavlos ; Langeveld, Jan ; Bossers, Alex - \ 2016
Veterinary Research 47 (2016). - ISSN 0928-4249 - 14 p.

Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE's. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. In total 42 goats from 20 flocks were necropsied from which 25 goats showed a positive result in the rapid test, a spongiform encephalopathy and an accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in the obex. PrPSc deposits were demonstrated in the placenta, peripheral nervous and lymphoreticular system. Two animals showed PrPSc-accumulations in peripheral tissues only. By discriminatory immunoblots a scrapie infection could be confirmed for all cases. Nevertheless, slight deviations in the glycosylation pattern might indicate the presence of different scrapie strains. Furthermore scrapie samples from goats in the current study demonstrated less long term resistance to proteinase K than ovine or caprine BSE control samples. Reduced scrapie susceptibility according to the PRNP genotype was demonstrated (Fishers Exact test, p <0.05) for the goats with at least one polymorphism (p = 0.023) at the six codons examined and in particular for those with polymorphisms at codon 146 (p = 0.016). This work characterizes scrapie in goats having implications for breeding and surveillance strategies.

Scrapie incidence and PRNP polymorphisms : Rare small ruminant breeds of Sicily with TSE protecting genetic reservoirs
Vitale, Maria ; Migliore, Sergio ; Giglia, Maria La; Alberti, Placido ; Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo Di; Langeveld, Jan P.M. - \ 2016
BMC Veterinary Research 12 (2016)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
Autochthonous breeds - Breeding programs - PRNP polymorphism - Scrapie surveillance - TSE

Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of several mammalian species, including humans. In Italy, the active surveillance through rapid tests on brain stem from small ruminants started in 2002 on randomly selected samples of healthy slaughtered animals. Sampling number was proportionally related to the regional small ruminant population. Of the twenty Italian regions, Sicily has the second largest population of small ruminants which is mainly constituted by crossbreed animals (>70 %). Sicily contains also three native sheep breeds Pinzirita, Comisana and Valle del Belice. Native goat breeds are Girgentana, Messinese, Argentata dell'Etna, Maltese and Rossa Mediterranea. The polymorphisms of prion protein gene (PRNP) may influence disease susceptibility and breeding programs for genetic TSE resistance are being applied in sheep. Protective alleles have been recently reported for goats also. These differ from those in sheep and may allow breeding programs in the near future. In this paper the data of active surveillance for scrapie control in general population of small ruminants in Sicily are reported together with the analysis on the polymorphism of PRNP in a number of Sicilian autochthonous breeds. The evaluation of the frequency of protective alleles is fundamental for the implementation of a TSE resistance breeding program. Results: TSE surveillance in small ruminants in Sicily showed a of total fifty seven scrapie outbreaks from 1997 to 2014 involving mainly crossbreed animals. The PRNP polymorphism analysis in autochthonous breeds showed protective allele frequencies of 30-40 % ARR in sheep and 12-18 % K222 in three of the four goat breeds; these breeds are distributed over limited areas of the island. Conclusion: The study on PRNP polymorphisms in Sicilian small ruminant population showed higher frequency of the protective alleles compared to most other European breeds. Our results suggest that PRNP genetic variety in Sicilian sheep and goats can be a resource for TSE resistance breeding programmes while maintaining the conservation of endangered breeds and valorisation of their typical food products.

Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds
Windig, J.J. ; Hoving, R.A.H. ; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 133 (2016)5. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 366 - 374.
Goat - Haplotype frequency - Scrapie

Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142/S240 and M142/P240. Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds.

Prion type-dependent deposition of PRNP allelic products in heterozygous sheep
Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Hunter, N. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Lantier, F. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Bossers, A. - \ 2016
Journal of Virology 90 (2016)2. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 805 - 812.

Susceptibility or resistance to prion infection in humans and animals depends on single prion protein (PrP) amino acid substitutions in the host, but the agent's modulating role has not been well investigated. Compared to disease incubation times in wild-type homozygous ARQ/ARQ (where each triplet represents the amino acids at codons 136, 154, and 171, respectively) sheep, scrapie susceptibility is reduced to near resistance in ARR/ARR animals while it is strongly enhanced in VRQ/VRQ carriers. Heterozygous ARR/VRQ animals exhibit delayed incubation periods. In bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection, the polymorphism effect is quite different although the ARR allotype remains the least susceptible. In this study, PrP allotype composition in protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) from brain of heterozygous ARR/ VRQ scrapie-infected sheep was compared with that of BSE-infected sheep with a similar genotype. A triplex Western blotting technique was used to estimate the two allotype PrP fractions in PrPres material from BSE-infected ARR/VRQ sheep. PrPres in BSE contained equimolar amounts of VRQ- and ARR-PrP, which contrasts with the excess (>95%) VRQPrP fraction found in PrP in scrapie. This is evidence that transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent properties alone, perhaps structural aspects of prions (such as PrP amino acid sequence variants and PrP conformational state), determine the polymorphic dependence of the PrPres accumulation process in prion formation as well as the disease-associated phenotypic expressions in the host.

Immunolabelling of non-phosphorylated neurofilament indicates damage of spinal cord axons in TSE-infected goats
Nadeem, M. ; Spitzbarth, I. ; Haist, V. ; Rohn, K. ; Tauscher, K. ; Rohn, K. ; Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J. ; Papasavva-Stylianou, P. ; Groschup, M.H. ; Baumgärtner, W. ; Gerhauser, I. ; Fast, C. - \ 2016
Veterinary Record 178 (2016)6. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 141 - 141.
Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds
Goldmann, W. ; Stewart, P. ; Marier, E. ; Konold, T. ; Street, S. ; Windl, O. ; Ortiz-Pelaez, A. ; Langeveld, J. - \ 2016
Veterinary Record 178 (2016)7. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 168 - 168.

Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level.

Cost-effective and integrated optimization of the Eindhoven urban wastewater system: From modelling to implementation
Benedetti, Lorenzo ; Langeveld, Jeroen ; Amerlinck, Youri ; Jonge, Jarno de; Klein, Jeroen de; Flameling, Tony ; Nopens, Ingmar ; Zanten, Oscar van; Weijers, Stefan - \ 2015
In: 88th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2015. - Water Environment Federation - ISBN 9781510870468 - p. 344 - 347.
Cost-effective systems upgrade - Impact based real-time control - Integrated urban wastewater system modelling - Optimization

This project aims at finding cost-efficient adaptive measures to meet the EU Water Framework Directive goals for the Dommel River (The Netherlands). Both acute and long-term impacts of the urban wastewater system (treatment plant and sewers) on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied. An integrated model, which proved to be a powerful tool to analyse the interactions within the integrated urban wastewater system, was used to evaluate several different measures in the urban wastewater system both using the existing as well as new infrastructure and real-time control (RTC) strategies. In this paper, emphasis is put on the results from the latest integrated RTC design and model-based evaluation, and on the first tests on the real system of selected measures, i.e. modified primary treatment, and improved rain buffer tank control and in-stream aeration.

Fokken en scrapie resistentie in Nederlandse geiten
Windig, J.J. ; Hoving, A.H. ; Priem, J. ; Keulen, L. van; Langeveld, J. - \ 2015
Behoud TSE-ongevoelige geiten (TSE=overdraagbare sponsvormige hersenaandoening zoals scrapie, atypische scrapie, of BSE)
Windig, J.J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2015
Zeldzaam huisdier 2015 (2015). - ISSN 0929-905X
Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP polymorphic variants in the susceptibility of goats to oral infections with Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia ; Fast, C. ; Tauscher, Kerstin ; Espinosa, J.C. ; Groschup, M.H. ; Muhammad, Nadeem ; Goldmann, W. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. ; Andreoletti, O. - \ 2015
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 212 (2015)4. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 664 - 672.
Background. The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear.

Methods. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP genotypes were orally inoculated with a goat-BSE isolate to assess their relative susceptibility to BSE infection. Goats were killed at different time points during the incubation period and after the onset of clinical signs, and their brains as well as several peripheral tissues were analyzed for the accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrPSc) and prion infectivity by mouse bioassay.

Results. R/Q211 goats displayed delayed clinical signs compared with wild-type goats. Deposits of PrPSc were detected only in brain, whereas infectivity was present in peripheral tissues too. In contrast, none of the Q/K222 goats showed any evidence of clinical prion disease. No PrPSc accumulation was observed in their brains or peripheral tissues, but very low infectivity was detected in some tissues very long after inoculation (44–45 months).

Conclusions. These results demonstrate that transmission of goat BSE is genotype dependent, and they highlight the pivotal protective effect of the K222 PRNP variant in the oral susceptibility of goats to BSE.
Goat scrapie resistance: Monitoring, genotyping and breeding
Hoving, A.H. ; Windig, J.J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2015
Climate Change in Southern Africa: Farmers’ Perceptions and Responses
Kuivanen, K. ; Alvarez, S. ; Langeveld, C.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 46 p.
climatic change - farmers - attitudes - knowledge systems - adaptation - rural communities - southern africa - klimaatverandering - boeren - kennissystemen - adaptatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - zuidelijk afrika
Southern Africa is characterized by natural climate variability onto which human-induced climate change is being superimposed. Rural communities that depend heavily on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate-related change. This report takes stock of existing perceptions of- and responses to climate change among smallholder farmers in the region, in the hope of contributing to a better understanding of the complexities of local knowledge- and adaptation systems.
Vaak scrapieresistentie bij Nederlandse Toggenburgers
Hoving-Bolink, A.H. ; Windig, J.J. ; Koekoek, A. ; Hoekstra, H. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. ; Langeveld, J. - \ 2015
Zeldzaam huisdier 40 (2015)1. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 20 - 21.
rassen (dieren) - geitenrassen - zeldzame rassen - genetische variatie - scrapie - ziekteresistentie - nederlandse toggenburgergeit - geitenziekten - dierveredeling - toegepast onderzoek - breeds - goat breeds - rare breeds - genetic variation - disease resistance - dutch toggenburg - goat diseases - animal breeding - applied research
Zeldzame Nederlandse rassen zijn niet alleen onderdeel van ons cultureel erfgoed, maar hebben soms ook een verrassende genetische variant. Zo is sinds een paar jaar bekend dat er een allel bestaat dat bescherming biedt tegen scrapie. In onderzoek van Wageningen UR met de geitensector blijkt dat het relatief kleine ras de Nederlandse Toggenburger veel dieren kent met het scrapieresistentie allel.
TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrPSc profiles and triplex Western blot
Keulen, L.J.M. van; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Dolstra, C.H. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Bossers, A. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van - \ 2015
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 41 (2015)6. - ISSN 1365-2990 - p. 756 - 779.
TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of mice infected with the same TSE strain and to variation between observers and laboratories in scoring vacuolation and determining the final incubation period. Aim: We investigated the potential of PrPSc immunohistochemistry and triplex Western blotting as possible alternative methods to differentiate between TSE strains. Methods: TSE reference strains ME7, 87A/87V, 22A/22C, 79A/79V and 301C/301V were intracerebrally inoculated in RIII or VM inbred mice that differ in their PrP genotype. Immunohistochemical PrPSc profiles were drawn up by scanning light microscopy both on coronal and sagittal sections. Results: On the basis of the localization of PrPSc in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex and the overall type of PrPSc staining, all TSE strains could be well differentiated from each other through their typical strain dependent characteristics. In addition, Western blot showed that the combination of glycosylation profile and 12B2 epitope content of PrPSc allowed to distinguish between all reference strains except for ME7 and 22A in VM mice. Conclusion: TSE strains in mice can be identified on the basis of their PrPSc profile alone. The potential to identify TSE strains in ruminants with these PrPSc profiles after a single primary passage in mice will be the topic of future studies.
Sheep prions with molecular properties intermediate between classical scrapie, BSE and CH1641-scrapie
Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Erkens, J.H.F. ; Baron, T. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Yokoyama, T. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Davidse, A. ; Hope, J. ; Tang, Y. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2014
Prion 8 (2014)4. - ISSN 1933-6896 - p. 296 - 305.
Efforts to differentiate bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from scrapie in prion infected sheep have resulted
in effective methods to decide about the absence of BSE. In rare instances uncertainties remain due to assumptions
that BSE, classical scrapie and CH1641–a rare scrapie variant–could occur as mixtures. In field samples including those
from fallen stock, triplex Western blotting analyses of variations in the molecular properties of the proteinase K resistant
part of the disease‑associated form of prion protein (PrPres) represents a powerful tool for quick discrimination
purposes. In this study we examined 7 deviant ovine field cases of scrapie for some typical molecular aspects of PrPres
found in CH1641‑scrapie, classical scrapie and BSE. One case was most close to scrapie with respect to molecular mass
of its non-glycosylated fraction and N-terminally located 12B2‑epitope content. Two cases were unlike classical scrapie
but too weak to differentiate between BSE or CH1641. The other 4 cases appeared intermediate between scrapie and
CH1641 with a reduced molecular mass and 12B2‑epitope content, together with the characteristic presence of a
second PrPres population. The existence of these 2 PrPres populations was further confirmed through deglycosylation by
PNGaseF. The findings indicate that discriminatory diagnosis between classical scrapie, CH1641 and BSE can remain
inconclusive with current biochemical methods. Whether such intermediate cases represent mixtures of TSE strains
should be further investigated e.g. in bioassays with rodent lines that are varying in their susceptibility or other
techniques suitable for strain typing.
Analyzing the effect of biofuel expansion on land use in major producing countries: evidence of increased multiple cropping
Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Dixon, J. ; Keulen, H. van; Quist-Wessel, P.M.F. - \ 2014
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 8 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 49 - 58.
Estimates on impacts of biofuel production often use models with limited ability to incorporate changes in land use, notably cropping intensity. This review studies biofuel expansion between 2000 and 2010 in Brazil, the USA, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Mozambique, South Africa plus 27 EU member states. In 2010, these countries produced 86 billion litres of ethanol and 15 billion litres of biodiesel. Land use increased by 25 Mha, of which 11 Mha is associated with co-products, i.e. by-products of biofuel production processes used as animal feed. In the decade up to 2010, agricultural land decreased by 9 Mha overall. It expanded by 22 Mha in Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Mozambique, some 31 Mha was lost in the USA, the EU, and South Africa due to urbanization, expansion of infrastructure, conversion into nature, and land abandonment. Increases in cropping intensity accounted for 42 Mha of additional harvested area. Together with increased co-product availability for animal feed, this was sufficient to increase the net harvested area (NHA, crop area harvested for food, feed, and fiber markets) in the study countries by 19 Mha. Thus, despite substantial expansion of biofuel production, more land has become available for non-fuel applications. Biofuel crop areas and NHA increased in most countries including the USA and Brazil. It is concluded that biofuel expansion in 2000-2010 is not associated with a decline in the NHA available for food crop production. The increases in multiple cropping have often been overlooked and should be considered more fully in calculations of (indirect) land-use change (iLUC). (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Evaluation of two commercial, rapid, ELISA kits testing or scrapie in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes in sheep
Kittelberger, R. ; McIntuyre, L. ; Watts, S. ; MacDiarmid, S. ; Hannah, M.J. ; Jenner, J. ; Bueno, R. ; Swainsbury, R. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Wemheuer, W.M. ; Richt, J.A. ; Sorenson, S.J. ; Pigott, C.J. ; O'Keefe, J.S. - \ 2014
New Zealand Veterinary Journal 62 (2014)6. - ISSN 0048-0169 - p. 343 - 350.
natural scrapie - prion protein - immunohistochemical detection - new-zealand - prp - accumulation - diagnosis - genotypes - tissues - brain
AIMS: To estimate the number of cases of scrapie that would occur in sheep of different prion protein (PrP) genotypes if scrapie was to become established in New Zealand, and to compare the performance of two commercially available, rapid ELISA kits using ovine retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) from non-infected and infected sheep of different PrP genotypes. METHODS: Using published data on the distribution of PrP genotypes within the New Zealand sheep flock and the prevalence of cases of scrapie in these genotypes in the United Kingdom, the annual expected number of cases of scrapie per genotype was estimated, should scrapie become established in New Zealand, assuming a total population of 28 million sheep. A non-infected panel of RLN was collected from 737 sheep from New Zealand that had been culled, found in extremis or died. Brain stem samples were also collected from 131 of these sheep. A second panel of infected samples comprised 218 and 117 RLN from confirmed scrapie cases that had originated in Europe and the United States of America, respectively. All samples were screened using two commercial, rapid, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy ELISA kits: Bio-Rad TeSeE ELISA (ELISA-BR), and IDEXX HerdChek BSE-Scrapie AG Test (ELISA-ID). RESULTS: If scrapie became established in New Zealand, an estimated 596 cases would occur per year; of these 234 (39%) and 271 (46%) would be in sheep carrying ARQ/ARQ and ARQ/VRQ PrP genotypes, respectively. For the non-infected samples from New Zealand the diagnostic specificity of both ELISA kits was 100%. When considering all infected samples, the diagnostic sensitivity was 70.4 (95% CI=65.3-75.3)% for ELISA-BR and 91.6 (95% CI=88.2-94.4)% for ELISA-ID. For the ARQ/ARQ genotype (n=195), sensitivity was 66.2% for ELISA-BR and 90.8% for ELISA-ID, and for the ARQ/VRQ genotype (n=107), sensitivity was 81.3% for ELISA-BR and 98.1% for ELISA-ID. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the ELISA-ID kit demonstrated a higher diagnostic sensitivity for detecting scrapie in samples of RLN from sheep carrying scrapie-susceptible PrP genotypes than the ELISA-BR kit at comparable diagnostic specificity.
A framework with an integrated computer support tool to assess regional biomass delivery chains
Elbersen, B.S. ; Annevelink, E. ; Roos Klein-Lankhorst, J. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Elbersen, H.W. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 967 - 980.
netherlands - scenarios
In this paper, we first provide a brief overview of other decision support tools for bioenergy and assess to which extent the integrated tool central in this paper is different and novel. Next, a description is given of the tool, the different models used and the functionalities. The working of the tool is then illustrated with three case studies based in the northern part of The Netherlands. The computerised tool is meant to support the communication process between stakeholders to come to the implementation of regional biomass delivery chains. It helps to create a quick and common understanding of optimal biomass use in a region. Although the tool has been applied only to bioenergy chains, other biochemical and biomaterial chains are also suitable to be incorporated. The three case studies presented include a conventional sugar beet bioethanol production chain, an advanced Miscanthus bioethanol conversion chain and a straw-based electricity chain. The main conclusions are that optimal biomass use for nonfood purposes from a sustainability and resource-efficient perspective depend on many different factors specific to the conversion chains. For example, the green house gas (GHG) emission and mitigation potential of a sugar beetbased bioethanol chain requires careful organisation particularly on the primary biomass production and transport, while in a straw-based electricity chain, the largest efficiency gains can be reached in the conversion part. Land use change (LUC) to sugar beet generally causes more negative environmental impacts than LUC to Miscanthus. This applies to both GHG efficiency, soil organic carbon content and emissions of nitrogen to surface waters. At the same time, it becomes clear that the different scenario assumptions can be very influential, particularly on the final economic performance of a chain. Overall, it is clear from the cases that the users understand much better under which circumstances and through which mechanisms the designed chains can become profitable and can become more environmentally sustainable.
Biofuel production in southern Africa
Quist-Wessel, P.M.F. ; Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Berg, M. van der; Leonardo, W.J. - \ 2014
In: Biofuel Cropping Systems - Carbon, land and food / Langeveld, J.W.A., Dixon, J., van Keulen, H., Earthscan - ISBN 9780415539531 - p. 174 - 194.
Evaluation of the Effect of Agricultural Management on Energy Yield and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction of Bioenergy Production Chains
Conijn, S. ; Corre, W.J. ; Langeveld, H. ; Davies, J.A.R. - \ 2014
Natural Resources 5 (2014). - ISSN 2158-7086 - p. 322 - 335.
The role of energy crops in reducing fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is much debated. To improve decision making on the use of crops for producing bioenergy, a tool (Energy Crop Simulation Model or E-CROP) has been developed to calculate 1) sustainable crop dry matter yield levels as function of agricultural inputs, and 2) gross and net energy yield and greenhouse gas emission reduction, covering the entire bioenergy production chain from sowing to distribution of bioenergy. E-CROP can be applied to a wide range of crops, soils, climatic conditions, management choices, and conversion technologies. This paper describes E-CROP and focuses on its application on four arable crops, as cultivated on two contrasting sites in the Netherlands (potato and sugar beet for bioethanol, winter oilseed rape for biodiesel and silage maize for bioelectricity) and on the effect of crop management (viz. irrigation and nitrogen fertilisation). In all situations, gross energy output exceeded total energy input. Calculated for an average situation, net energy yield ranged from 45 to 140 GJ·ha-1. Lowering irrigation and/or fertilisation input levels generally resulted in a reduction of net energy yields. The net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the average situation ranged from 0.60 to 6.5 t CO2-eq·ha-1. In general, N2O emission from nitrogen fertiliser caused large variations in the net reduction of greenhouse gas emission, which even became negative in some situations. Lowering nitrogen fertilisation to levels that are suboptimal for net energy yields enhanced the net reduction in greenhouse gas emission, implicating that both goals cannot be optimised simultaneously. Agricultural knowledge is important for optimising the outputs of bioenergy production chains.
Prion disease tempo determined by host-dependent substrate reduction
Mays, C.E. ; Kim, C. ; Haldiman, T. ; Merwe, J. v.d.; Lau, A. ; Yang, J. ; Grams, J. ; Bari, M.A. Di; Nonno, R. ; Telling, G.C. ; Kong, Q. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; McKenzie, D. ; Westaway, D. ; Safar, J.G. - \ 2014
The Journal of Clinical Investigation 124 (2014)2. - ISSN 0021-9738 - p. 847 - 858.
chronic wasting disease - transgenic mice - cyclic amplification - cultured-cells - sheep scrapie - prpsc levels - protein - propagation - immunoassay - strains
The symptoms of prion infection can take years or decades to manifest following the initial exposure. Molecular markers of prion disease include accumulation of the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc), which is derived from its cellular precursor (PrPC), as well as downregulation of the PrP-like Shadoo (Sho) glycoprotein. Given the overlapping cellular environments for PrPC and Sho, we inferred that PrPC levels might also be altered as part of a host response during prion infection. Using rodent models, we found that, in addition to changes in PrPC glycosylation and proteolytic processing, net reductions in PrPC occur in a wide range of prion diseases, including sheep scrapie, human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and cervid chronic wasting disease. The reduction in PrPC results in decreased prion replication, as measured by the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique for generating PrPSc in vitro. While PrPC downregulation is not discernible in animals with unusually short incubation periods and high PrPC expression, slowly evolving prion infections exhibit downregulation of the PrPC substrate required for new PrPSc synthesis and as a receptor for pathogenic signaling. Our data reveal PrPC downregulation as a previously unappreciated element of disease pathogenesis that defines the extensive, presymptomatic period for many prion strains
Enhanced virulence of sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent is revealed by decreased polymorphism barriers in prion protein conversions studies.
Priem, J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Andreoletti, O. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2014
Journal of Virology 88 (2014)5. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 2903 - 2912.
misfolding cyclic amplification - in-vitro amplification - cell-free conversion - susceptibility-linked polymorphisms - transgenic mice - natural scrapie - classical scrapie - oral-transmission - infectious prions - resistant forms
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to small ruminants (sheep and goats) with certain prion protein (PrP) genotypes. Polymorphisms in PrP of both the host and donor influence the transmission efficiency of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in general. These polymorphisms in PrP also modulate the PrP conversion underlying TSE agent replication. Here we demonstrate that single-round protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) can be used to assess species and polymorphism barriers at the molecular level. We assessed those within and between the ovine and bovine species in vitro using a variety of natural scrapie and experimentally generated cross-species BSE agents. These BSE agents include ovBSE-ARQ isolates (BSE derived from sheep having the ARQ/ARQ PrP genotype), and two unique BSE-derived variants: BSE passaged in VRQ/VRQ sheep and a cow BSE agent isolate generated by back-transmission of ovBSE-ARQ into its original host. PMCA allowed us to quantitatively determine PrP conversion profiles that correlated with known in vivo transmissibility and susceptibility in the two ruminant species in which strain-specific molecular signatures, like its molecular weight after protease digestion, were maintained. Furthermore, both BSE agent isolates from ARQ and VRQ sheep demonstrated a surprising transmission profile in which efficient transmissions to both sheep and bovine variants was combined. Finally, all data support the notion that ARQ-derived sheep BSE points to a significant increase in virulence compared to all other tested scrapie- and BSE-derived variants reflected by the increased conversion efficiencies of previously inefficient convertible PrP variants (including the so-called “resistant” sheep ARR variant).
To like or not to like: Neural substrates of subjective flavor preferences
Bosch, I. van den; Dalenberg, J.R. ; Renken, R. ; Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Horst, G.J. ter; Graaf, C. de; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2014
Behavioural Brain Research 269 (2014). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 128 - 137.
human orbitofrontal cortex - human brain - different representations - selective attention - prefrontal cortex - taste stimuli - humans - reward - pleasantness - activation
Flavor preferences vary; what one enjoys may be disgusting to another. Previous research has indicated several brain regions associated with flavor preferences. However, by using different stimuli or different internal states to obtain differences in liking, results of these studies may be confounded. Therefore, we used one target stimulus (grapefruit juice) and fMRI to compare brain activation patterns between participants that either liked (n = 16) or disliked (n = 18) this stimulus. Our first aim was to investigate whether differential neural activation exists that accounts for the difference in subjective flavor preference for the target stimulus. Secondly, multivariate analysis was used to investigate whether differences in subjective liking for the target revealed similar activation patterns as differences in general liking for a sweet and bitter solution. A direct comparison of likers and dislikers of the target stimulus revealed only small differences in activations in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). However, when using multivariate analysis, a broader activation pattern (including OFC, dACC, pregenual anterior cingulate, anterior insula and ventral striatum) was identified that discriminated likers from dislikers with an 88% success rate. Interestingly though, little overlap was found between this pattern and the pattern that discriminates liking for the sweet and bitter solutions and lesser voxels contributed to the former compared with the latter. These differences between patterns discerning innate versus learned preferences may suggest that different mechanisms are at work and highlight the importance of elucidating the neural processes of how subjective preferences are learned and acquired.
Prion Protein-specific antibodies that detect multiple TSE Agents with high sensitivity
McCutcheon, S. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Tan, B.C. ; Gill, A.C. ; Wolf, C.A. de; Martin, S. ; Gonzalez, L. ; Alibhai, J. ; Alejo Blanco, A.R. ; Campbell, L. ; Hunter, N. ; Houston, E.F. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
bovine spongiform encephalopathy - creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - prp monoclonal-antibodies - cellular prion - scrapie prion - immunofluorometric assay - differential-diagnosis - pentosan polysulfate - nonhuman-primates - infected sheep
This paper describes the generation, characterisation and potential applications of a panel of novel anti-prion protein monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The mAbs were generated by immunising PRNP null mice, using a variety of regimes, with a truncated form of recombinant ovine prion protein spanning residues 94–233. Epitopes of specific antibodies were mapped using solid-phase Pepscan analysis and clustered to four distinct regions within the PrP molecule. We have demonstrated the utility of these antibodies by use of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in tissues from a range of different species affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In comparative tests against extensively-used and widely-published, commercially available antibodies, similar or improved results can be obtained using these new mAbs, specifically in terms of sensitivity of detection. Since many of these antibodies recognise native PrPC, they could also be applied to a broad range of immunoassays such as flow cytometry, DELFIA analysis or immunoprecipitation. We are using these reagents to increase our understanding of TSE pathogenesis and for use in potential diagnostic screening assays.
Behoud TSE-ongevoelige geiten
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2014
Ethanol from sugar beet in The Netherlands: energy production and efficiency
Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Vries, S.C. de; Brink, L. van den; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2014
International Journal of Sustainable Development 17 (2014)1. - ISSN 0960-1406 - p. 78 - 88.
Prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in The Netherlands have been analysed using measured production data from two experimental farms and literature on beet to ethanol conversion. The analyses include beet cultivation and harvesting, transport to the factory, conversion into ethanol and delivery of the ethanol to distribution points. Under the prevailing conditions, ethanol production from sugar beet shows to be reasonably energy efficient. A net energy production has been calculated of 32 and 37 GJ/ha. Crop and ethanol yields are above those reported elsewhere, as is the energy use per hectare which is related to crop yield. Applying alternative energy generating technology at the ethanol factory suggests that considerable energy gains can be realised. Another source of variation is the allocation ratio of energy to ethanol and by-products. The calculations suggest that the prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in Europe can be considerable, if energy inputs can be reduced, by using crop residues
Impact-based integrated real-time control for improvement of the Dommel River water quality
Langeveld, J. ; Benedetti, L. ; Klein, J.J.M. de; Nopens, I. ; Amerlinck, Y. ; Nieuwenhuijzen, A.F. van; Flameling, T. ; Zanten, O. van; Weijers, S. - \ 2013
Urban Water Journal 10 (2013)5. - ISSN 1573-062X - p. 312 - 329.
drainage systems - treatment-plant - models - calibration - pollution - design
The KALLISTO project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the river Dommel. Within the project, both acute and long term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied with an integral monitoring campaign in the urban wastewater system (WWTP and sewers) and in the river. Based on this monitoring campaign, detailed models were calibrated. These models are partly simplified and integrated in a single model, which is validated using the detailed submodels. The integrated model was used to study the potential for impact-based real-time control (RTC). Impact based RTC proved to be able to improve the quality of the receiving waters significantly, although additional measures remain necessary to be able to meet the WFD requirements
Prion diseases and diagnostic tools
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2013
Towards breeding of goats for genetically determined TSEs resistance
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2013
Experiences in GOAT-TSE-FREE project
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2013
Co-occurrence of distinct types of scrapie prion protein in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2013
Polymorphic and polyphenotypic behavior of scrapie
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2013
Prions (and related disease agents)
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2013
GoatBSE: susceptibility based assessments of prion infectivity in goats and improvements in diagnosis
Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2013
Preclinical down-regulation of PrPC precursor suggests a fundamental mechanism for the slow progression of prion infections
Mays, C.E. ; Kim, C. ; Haldiman, T. ; Vandermerwe, J. ; Lau, A. ; Bari, M.A. Di; Agrimi, U. ; Kong, Q. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; McKenzie, D. ; Westaway, D. ; Safar, J.G. - \ 2013
Biological characterization of European goat TSE isolates by bioassay in bank voles
Nonno, R. ; Bari, M.A. Di; Agostino, C. D'; Vaccari, G. ; Marcon, S. ; Riccardi, G. ; Lantier, F. ; Acin, C. ; Torres, J.M. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Goldmann, W. ; Sklaviadis, T. ; Fast, C. ; Acutis, P.L. ; Simon, S. ; Spiropoulos, J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. ; Agrimi, U. - \ 2013
Biochemical characterization of European goat TSE isolates and discrimination from goat BSE
Pirisinu, L. ; Esposito, E. ; Vaccari, G. ; Agostino, C. D'; Marcon, S. ; Bari, M.A. Di; Lantier, F. ; Acin, C. ; Torres, J.M. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Goldmann, W. ; Sklaviadis, T. ; Fast, C. ; Acutis, P.L. ; Simon, S. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. ; Agrimi, U. ; Nonno, R. - \ 2013
Homogenous PrPres pattern in experimentally BSE-infected goat brains of different genotypes allows differentiation from natural goat scrapie types
Jacobs, J.G. ; Lantier, F. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Barillet, F. ; Acin, C. ; Goldmann, W. ; Sklaviadis, T. ; Fast, C. ; Acutis, P.L. ; Simon, S. ; Torres, J.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Bossers, A. ; Gonzalez, L. ; Nonno, R. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2013
Survey of caprine PRNP and SPRN allele frequencies in the European Union and their relevance for potential prion disease breeding strategies in goats.
Goldman, W. ; Acin, C. ; Acutis, P.L. ; Agrimi, U. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Barillet, F. ; Panagiotidis, C.H. ; Peletto, S. ; Sklaviadis, T. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2013
Coexistence and evolution of prions by natural selection
Chae Kim, C. ; Haldiman, T. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Qingzhong Kong, Q. ; Safar, J.G. - \ 2013
Prions in Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy: An Update
Zou, W.Q. ; Gambetti, P. ; Xiao, X. ; Yuan, J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Pirisinu, L. - \ 2013
Pathogens 2 (2013)3. - ISSN 2076-0817 - p. 457 - 471.
Human prion diseases, including sporadic, familial, and acquired forms such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), are caused by prions in which an abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) derived from its normal cellular isoform (PrPC) is the only known component. The recently-identified variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is characterized not only by an atypical clinical phenotype and neuropathology but also by the deposition in the brain of a peculiar PrPSc. Like other forms of human prion disease, the pathogenesis of VPSPr also currently remains unclear. However, the findings of the peculiar features of prions from VPSPr and of the possible association of VPSPr with a known genetic prion disease linked with a valine to isoleucine mutation at residue 180 of PrP reported recently, may be of great importance in enhancing our understanding of not only this atypical human prion disease in particular, but also other prion diseases in general. In this review, we highlight the physicochemical and biological properties of prions from VPSPr and discuss the pathogenesis of VPSPr including the origin and formation of the peculiar prions.
Glycoform-selective prion formation in sporadic and familial forms of prion disease
Xiao, X. ; Yuan, J. ; Haïk, S. ; Cali, I. ; Zhan, Y. ; Moudjou, M. ; Li, B. ; Laplanche, J.L. ; Laude, H. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Gambetti, P. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - prpsc formation - protein - scrapie - glycosylation - mutation - antibody - cells - susceptibility - conformers
The four glycoforms of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) variably glycosylated at the two N-linked glycosylation sites are converted into their pathological forms (PrP(Sc)) in most cases of sporadic prion diseases. However, a prominent molecular characteristic of PrP(Sc) in the recently identified variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is the absence of a diglycosylated form, also notable in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), which is linked to mutations in PrP either from Val to Ile at residue 180 (fCJD(V180I)) or from Thr to Ala at residue 183 (fCJD(T183A)). Here we report that fCJD(V180I), but not fCJD(T183A), exhibits a proteinase K (PK)-resistant PrP (PrP(res)) that is markedly similar to that observed in VPSPr, which exhibits a five-step ladder-like electrophoretic profile, a molecular hallmark of VPSPr. Remarkably, the absence of the diglycosylated PrP(res) species in both fCJD(V180I) and VPSPr is likewise attributable to the absence of PrP(res) glycosylated at the first N-linked glycosylation site at residue 181, as in fCJD(T183A). In contrast to fCJD(T183A), both VPSPr and fCJD(V180I) exhibit glycosylation at residue 181 on di- and monoglycosylated (mono181) PrP prior to PK-treatment. Furthermore, PrP(V180I) with a typical glycoform profile from cultured cells generates detectable PrP(res) that also contains the diglycosylated PrP in addition to mono- and unglycosylated forms upon PK-treatment. Taken together, our current in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that sporadic VPSPr and familial CJD(V180I) share a unique glycoform-selective prion formation pathway in which the conversion of diglycosylated and mono181 PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) is inhibited, probably by a dominant-negative effect, or by other co-factors.
Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy in the UK: a retrospective review 1991-2008
Head, M.W. ; Yull, H.M. ; Ritchie, D.L. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Fletcher, N.A. ; Knight, R.S. ; Ironside, J.W. - \ 2013
Brain 136 (2013)4. - ISSN 0006-8950 - p. 1102 - 1115.
creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - abnormal prion protein - straussler-scheinker-disease - atypical scrapie - phenotype - patient - prp
Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is a newly described human prion disease of unknown aetiology lying out with the hitherto recognized phenotypic spectrum of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Two cases that conform to the variably protease-sensitive prionopathy phenotype have been identified prospectively in the U.K. since the first description of the condition in 2008 in the U.S.A. To determine the incidence and phenotype of variably protease-sensitive prionopathy within a single well-defined cohort, we have conducted a retrospective review of patients referred to the National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Research & Surveillance Unit during the period 1991-2008. The approach taken was to screen frozen brain tissue by western blotting for the form of protease-resistant prion protein that characterizes variably protease-sensitive prionopathy, followed by neuropathological and clinical review of candidate cases. Cases diagnosed as sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with atypical neuropathology were also reviewed. Four hundred and sixty-five cases were screened biochemically, yielding four candidate cases of variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. One was discounted on pathological and clinical grounds, and one was a known case of variably protease-sensitive prionopathy previously reported, leaving two new cases, which were confirmed biochemically and neuropathologically as variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. A third new case that lacked frozen tissue was recognized retrospectively on neuropathological grounds alone. This means that five cases of variably protease-sensitive prionopathy have been identified (prospectively and retrospectively) during the surveillance period 1991-2011 in the U.K. Assuming ascertainment levels equivalent to that of other human prion diseases, these data indicate that variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is a rare phenotype within human prion diseases, which are themselves rare. Biochemical investigation indicates that the abnormal protease-resistant prion protein fragment that characterizes variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is detectable at low levels in some cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and conversely, that the form of abnormal prion protein that characterizes sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can be found in certain brain regions of cases of variably protease-sensitive prionopathy, indicating molecular overlaps between these two disorders.
Co-existence of Distinct Prion Types Enables Conformational Evolution of Human PrPSc by Competitive Selection
Haldiman, T. ; Kim, C. ; Cohen, Y. ; Chen, W. ; Blevins, J. ; Qing, L. ; Cohen, M.L. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Telling, G.C. ; Kong, Q. ; Safar, J.G. - \ 2013
Journal of Biological Chemistry 288 (2013). - ISSN 0021-9258 - p. 29846 - 29861.
creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - transmissible mink encephalopathy - chronic wasting disease - dependent immunoassay - strain variation - transgenic mice - molecular-basis - protein - scrapie - classification
The unique phenotypic characteristics of mammalian prions are thought to be encoded in the conformation of pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc). The molecular mechanism responsible for the adaptation, mutation, and evolution of prions observed in cloned cells and upon crossing the species barrier remains unsolved. Using biophysical techniques and conformation-dependent immunoassays in tandem, we isolated two distinct populations of PrPSc particles with different conformational stabilities and aggregate sizes, which frequently co-exist in the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). The protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) replicates each of the PrPSc particle types independently, and leads to the competitive selection of those with lower initial conformational stability. In serial propagation with a nonglycosylated mutant PrPC substrate, the dominant PrPSc conformers are subject to further evolution by natural selection of the subpopulation with the highest replication rate due to its lowest stability. Cumulatively, the data show that sCJD PrPSc is not a single conformational entity, but a dynamic collection of two distinct populations of particles. This implies the co-existence of different prions, whose adaptation and evolution are governed by the selection of progressively less stable, faster replicating PrPSc conformers.
Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases
Bari, M.A. Di; Nonno, R. ; Castilla, J. ; Augostino, C. D'; Pirisinu, L. ; Riccardi, G. ; Conte, M. ; Richt, J.A. ; Kunkle, R. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Vaccari, G. ; Agrimi, U. - \ 2013
PLoS Pathogens 9 (2013)3. - ISSN 1553-7366
chromatography-mass spectrometry - misfolding cyclic amplification - creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - cervus-elaphus-nelsoni - in-vitro generation - transgenic mice - spongiform encephalopathy - mule deer - species-barrier - protein allotypes
In order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (CWD), we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (Bv109I and Bv109M, respectively) with CWD isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Efficient transmission rate (100%) was observed with mean survival times ranging from 156 to 281 days post inoculation. Subsequent passages in Bv109I allowed us to isolate from all CWD sources the same vole-adapted CWD strain (Bv109ICWD), typified by unprecedented short incubation times of 25–28 days and survival times of ~35 days. Neuropathological and molecular characterisation of Bv109ICWD showed that the classical features of mammalian prion diseases were all recapitulated in less than one month after intracerebral inoculation. Bv109ICWD was characterised by a mild and discrete distribution of spongiosis and relatively low levels of protease-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) in the same brain regions. Despite the low PrPres levels and the short time lapse available for its accumulation, end-point titration revealed that brains from terminally-ill voles contained up to 108,4 i.c. ID50 infectious units per gram. Bv109ICWD was efficiently replicated by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and the infectivity faithfully generated in vitro, as demonstrated by the preservation of the peculiar Bv109ICWD strain features on re-isolation in Bv109I. Overall, we provide evidence that the same CWD strain was isolated in Bv109I from the three-cervid species. Bv109ICWD showed unique characteristics of “virulence”, low PrPres accumulation and high infectivity, thus providing exceptional opportunities to improve basic knowledge of the relationship between PrPSc, neurodegeneration and infectivity.
Cost-effective solutions for water quality improvement in the Dommel river supported by sewer-WWTP-river integrated modelling
Benedetti, L. ; Langeveld, J. ; Nieuwenhuijzen, A.F. van; Jonge, J. de; Weijers, S. ; Klein, J.J.M. de; Nopens, I. ; Flameling, T. ; Zanten, O. van - \ 2013
Water Science and Technology 68 (2013)5. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 965 - 973.
stedelijk afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - rivieren - aquatische ecologie - controle - infrastructuur - onzekerheidsanalyse - kaderrichtlijn water - noord-brabant - municipal wastewater - waste water treatment - surface water quality - rivers - aquatic ecology - control - infrastructure - uncertainty analysis - water framework directive - noord-brabant - urban drainage systems - real-time control - treatment-plant - simulation - management - pollution
This project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the Dommel River (The Netherlands). Within the project, both acute and long-term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied with a monitoring campaign in the urban wastewater system (wastewater treatment plant and sewers) and in the receiving surface water system. An integrated model, which proved to be a powerful tool to analyse the interactions within the integrated urban wastewater system, was first used to evaluate measures in the urban wastewater system using the existing infrastructure and new real-time control strategies. As the latter resulted to be beneficial but not sufficient, this paper investigated the use of additional infrastructural measures to improve the system cost-effectively and have it meet the Directive's goals. Finally, an uncertainty analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of uncertainty in the main model assumptions and model parameters on the performance robustness of the selected set of measures. Apart from some extreme worst-case scenarios, the proposed set of measures turned out to be sufficiently robust. Due to the substantial savings obtained with the results of this project, the pay-back time of the whole monitoring and modelling work proved to be less than 5 months. This illustrates the power of mathematical modelling for decision support in the context of complex urban water systems
On data requirements for calibration of integrated models for urban water systems
Langeveld, J. ; Nopens, I. ; Schilperoort, R. ; Benedetti, L. ; Klein, J.J.M. de; Amerlinck, Y. ; Weijers, S. - \ 2013
Water Science and Technology 68 (2013)3. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 728 - 736.
afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - riolering - watersystemen - stedelijke gebieden - monitoring - kalibratie - modellen - modelleren - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - noord-brabant - waste water treatment - waste water treatment plants - sewerage - water systems - urban areas - calibration - models - modeling - surface water quality - practical identifiability - simulation-models - optimization - uncertainty - quality
Modeling of integrated urban water systems (IUWS) has seen a rapid development in recent years. Models and software are available that describe the process dynamics in sewers, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), receiving water systems as well as at the interfaces between the submodels. Successful applications of integrated modeling are, however, relatively scarce. One of the reasons for this is the lack of high-quality monitoring data with the required spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy to calibrate and validate the integrated models, even though the state of the art of monitoring itself is no longer the limiting factor. This paper discusses the efforts to be able to meet the data requirements associated with integrated modeling and describes the methods applied to validate the monitoring data and to use submodels as software sensor to provide the necessary input for other submodels
Improvement of goat TSE discriminative diagnosis and susceptibility based assessment of BSE infectivity in goat milk and meat
Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR (CVI) - 102
geitenhouderij - geitenziekten - bovine spongiforme encefalopatie - zoönosen - ziekteoverdracht - scrapie - risicofactoren - geitenmelk - voedselveiligheid - overdraagbare spongiforme encefalopathie - goat keeping - goat diseases - bovine spongiform encephalopathy - zoonoses - disease transmission - risk factors - goat milk - food safety - transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective has been to determine the tissue distribution of BSE after oral exposure of goats while simultaneously generating in dispensable data on genetic susceptibility in the most commonly used production breeds. Our approach integrates the predicted influence of PrP gene polymorphisms on scrapie and BSE susceptibility so that it could potentially be used for the control of field TSE outbreaks in goats. This proposal aims: - at providing data to allow evaluation of human risk associated with BSE passaged in goat; - at providing pathogenesis data and biologic al material from first and second passage BSE in goats; - at evaluating the possibility of BSE self-maintenance in goats by maternal/horizontal transmission; - at validating and improving our ability to detect and discriminate caprine BSE from goat scrapie.
Kallisto: successfully using an intagrated modelling approach for cost-effective Water Framework Directive compliance
Weijers, S. ; Jonge, J. de; Zanten, O. van; Flameling, T. ; Benedetti, L. ; Klein, J.J.M. de; Langeveld, J. ; Nieuwenhuijzen, A.F. van; Nopens, I. - \ 2012
Water 21 : magazine of the International Water Association 2012 (2012)Oktober. - ISSN 1561-9508 - p. 40 - 42.
Computer modelling provides a means of dealing with the complexity of devising and applying the integrated water resources management approaches required by the EU Water FrameWork Directive.
Mitigation capacity of renewable energy production at EU farms
Elbersen, H.W. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Bole, T. ; Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Pedroli, G.B.M. - \ 2012
Molecular assessment of the relative susceptibility of genetically different goats at the molecular level using various TSE sources
Priem, J. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Kanata, E. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2012
Association of dna polymorphisms within the regulatory regions of the bovine PRNP gene with atypical BSE
Peletto, S. ; Maniaci, M.G. ; Polak, M.P. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Czub, S. ; Bossers, A. ; Goldmann, W. ; Acutis, P.L. - \ 2012
Experimental challenge of goats carrying 222 Q and K alleles of the prion protein gene (PRNP) with BSE 2nd passage inocula- Methodology, behavioral study and current status
Acin, C. ; Pitarch, J.L. ; Bossers, A. ; Marin, B. ; Barillet, F. ; Bouvier, F. ; Monzon, M. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bolea, R. ; Garza, M.C. - \ 2012
Ovine field ch 1641 like scrapie cases do differ from classical scrapie and BSE- Western blotting studies on PrPes
Jacobs, J.G. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Yokoyama, T. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Hope, J. ; Bossers, A. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Baron, T. - \ 2012
The identification of disease-induced biomarkers in the plasma of scrapie infected sheep
Simon, S. ; Lamoureux, L. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Knox, D. - \ 2012
MM2-thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - Neuropathological biochemical and transmission studies identify a distinctive prion strain
Suardi, S. ; Moda, F. ; Fede, G. Di; Indaco, A. ; Ruggerone, M. ; Campagnani, I. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Terruzzi, A. ; Brambilla, A. ; Zerbi, P. - \ 2012
In vitro botulism test development with C-toxin type specificity
Erkens, J.H.F. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2012
Eradicating BSE in goats
Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2012
International Innovation (2012). - ISSN 2041-4552 - p. 100 - 102.
The consortium has been interviewed by International Innovation, a monthly journal for decision makers, industry, stakeholders including farming sector. One highlight: "The developments made by GoatBSE will also facilitate the control of TSEs in goats. Scrapie and related infections of single animals currently necessitate the culling of entire herds, the results of which are extremely wasteful, evoke strong public outcry and severely damage the financial prospects of farmers. By reining in the impact of TSEs on goat populations through breeding programmes used to raise prion resistant animals, mass culls can be avoided. Thanks to GoatBSE, both consumers and producers will eventually benefit from healthier herds."
MM2-Thalamic Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease: Neuropathological, Biochemical and Transmission Studies Identify a Distinctive Prion Strain
Moda, F. ; Suardi, S. ; Fede, G. Di; Indaco, A. ; Limido, L. ; Vimercati, C. ; Ruggerone, M. ; Campagnani, I. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Terruzzi, A. ; Brambilla, A. ; Zerbi, P. ; Fociani, P. ; Bishop, T. ; Will, G.W. ; Manson, J.C. ; Giaccone, G. ; Tagliavini, F. - \ 2012
Brain Pathology 22 (2012)5. - ISSN 1015-6305 - p. 662 - 669.
sporadic fatal insomnia - prpsc types - protein - variant - brain - classification - cooccurrence - degeneration - coexistence - scrapie
In CreutzfeldtJakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrPSc and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrPSc are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrPSc. Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrPSc, a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form.
EU-Approved Rapid Tests for Bovine Spongform Encephalopathy Detect Atypical Forms: A Study for Their Sensitivities
Meloni, D. ; Davidse, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; varello, K. ; Casalone, C. ; Corona, C. ; Balkema-Buschmann, A. ; Groschup, M. ; Ingravalle, F. ; Bozzetta, E. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 12 p.
creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - bse-affected cattle - prion protein - scrapie - transmission - switzerland - primate - strain - prp
Since 2004 it become clear that atypical bovine spongiform encephalopthies (BSEs) exist in cattle. Whenever their detection has relied on active surveillance plans implemented in Europe since 2001 by rapid tests, the overall and inter-laboratory performance of these diagnostic systems in the detection of the atypical strains has not been studied thoroughly to date. To fill this gap, the present study reports on the analytical sensitivity of the EU-approved rapid tests for atypical L-and H-type and classical BSE in parallel. Each test was challenged with two dilution series, one created from a positive pool of the three BSE forms according to the EURL standard method of homogenate preparation (50% w/v) and the other as per the test kit manufacturer's instructions. Multilevel logistic models and simple logistic models with the rapid test as the only covariate were fitted for each BSE form analyzed as directed by the test manufacturer's dilution protocol. The same schemes, but excluding the BSE type, were then applied to compare test performance under the manufacturer's versus the water protocol. The IDEXX HerdChek (R) BSE-scrapie short protocol test showed the highest sensitivity for all BSE forms. The IDEXX (R) HerdChek BSE-scrapie ultra short protocol, the Prionics (R) - Check WESTERN and the AJ Roboscreen (R) BetaPrion tests showed similar sensitivities, followed by the Roche (R) PrionScreen, the Bio-Rad (R) TeSeE (TM) SAP and the Prionics (R) - Check PrioSTRIP in descending order of analytical sensitivity. Despite these differences, the limit of detection of all seven rapid tests against the different classes of material set within a 2 log(10) range of the best-performing test, thus meeting the European Food Safety Authority requirement for BSE surveillance purposes. These findings indicate that not many atypical cases would have been missed surveillance since 2001 which is important for further epidemiological interpretations of the sporadic character of atypical forms.
All major prion types recognised by a multiplex immunofluorometric assay for disease screening and confirmation in sheep
Tang, Y. ; gielbert, A. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Baron, T. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Sauer, M.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Immunological Methods 380 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0022-1759 - p. 30 - 39.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy - atypical scrapie - natural scrapie - monoclonal-antibodies - molecular analysis - protein - bse - ch1641 - strains - isolate
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in small ruminants are presented in many forms: classical scrapie, Nor98/atypical scrapie, CH1641 scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). We previously described a multiplex immunofluorometric assay (mIFMA), based on a bead array flow cytometry technology, which provided, in a single assay, discrimination between BSE (in cattle and sheep) and classical scrapie (Tang et al., 2010). In this study, we extended the mlFMA to differentiate classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, BSE (experimentally infected sheep and naturally infected cattle) and CH1641 (both experimental and natural CH1641-like infections in sheep). Three capture antibodies were used, two distinct PrP N-terminus specific antibodies 12B2 and 9A2, and a PrP core specific antibody 94B4. All three antibodies were shown to bind classical scrapie PrPres strongly, whereas in Nor98/atypical scrapie PrPres only 12B2 and 9A2 binding was observed. PrPres binding of 12B2 was low for both BSE and CH1641, as expected. Furthermore, analysis of serially diluted samples indicated that the assay provided a similar level of sensitivity for atypical scrapie as that found using a well established commercial test. Unexpectedly, 9A2 binding to CH1641 PrPres was reduced by 2.1 fold both for experimental CH1641 and CH1641-like scrapie when compared with BSE, suggesting that major cleavage of the N-terminus occurs further towards the C-terminus in CH1641 than in BSE. The ratios of 12B2/94B4 and 9A2/94B4 were similar between experimental CH1641 and CH1641-like cases, although two CH1641-like subjects displayed slightly elevated ratios of both 12B2/94B4 and 9A2/94B4. To verify this finding for PrPres, mass spectrometry based quantification was used to determine the absolute abundance of the peptides associated with all three antibody binding regions. There was a 2.2 fold reduction of peptides containing the 9A2 epitope for experimental CH1641 PrPres in comparison to BSE PrPres. Observation of reduced PrPres may serve as a new marker for CH1641. This mIFMA may thus provide the basis for simplified TSE diagnosis with capability for simultaneous screening and differential diagnosis
Detection of Prion Protein Particles in Blood Plasma of Scrapie Infected Sheep
Bannach, O. ; Birkmann, E. ; Reinartz, E. ; Karl-Erich, J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Rohwer, R.G. ; Gregori, L. ; Terry, L.A. ; Willbold, D. ; Riesner, D. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
transmissible spongiform encephalopathy - creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - infectivity - removal - amplification - components - conversion - antibody - models - cattle
Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The agent of the disease is the prion consisting mainly, if not solely, of a misfolded and aggregated isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP). Transmission of prions can occur naturally but also accidentally, e.g. by blood transfusion, which has raised serious concerns about blood product safety and emphasized the need for a reliable diagnostic test. In this report we present a method based on surface-FIDA (fluorescence intensity distribution analysis), that exploits the high state of molecular aggregation of PrP as an unequivocal diagnostic marker of the disease, and show that it can detect infection in blood. To prepare PrP aggregates from blood plasma we introduced a detergent and lipase treatment to separate PrP from blood lipophilic components. Prion protein aggregates were subsequently precipitated by phosphotungstic acid, immobilized on a glass surface by covalently bound capture antibodies, and finally labeled with fluorescent antibody probes. Individual PrP aggregates were visualized by laser scanning microscopy where signal intensity was proportional to aggregate size. After signal processing to remove the background from low fluorescence particles, fluorescence intensities of all remaining PrP particles were summed. We detected PrP aggregates in plasma samples from six out of ten scrapie-positive sheep with no false positives from uninfected sheep. Applying simultaneous intensity and size discrimination, ten out of ten samples from scrapie sheep could be differentiated from uninfected sheep. The implications for ante mortem diagnosis of prion diseases are discussed
Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society
Pedroli, G.B.M. ; Langeveld, H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (AGRI-2010-EVAL-03 ) - 75
hernieuwbare energie - landbouw - plattelandseconomie - windenergie - zonne-energie - geothermische energie - biomassa - bio-energie - energieproductie in de landbouw - biobased economy - renewable energy - agriculture - rural economy - wind power - solar energy - geothermal energy - biomass - bioenergy - agricultural energy production
This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural economy in different regions of the Union. Renewable Energy (RE) in this respect includes the energy generated on farms by using wind, PV, solar thermal, hydro, geothermal or biomass resources.
Four independent molecular prion protein parameters for discriminating new cases of C, L, and H BSE in cattle.
Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Erkens, J.H.F. ; Rammel, I. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Davidse, A. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Bossers, A. ; Schildorfer, H. - \ 2011
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 49 (2011)8. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 3026 - 3028.
monoclonal-antibodies - great-britain - atypical bse - identification - similarities - diseases - prpsc - rich
In anticipation of the emergence of more variants of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a semiquantitative display of the following four independent molecular diagnostic prion parameters was designed: N terminus, proteinase K (PK) resistance, glycoprofile, and mixed population. One H BSE case, three L BSE cases, six C BSE cases, and one unusual classical BSE (C BSE) case are reported.
Proteinase K resistant material in ARR/VRQ sheep brain affected with classical scrapie is composed mainly of VRQ prion protein
Jacobs, J.G. ; Bossers, A. ; Rezaei, H. ; Keulen, L. Van; McCutcheon, S. ; Sklaviadis, T. ; Lantier, I. ; Berthon, P. ; Lantier, F. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2011
Journal of Virology 85 (2011)23. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 12537 - 12546.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy - creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - susceptibility-linked polymorphisms - straussler-scheinker disease - in-vitro conversion - allelic variants - amino-acid - monoclonal-antibodies - natural scrapie - prp
Classical scrapie is a prion disease in sheep and goats. In sheep, susceptibility to disease is genetically influenced by single amino acid substitutions. Genetic breeding programs aimed at enrichment of arginine-171 (171R) prion protein (PrP), the so called ARR allele, in the sheep population have demonstrated to be effective in reducing the occurrence of classical scrapie in the field. Understanding the molecular basis for this reduced prevalence would serve the assessment of ARR-adaptation. The prion formation mechanism and conversion of PrP from the normal form (PrPC) to scrapie associated form (PrPSc) could play a key-role in this process. Therefore, we investigated whether the ARR allele substantially contributes to scrapie prion formation in naturally infected heterozygous 171Q/R animals. Two methods were applied to brain tissue of 171Q/R heterozygous sheep with natural scrapie to determine the relative amount of the 171R PrP fraction in PrPres, the proteinase K-resistant PrPSc core. An antibody test differentiating between 171Q and 171R PrP fragments showed that PrPres mostly was composed of the 171Q allelotype. Furthermore using a novel tool for prion research, endoproteinase Lys-C digested PrPres yielded substantial amounts of non-glycosylated and mono-glycosylated 114-188 PrP fragment. Following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis only marginal amounts (
Prion protein self-interaction in prion disease therapy approaches
Rigter, A. ; Priem, J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2011
Veterinary Quarterly 31 (2011)3. - ISSN 0165-2176 - p. 115 - 128.
creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - in-vitro conversion - susceptibility-linked polymorphisms - bovine spongiform encephalopathy - natural scrapie - insert mutation - cell-cultures - prp genotypes - closed flock - prnp gene
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are unique disorders that are not caused by infectious micro-organisms (bacteria or fungi), viruses or parasites, but rather seem to be the result of an infectious protein. TSEs are comprised of fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting both human and animals. Prion diseases cause sponge-like degeneration of neuronal tissue and include (among others) Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and scrapie in sheep. TSEs are characterized by the formation and accumulation of transmissible (infectious) disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(Sc)), mainly in tissues of the central nervous system. The exact molecular processes behind the conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) are not clearly understood. Correlations between prion protein polymorphisms and disease have been found, however in what way these polymorphisms influence the conversion processes remains an enigma; is stabilization or destabilization of the prion protein the basis for a higher conversion propensity? Apart from the disease-associated polymorphisms of the prion protein, the molecular processes underlying conversion are not understood. There are some notions as to which regions of the prion protein are involved in refolding of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) and where the most drastic structural changes take place. Direct interactions between PrP(C) molecules and/or PrP(Sc) are likely at the basis of conversion, however which specific amino acid domains are involved and to what extent these domains contribute to conversion resistance/sensitivity of the prion protein or the species barrier is still unknown.
Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken.
Moore, J. ; Hawkins, S.A.C. ; Austin, A.R. ; Konold, T. ; Green, R.B. ; Blamire, I.W. ; Dexter, I. ; Stack, M.J. ; Chaplin, M.J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Simmons, M. ; Spencer, Y.I. ; Webb, P.R.I. ; Dawson, M. - \ 2011
BMC Research Notes 4 (2011). - ISSN 1756-0500 - 13 p.
Background: Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of mammalian meat and bone meal to farmed animals, the domestic chicken was potentially exposed to feed contaminated with the causal agent of BSE. Although confirmed prion diseases are unrecorded in avian species a study was undertaken to transmit BSE to the domestic chicken by parenteral and oral inoculations. Transmissibility was assessed by clinical monitoring, histopathological examinations, detection of a putative disease form of an avian prion protein (PrP) in recipient tissues and by mouse bioassay of tissues. Occurrence of a progressive neurological syndrome in the primary transmission study was investigated by sub-passage experiments. Results: No clinical, pathological or bioassay evidence of transmission of BSE to the chicken was obtained in the primary or sub-passage experiments. Survival data showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. Neurological signs observed, not previously described in the domestic chicken, were not associated with significant pathology. The diagnostic techniques applied failed to detect a disease associated form of PrP. Conclusion: Important from a risk assessment perspective, the present study has established that the domestic chicken does not develop a prion disease after large parenteral exposures to the BSE agent or after oral exposures equivalent to previous exposures via commercial diets. Future investigations into the potential susceptibility of avian species to mammalian prion diseases require species-specific immunochemical techniques and more refined experimental models
A distinct proteinase K resistant prion protein fragment in goats with no signs of disease in a classical scrapie outbreak
Bouzalas, I. ; Lörtscher, F. ; Dovas, C. ; Oevermann, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Papanastassopoulou, M. ; Papadopoulos, O. ; Zurbriggen, A. ; Seuberlich, T. - \ 2011
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 49 (2011)6. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 2109 - 2115.
bovine spongiform encephalopathy - atypical scrapie - monoclonal-antibodies - molecular analysis - natural scrapie - small ruminants - sheep scrapie - bse agent - prp gene - identification
Considerable efforts have been directed toward the identification of small-ruminant prion diseases, i.e., classical and atypical scrapie as well as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Here we report the in-depth molecular analysis of the proteinase K-resistant prion protein core fragment (PrPres) in a highly scrapie-affected goat flock in Greece. The PrPres profile by Western immunoblotting in most animals was that of classical scrapie in sheep. However, in a series of clinically healthy goats we identified a unique C- and N-terminally truncated PrPres fragment, which is akin but not identical to that observed for atypical scrapie. These findings reveal novel aspects of the nature and diversity of the molecular PrPres phenotypes in goats and suggest that these animals display a previously unrecognized prion protein disorder
A duplex approach for immunochemical staining and typing of protein in western blots
Kuczius, T. ; Brandstädter, L. ; Karch, H. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2011
Analytical Biochemistry 409 (2011)2. - ISSN 0003-2697 - p. 260 - 266.
cellular prion proteins - bovine spongiform encephalopathy - electrophoretic transfer - nitrocellulose - scrapie - peroxidase - brain - prpsc - visualization - sensitivity
The qualitative and semiquantitative Western blotting technique enables the detection of separate proteins and the determination of subtypes and fragments by specific immunological reactions. Protein typing on immunoblots is restricted to antibody-specific determination, with the result of a specific banding pattern. For protein characterization, several antibodies that recognize different epitopes within the protein sequence are used. However, repeated or parallel gel runs are needed. Here we describe a sequential determination of prion proteins in healthy and pathological states that both consist of di-, mono-, and nonglycosylated isoforms using a single blot with two antibodies from two species that recognize one antigen with two epitopes. The band signals are visualized by using different chemiluminescent substrate reactions. This application can be used in the fields of diagnostics and public health to detect full-length and fragmented proteins and can also be used for characterization of overlaying proteins.
Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance
Aerts, J.M. ; Boot, R.G. ; Eijk, M. van; Groener, J. ; Bijl, N. ; Lombardo, E. ; Bietrix, F.M. ; Dekker, N. ; Groen, A.K. ; Ottenhof, M. ; Roomen, C. ; Aten, J. ; Serlie, M. ; Langeveld, M. ; Wennekes, T. ; Overkleeft, H.S. - \ 2011
In: Sphingolipids and Metabolic Disease Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media - p. 99 - 119.
Analysis of Renewable Energy Directive NUTS-2 reports on the greenhouse gas emissions from the cultivation of biofuel crops
Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Langeveld, J.W.A. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 371) - 34
biobased economy - brandstofgewassen - broeikasgassen - emissie - berekening - internationale vergelijkingen - europese unie - fuel crops - greenhouse gases - emission - calculation - international comparisons - european union
De EC 'Hernieuwbare Energie Directive' (RED; EC, 2009) vraagt nationale rapportages over de gemiddelde broeikasgasemissies van de teelt van energiegewassen op NUTS-2 regionaal niveau. Berekeningsmethoden voor de rapportage zijn niet voorgeschreven en daarom kunnen verschillen in gerapporteerde emissies niet alleen veroorzaakt worden door verschillen in productiesystemen, maar ook door verschillen in berekeningsmethoden. De rapportage van Nederland is vergeleken met de rapportages van Duitsland, Denemarken, Zweden, Groot Brittannië, België (Vlaanderen) en Frankrijk. Doel van de analyse was een overzicht te geven van de door individuele landen gebruikte methoden en data en de gerapporteerde verschillen in emissies te evalueren. Deze evaluatie moet inzichtelijk maken in hoeverre verschillen in gebruikte methodologie verantwoordelijk zijn voor de verschillen in gerapporteerde emissies en hoe het toepassen van een 'level playing field' methodologie de gerapporteerde verschillen in emissie zou veranderen.
Differentiation of ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy isolate types, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy and CH1641 scrapie
Jacobs, J.G. ; Sauer, M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Tang, Y. ; Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2011
Journal of General Virology 92 (2011)1. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 222 - 232.
creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - abnormal prion protein - natural sheep scrapie - monoclonal-antibodies - molecular analysis - atypical scrapie - prp(d) accumulation - transgenic mice - infected sheep - bse
With increased awareness of the diversity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains in the ruminant population, comes an appreciation of the need for improved methods of differential diagnosis. Exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been associated with the human TSE, variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, emphasizing the necessity in distinguishing low-risk TSE types from BSE. TSE type discrimination in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, goats and deer, requires the application of several prion protein (PrP)-specific antibodies in parallel immunochemical tests on brain homogenates or tissue sections from infected animals. This study uses in a single incubation step, three PrP-specific antibodies and fluorescent Alexa dye-labelled anti-mouse Fabs on a Western blot. The usual amount of brain tissue needed is 0.5 mg. This multiplex application of antibodies directed towards three different PrP epitopes enabled differential diagnosis of all established main features of classical scrapie, BSE and Nor98-like scrapie in sheep and goats, as well as the currently known BSE types C, H and L in cattle. Moreover, due to an antibody-dependent dual PrP-banding pattern, for the first time CH1641 scrapie of sheep can be reliably discriminated from the other TSE isolate types in sheep.
IEA Bioenergy Task 42 Biorefinery
Jong, E. de; Langeveld, H. ; Ree, R. van - \ 2011
IEA Bioenergy
biobased economy - bioraffinage - biomassa cascadering - classificatie - coproductie - fabrieken - biobased economy - biorefinery - biomass cascading - classification - coproduction - factories
The objective of the brochure is to inform policy makers, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), researchers and entrepreneurs on the principle of biorefinery, its potential contribution to food and feed production, bioenergy and waste management, and its perspectives in the context of a growing demand for food, feed, energy and products from renewable resources. This brochure will begin with the definition of biorefineries developed by IEA Bioenergy Task 42. The heterogeneity and diversity of the biorefinery field require a uniform definition and a clear classification system. To illustrate the different biorefinery types, and their current technological status and/or development and deployment perspectives, examples from different countries will subsequently be presented. They will be linked to the classification system, in order to give a clear classified overview of both the current status and future perspectives of biorefineries worldwide. The brochure will wrap up with some general comments and a future outlook for the next triennium.
Environmental impact of organic pineapple production in Ghana: a comparison of two farms using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach
Adebah, E.C. ; Langeveld, C.A. ; Kermah, M. - \ 2010
In: Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-food Sector. - Bari : Universita degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro - p. 325 - 330.
This LCA analysed and compared the environmental impact of producing 1 kg of organic pineapples on farm A to 1 kg on farm B. Environmental impact categories considered were Global Warming Potential (GWP); Acidification Potential (AP); Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Erosion Potential (ErP). Results indicate that farm B was more environmentally friendly than farm A with respect to all impact categories. The environmental impacts per kg product for farm A were between 12% (GWP) and 85% (EP) higher. It is suggested that farm A could improve its environmental performance by (i) replacing its organic fertiliser imported from the Netherlands by locally produced composts and (ii) increasing its yield per hectare. More than 50 percent of the impacts in the categories GWP, AP and EP were due to energy-related emissions. Thus, energy use should be considered when designing certification schemes or assessing the environmental soundness of agriculture production systems.
Reply to Kascsak: Definition of the PrP 3F4 Epitope Revisited
Zou, W.Q. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Xiao, X.Z. ; Chen, S.G. ; McGeer, P.L. ; Yuan, J. ; Payne, M.C. ; Kang, H.E. ; McGeehan, J. ; Sy, M.S. ; Greenspan, N.S. ; Kaplan, D. ; Wang, G.X. ; Parchi, P. ; Hoover, E. ; Kneale, G. ; Telling, G. ; Surewicz, W.K. ; Kong, Q.Z. ; Guo, J.P. - \ 2010
Journal of Biological Chemistry 285 (2010)20. - ISSN 0021-9258 - p. le6 - le6.
protein - antibody
Dat is natuur, in dit land; Landschapsbehoud, burgerverzet en strategische constructie van natuur
Duineveld, M. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2010
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 27 (2010)4. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 197 - 206.
regionale planning - landgebruiksplanning - participatie - natuurbescherming - vogels - bollenstreek - regional planning - land use planning - participation - nature conservation - birds
De bloembollenteelt heeft de naam één van de meest vervuilende teelten te zijn, maar volgens vogelaar Kees Langeveld valt er meer dan genoeg aan natuur te beleven in de bollenvelden. Zo holt de leeuwerik landelijk gezien sterk achteruit in aantal, maar tussen de tulpen blijft hij stabiel. In dit artikel laten we zien dat de 'bollenvogel' het resultaat is van de acties van burgers in het verzet tegen woningbouwplannen.
Effectivity of bioenergy production chain development policies : an assessment for the Netherlands
Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Kalf, R. ; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2010
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