Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Variable demand as a mean to sustainable first generation biofuels and biobased materials
Quist-Wessel, Foluke ; Gursel, Iris Vural ; Elbersen, Wolter ; Langeveld, Hans - \ 2019
In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings. - Lisbon, Portugal : ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - p. 1528 - 1535.
Agricultural productivity - Biobased chemicals - Biofuel policy - Biofuels - Food security - ILUC

This paper evaluates possible impacts of a variable biofuel demand (VBD) policy, i.e. a policy that adjusts biofuel production to changes in biomass availability as determined by variations in crop yield. The aim is to stimulate investments and enhancing efficiency in crop production while limiting competition with food in years of reduced crop availability.

Correction to: In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5470 - 5470.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The email address Dr. Wen-Quan Zou, one of the corresponding authors should be written as “” instead of “”.

In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5456 - 5469.
Humanized transgenic mice - Polymorphism - Prion - Prion disease - Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) - Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) - Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr)

Both sporadic variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the prion protein (PrP) V180I mutation (fCJDV180I) have been found to share a unique pathological prion protein (PrPSc) that lacks the protease-resistant PrPSc glycosylated at residue 181 because two of four PrP glycoforms are apparently not converted into the PrPSc from their cellular PrP (PrPC). To investigate the seeding activity of these unique PrPSc molecules, we conducted in vitro prion conversion experiments using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays with different PrPC substrates. We observed that the seeding of PrPSc from VPSPr or fCJDV180I in the sPMCA reaction containing normal human or humanized transgenic (Tg) mouse brain homogenates generated PrPSc molecules that unexpectedly exhibited a dominant diglycosylated PrP isoform along with PrP monoglycosylated at residue 181. The efficiency of PrPSc amplification was significantly higher in non-CJDMM than in non-CJDVV human brain homogenate, whereas it was higher in normal TgVV than in TgMM mouse brain homogenate. PrPC from the mixture of normal TgMM and Tg mouse brain expressing PrPV180I mutation (Tg180) but not TgV180I alone was converted into PrPSc by seeding with the VPSPr or fCJDV180I. The RT-QuIC seeding activity of PrPSc from VPSPr and fCJDV180I was significantly lower than that of sCJD. Our results suggest that the formation of glycoform-selective prions may be associated with an unidentified factor in the affected brain and the glycoform-deficiency of PrPSc does not affect the glycoforms of in vitro newly amplified PrPSc.

Recent insights on uncertainties present in integrated catchment water quality modelling
Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz ; Bellos, Vasilis ; Schellart, Alma ; Moreno-Rodenas, Antonio ; Muthusamy, Manoranjan ; Langeveld, Jeroen ; Clemens, Francois ; Benedetti, Lorenzo ; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel ; Carvalho, Rita Fernandes de; Breuer, Lutz ; Shucksmith, James ; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M. ; Tait, Simon - \ 2019
Water Research 150 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 368 - 379.
Complexity management - Integrated catchment modelling - Sub-models of integrated modelling - Uncertainty - Water quality

This paper aims to stimulate discussion based on the experiences derived from the QUICS project (Quantifying Uncertainty in Integrated Catchment Studies). First it briefly discusses the current state of knowledge on uncertainties in sub-models of integrated catchment models and the existing frameworks for analysing uncertainty. Furthermore, it compares the relative approaches of both building and calibrating fully integrated models or linking separate sub-models. It also discusses the implications of model linkage on overall uncertainty and how to define an acceptable level of model complexity. This discussion includes, whether we should shift our attention from uncertainties due to linkage, when using linked models, to uncertainties in model structure by necessary simplification or by using more parameters. This discussion attempts to address the question as to whether there is an increase in uncertainty by linking these models or if a compensation effect could take place and that overall uncertainty in key water quality parameters actually decreases. Finally, challenges in the application of uncertainty analysis in integrated catchment water quality modelling, as encountered in this project, are discussed and recommendations for future research areas are highlighted.

Evaluation of dietary taste patterns as assessed by FFQ against 24-h recalls and biomarkers of exposure
Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Teo, P.S. ; Mars, M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2019
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (2019)1. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 132 - 140.
Background/objective: Taste is of key importance in food choice and dietary patterns, but studies on taste profiles are limited. We previously assessed dietary taste patterns by 24 h recalls (24hR), but for epidemiological studies food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) may also be suitable. This study compared dietary taste patterns based on FFQ against 24hR and biomarkers of exposure. Subjects/methods: A taste database including 467 foods’ sweet, sour, bitter, salt, umami and fat sensation values was combined with food intake data to assess dietary taste patterns: the contribution to energy intake of 6 taste clusters. The FFQ’s reliability was assessed against 3-d 24hR and urinary biomarkers for sodium (Na) and protein intake (N) in Dutch men (n = 449) and women (n = 397) from the NQplus validation study (mean age 53 ± 11 y, BMI 26 ± 4 kg/m2). Results: Correlations of dietary taste patterns ranged from 0.39–0.68 between FFQ and 24hR (p < 0.05). Urinary Na levels, but not N levels, were positively associated with % energy intake from ‘salt, umami & fat’ tasting foods (Na; FFQ, r = 0.24, 24hR, r = 0.23, p < 0.001, N; FFQ, r = 0.08, p = 0.1394, 24hR, r = 0.05, p = 0.3427). Conclusions: The FFQ’s reliability against 24hR was acceptable to good for ranking of adults’ dietary taste patterns. Associations between dietary taste patterns and urinary Na and N were similar for FFQ and 24hR. These findings suggests that both FFQ and 24hR can be used in combination with our taste database, to investigate potential relationships between dietary taste patterns and subgroups at risk of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease.
Mobile Technology to Enable Tailor-Made Fertilizer Advice for Maize Smallholders in Western Kenya
Jindo, Keiji ; Schut, A.G.T. ; Langeveld, Hans ; Linders, René ; Hermelink, Marleen ; Munikah, Lydia ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
In: ESA2018 XVe European Society for Agronomy Congress. - - p. 86 - 86.
Important lessons from new tailor-made services for smallholder farmers
Schut, A.G.T. ; Jindo, Keiji ; Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Rijerse, M. ; Munika, L. ; Matyoko, P. - \ 2018
In: Symposium Proceedings 13th European International Farming Systems Association (IFSA) Symposium. - IFSA - 13 p.
Mobile phone technology enables farmers to share information and receive tailor-made advice on farming practices. The objective of this work is to evaluate farmer perspectives on tailor-made services for improved on-farm nutrient application on smallholder farms in Western Kenya and Northern Tanzania. The service included agronomic advice and delivery of blended NPK fertilizer and hybrid maize seeds on credit. Advice on NPK fertilizer was based on best available geo-information in combination with a field quality assessment of the farmer. Pre- and post-season interviews were held with farmers in 46 villages in Northern Tanzania and Western Kenya. Soil samples were analysed and grain yields were measured in demarked plots. Impacts of the service on food self-sufficiency were evaluated by comparisons with a group of control farmers without tailored and farmers who received the service. Application of blended fertilizers increased grain weights when compared to plots without fertilizer. There were, however, no significant differences between farmers receiving tailored services and the to control group who often used fertilizers from other sources. We conclude that the technology might help to improve farm productivity, but only when combined with a complete agronomic package including pest control, local demonstrations and support of local agents or extension officers in environments where farmers have been exposed to hybrid seed and fertilizer.
'De opleiding organic agriculture is springlevend' : Aan Wageningen Universiteit neemt biologische landbouw een volwaardige plek in
Langeveld, C.A. - \ 2018
Ekoland (2018)4. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 20 - 21.
Gezond eten is minder smaakvol
Langeveld, Astrid van - \ 2018
Valorizing nutrients from palm oil mill effluent (Pome) digestate
Voogt, Juliën ; Elbersen, Wolter ; Meesters, Koen ; Blankenborg, Stefan ; Langeveld, Hans ; Quist-Wessel, Foluke - \ 2018
In: 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings. - Florence : ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - ISBN 9788889407189 - p. 72 - 76.
Circular economy - Digestate - Economics - Palm oil - Recycling - Technology

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is considered a problematic waste, causing pollution problems: greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution with organic material, and nutrient pollution. POME is well suited for treatment in digestion tanks, generating methane for energy production. A technology screening showed membrane technology as the most promising technology for further processing of POME digestate into a mineral concentrate and high quality water. However, a techno-economic evaluation showed that the estimated costs related to further processing of POME digestate are currently higher than the potential savings. Options for cost reduction of the membrane technology and of the handling of the mineral concentrate should be explored. In an optimistic scenario the potential savings exceed the costs. If the concept is further developed, processing of POME digestate can contribute to the economic viability of digestion systems and to reducing the environmental impact of palm oil mills.

Matters of taste : Dietary taste patterns in the Netherlands
Langeveld, Astrid W.B. van - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K. de Graaf, co-promotor(en): M. Mars; J.H.M. de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432979 - 230
Dietary taste patterns by sex and weight status in the Netherlands
Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Teo, P.S. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. - \ 2018
The British journal of nutrition 119 (2018)10. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1195 - 1206.
Taste is a key driver of food choice and intake. Taste preferences are widely studied, unlike the diet’s taste profile. This study assessed dietary taste patterns in the Netherlands by sex, BMI, age and education. A taste database, containing 476 foods’ taste values, was combined with 2-d 24-h recalls in two study populations. The percentage of energy intake from six taste clusters was assessed in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS 2007–2010; n 1351) and in an independent observational study: the Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study (2011–2013; n 944). Dietary taste patterns were similar across study populations. Men consumed relatively more energy from ‘salt, umami and fat’ (DNFCS; 24 % energy, NQplus study; 23 %)- and ‘bitter’ (7 %)-tasting foods compared with women (21 %, P<0·001, 22 %, P=0·005; 3 %, P<0·001, 4 %, P<0·001, respectively). Women consumed more % energy from ‘sweet and fat’ (15 %)- and ‘sweet and sour’ (13 %, 12 %, respectively)-tasting foods compared with men (12 %, P<0·001, 13 %, P=0·001; 10 %, P<0·001). Obese individuals consumed more % energy from ‘salt, umami and fat’- and less from ‘sweet and fat’-tasting foods than normal-weight individuals (‘salt, umami and fat’, men; obese both studies 26 %, normal-weight DNFCS 23 %, P=0·037, NQplus 22 %, P=0·001, women; obese 23 %, 24 %, normal weight 20 %, P=0·004, P=0·011, respectively, ‘sweet and fat’, men; obese 11 %, 10 %, normal weight 13 %, P<0·05, 14 %, P<0·01, women; obese 14 %, 15 %, normal weight 16 %, P=0·12, P=0·99). In conclusion, our taste database can be used to deepen our understanding of the role of taste in dietary intake in the Netherlands by sex, BMI, age and education.
Similar taste-nutrient relationships in commonly consumed Dutch and Malaysian foods
Teo, Pey Sze ; Langeveld, Astrid W.B. van; Pol, Korrie ; Siebelink, Els ; Graaf, Cees de; Yan, See Wan ; Mars, Monica - \ 2018
Appetite 125 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 32 - 41.
Commonly consumed - Cross-cultural - Foods - Nutrient content - Taste intensity
Three recent studies showed that taste intensity signals nutrient content. However, current data reflects only the food patterns in Western societies. No study has yet been performed in Asian culture. The Malaysian cuisine represents a mixture of Malay, Chinese and Indian foods. This study aimed to investigate the associations between taste intensity and nutrient content in commonly consumed Dutch (NL) and Malaysian (MY) foods. Perceived intensities of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation were assessed for 469 Dutch and 423 Malaysian commonly consumed foods representing about 83% and 88% of an individual's average daily energy intake in each respective country. We used a trained Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) with quantitative sensory Spectrum™ 100-point rating scales and reference solutions, R1 (13-point), R2 (33-point) and R3 (67-point). Dutch and Malaysian foods had relatively low mean sourness and bitterness (
Training of a Dutch and Malaysian sensory panel to assess intensities of basic tastes and fat sensation of commonly consumed foods
Teo, Pey Sze ; Langeveld, Astrid W.B. van; Pol, Korrie ; Siebelink, Els ; Graaf, Cees de; Martin, Christophe ; Issanchou, Sylvie ; Yan, See Wan ; Mars, Monica - \ 2018
Food Quality and Preference 65 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 49 - 59.
Cross-cultural - Panel performance - Spectrum - Taste profiling - Trained panel
Taste has a nutrient sensing function and guides food choices. Therefore, investigating taste profiles of dietary patterns - within and across cultures - is highly relevant for nutritional research. However, this demands for accurately described food-taste databases, which are supported with data on the reliability and performance of the sensory panel that determined the taste values.This study aimed to assess the performance of a trained Dutch and Malaysian sensory panel. More importantly, we assessed whether the standardized training procedure in the two countries yielded similar taste profiles with respect to 15 basic taste solutions, and 19 foods differing in tastes.A Dutch (n = 15) and Malaysian panel (n = 20) were trained for 56-63 h, using basic taste solutions and reference foods on 6 scales, i.e. sweetness, sourness, bitterness, umami, saltiness and fat sensation. Performance of both panels was described by discrimination, repeatability (RMSE), and agreement. Nineteen products with different sensory characteristics were profiled in the Netherlands and Malaysia; subsequently the obtained taste profiles were compared.Both panels were able to discriminate between solutions and products (all p < .001). A vast majority of the taste values could be reproduced; the RMSEs of the different taste values varied between 2.3 and 13.3%. Panel agreement was achieved after the training with solutions; however not for all attributes of the reference foods. Some taste values of the 19 foods were significantly different, however most of these differences were small (<10. points).Our descriptive training procedure yielded two panels from different cultures that were similar in panel performance. More importantly, they obtained similar taste profiles for 19 different foods. This implies that food-taste databases obtained with valid and standardized training procedures may be used to quantify the sensory profiles of dietary patterns of populations.
Low fraction of the 222K PrP variant in the protease-resistant moiety of PrPres in heterozygous scrapie positive goats
Mazza, M. ; Guglielmetti, Chiara ; Ingravalle, Francesco ; Brusadore, Sonia ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Casalone, C. ; Acutis, P.L. - \ 2017
Journal of General Virology 98 (2017)7. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1963 - 1967.
The presence of lysine (K) at codon 222 has been associated with resistance to classical scrapie in goats, but few scrapie cases have been identified in 222Q/K animals. To investigate the contribution of the 222K variant to PrPres formation in natural and experimental Q/K scrapie cases, we applied an immunoblotting method based on the use of two different monoclonal antibodies, F99/97.6.1 and SAF84, chosen for their different affinities to 222K and 222Q PrP variants. Our finding that PrPres seems to be formed nearly totally by the 222Q variant provides evidence that the 222K PrP variant confers resistance to conversion to PrPres formation and reinforces the view that this mutation has a protective role against classical scrapie in goats.
Research Overview, Gaps, and Recommendations
Panoutsou, Calliope ; Langeveld, Hans ; Fritsche, Uwe R. ; Elbersen, Berien ; Dzene, Ilze ; Janssen, Rainer ; Kerckow, Birger ; Stojiljkovic, Dragoslava D. ; Gvero, Petar M. - \ 2017
In: Modeling and Optimization of Biomass Supply Chains Elsevier - ISBN 9780128123034 - p. 253 - 269.
Assessments - Biomass supply - Future research - Modeling tools

Modeling biomass supply and logistics has been included both directly and indirectly in European research and several initiatives have taken place through the last 15 years. Research has evolved from narrow assessments covering single or a few feedstock types and specific regions to harmonized approaches with consistent algorithms applied across Europe at different regional and temporal scales.The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of research work in the area, identify gaps in research knowledge, and provide recommendations for future to research in the field of modeling biomass supply and logistics.

Genetic resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in goats
Ricci, A. ; Allende, A. ; Bolton, A. ; Chemaly, Marianne ; Davies, R. ; Fernandez Escamez, Pablo Salvador ; Girones, R. ; Herman, L. ; Koutsoumanis, K. ; Lindqvist, R. ; Norrung, Birgit ; Robertson, L.W. ; Ru, G. ; Sanaa, M. ; Skandamis, P.N. ; Speybroeck, Niko ; Simmons, Marion ; Kuile, Benno Ter; Threlfall, John ; Wahlstrom, H. ; Acutis, P.L. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Goldmann, Wilfred ; Langeveld, J. ; Windig, J.J. ; Palaez, A.O. ; Snary, E. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)8. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 8 p.
Biomass Supply Assessments in Europe: Research Context and Methodologies
Panoutsou, C. ; Bauen, A. ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Dees, M. ; Stojadinovic, D. ; Glavonjic, B. ; Zheliezna, T. ; Wenzelides, L. ; Langeveld, Hans - \ 2017
In: Modelling and Optimisation of Biomass Supply Chains / Panoutsou, C., Academic Press - ISBN 9780128123034 - p. 1 - 24.
Since early 2000, several biomass assessment studies were delivered at European and global level mostly driven by the increasing demand for the development of bioenergy and biofuels, and the need to secure sustainable, continuous supply for the emerging plants. Ongoing research and development and industrial development plus increased drivers to use renewable raw materials in industrial sectors beyond energy have seen the focus of the biomass markets widen to include value chains for bio-based chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other materials. Consequently, research is now exploring increasingly varied configurations of value chains with the aims of understanding which types and quantifying how much biomass can be extracted sustainably, generate financial returns, and help the industry achieving high-quality products for consumers.
This chapter sets the scene for research on biomass supply assessments in Europe and reviews 40 studies delivered during the last 14 years. It analyzes context, key components in terms of terminology, framework conditions and assumptions, models used, and evidence provided so far for policy, research, and industry. It further discusses the main challenges, identifies gaps, and provides recommendations.
Protecting effect of PrP codons M142 and K222 in goats orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions
Fast, C. ; Goldmann, W. ; Berthon, P. ; Tauscher, Kerstin ; Andréoletti, O. ; Lantier, I. ; Rossignol, C. ; Bossers, A. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Hunter, N. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Lantier, F. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2017
Veterinary Research 48 (2017)1. - ISSN 0928-4249
Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and experimental studies have provided evidence for several amino acid polymorphisms that are associated with resistance to scrapie, but only limited data are available concerning the susceptibility of caprine PRNP genotypes to BSE. In this study, goat kids representing five PRNP genotypes based on three polymorphisms (M142, Q211 and K222 and the wild type I142, R211 and Q222) were orally challenged with bovine or goat BSE. Wild type goats were killed with clinical signs between 24-28 months post inoculation (mpi) to both challenges, and goats with genotype R/Q211 succumbed between 29-36 mpi. I/M142 goats developed clinical signs at 44-45 mpi and M/M142 goats remained healthy until euthanasia at 48 mpi. None of the Q/K222 goats showed definite clinical signs. Taken together the highest attack ratios were seen in wild type and R/Q211 goats, and the lowest in I/M142, M/M142 and Q/K222. In all genotype groups, one or more goats remained healthy within the incubation period in both challenges and without detectable PrP deposition in the tissues. Our data show that both the K222 and M142 polymorphisms lengthen the incubation period significantly compared to wild type animals, but only K222 was associated with a significant increase in resistance to BSE infection after oral exposure to both BSE sources.
Variation in the prion protein in Dutch goats for selective breeding to eradicate Scrapie
Windig, Jack ; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2017
Genetic management without pedigree: effectiveness of a breeding circle in a rare sheep breed
Windig, Jack ; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2017
EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats
Meloni, Daniela ; Bozzetta, Elena ; Langeveld, Jan P.M. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Goldmann, Wilfred ; Andrèoletti, Olivier ; Lantier, Isabelle ; Keulen, Lucien Van; Bossers, Alex ; Pitardi, Danilo ; Nonno, Romolo ; Sklaviadis, Theodoros ; Ingravalle, Francesco ; Peletto, Simone ; Colussi, Silvia ; Acutis, Pier Luigi - \ 2017
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29 (2017)2. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 232 - 236.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy - diagnosis - EU - goats - rapid tests - scrapie - sensitivity - surveillance
We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity, with the IDEXX test significantly more sensitive than the 2 Bio-Rad tests. All tests detected 100% of samples from goats with clinical scrapie, but missed 8% (IDEXX) to 33% (Bio-Rad SG) of samples from preclinical goats. Importantly, only IDEXX picked up all samples from clinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected goats, whereas the other 2 rapid tests missed 15% (Bio-Rad SG) to 25% (Bio-Rad SAP). These results show that a fraction of preclinical scrapie infections are likely missed by EU surveillance, with sensitivity of detection strongly dependent on the choice of the rapid test. Moreover, a significant proportion of clinical BSE infections are underestimated by using either Bio-Rad test. Assuming that the same sensitivity on preclinical goats would also occur in BSE-infected goats, our data suggest that IDEXX is likely the most sensitive test for detecting preclinical field cases of BSE infection in goats, although with an 8% failure rate. These results raise some concerns about the reliability of current EU surveillance figures on BSE infection in goats.
The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States
Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Gibbons, Shannon ; Koelliker, Yvonne ; Civille, Gail V. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. - \ 2017
Food Quality and Preference 57 (2017). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this relationship (liquid, semi-solid or solid), in a range of commercially available foods from the United States. Basic taste intensities (sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness) of 237 processed foods were obtained by an expert sensory panel using the Spectrum™ method. Sweet taste intensity was associated with mono- and disaccharides (r = 0.70, p < 0.001), but not energy content (r = 0.11, p > 0.05). Salt taste intensity was associated with sodium (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) and protein (r = 0.39, p < 0.001), and fat (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and energy content (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). Contrary to expectations, associations between taste and nutrient content were not stronger in liquids than in (semi-)solids. Cluster analysis on taste revealed 3 food groups: a sweet, salty and neutral tasting food group. Saltiness was associated with sodium content in salty foods (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) but not in sweet foods (r = 0.30, p > 0.05). Sweetness was associated with mono- and disaccharides in sweet foods (r = 0.55, p < 0.001) and in salty foods (r = 0.33, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that sweet and salt taste intensity can signal the presence of nutrients, in particular mono- and disaccharides and sodium. However, the relationship between taste and nutrients may be weaker in complex foods with competing tastes. The effect of food form on this relationship is more difficult to demonstrate in real-life foods.
Genetic, histochemical and biochemical studies on goat TSE cases from Cyprus
Niedermeyer, Susanne ; Eiden, Martin ; Toumazos, Pavlos ; Langeveld, Jan ; Bossers, Alex - \ 2016
Veterinary Research 47 (2016). - ISSN 0928-4249 - 14 p.

Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's) affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility of goats to scrapie is influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) of the host. Five polymorphisms are associated with reduced susceptibility to TSE's. In the study presented here caprine samples from a scrapie eradication program on Cyprus were genotyped and further characterized using BioRad TeSeE rapid test, histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. In total 42 goats from 20 flocks were necropsied from which 25 goats showed a positive result in the rapid test, a spongiform encephalopathy and an accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrPSc) in the obex. PrPSc deposits were demonstrated in the placenta, peripheral nervous and lymphoreticular system. Two animals showed PrPSc-accumulations in peripheral tissues only. By discriminatory immunoblots a scrapie infection could be confirmed for all cases. Nevertheless, slight deviations in the glycosylation pattern might indicate the presence of different scrapie strains. Furthermore scrapie samples from goats in the current study demonstrated less long term resistance to proteinase K than ovine or caprine BSE control samples. Reduced scrapie susceptibility according to the PRNP genotype was demonstrated (Fishers Exact test, p <0.05) for the goats with at least one polymorphism (p = 0.023) at the six codons examined and in particular for those with polymorphisms at codon 146 (p = 0.016). This work characterizes scrapie in goats having implications for breeding and surveillance strategies.

Scrapie incidence and PRNP polymorphisms : Rare small ruminant breeds of Sicily with TSE protecting genetic reservoirs
Vitale, Maria ; Migliore, Sergio ; Giglia, Maria La; Alberti, Placido ; Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo Di; Langeveld, Jan P.M. - \ 2016
BMC Veterinary Research 12 (2016)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
Autochthonous breeds - Breeding programs - PRNP polymorphism - Scrapie surveillance - TSE

Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of several mammalian species, including humans. In Italy, the active surveillance through rapid tests on brain stem from small ruminants started in 2002 on randomly selected samples of healthy slaughtered animals. Sampling number was proportionally related to the regional small ruminant population. Of the twenty Italian regions, Sicily has the second largest population of small ruminants which is mainly constituted by crossbreed animals (>70 %). Sicily contains also three native sheep breeds Pinzirita, Comisana and Valle del Belice. Native goat breeds are Girgentana, Messinese, Argentata dell'Etna, Maltese and Rossa Mediterranea. The polymorphisms of prion protein gene (PRNP) may influence disease susceptibility and breeding programs for genetic TSE resistance are being applied in sheep. Protective alleles have been recently reported for goats also. These differ from those in sheep and may allow breeding programs in the near future. In this paper the data of active surveillance for scrapie control in general population of small ruminants in Sicily are reported together with the analysis on the polymorphism of PRNP in a number of Sicilian autochthonous breeds. The evaluation of the frequency of protective alleles is fundamental for the implementation of a TSE resistance breeding program. Results: TSE surveillance in small ruminants in Sicily showed a of total fifty seven scrapie outbreaks from 1997 to 2014 involving mainly crossbreed animals. The PRNP polymorphism analysis in autochthonous breeds showed protective allele frequencies of 30-40 % ARR in sheep and 12-18 % K222 in three of the four goat breeds; these breeds are distributed over limited areas of the island. Conclusion: The study on PRNP polymorphisms in Sicilian small ruminant population showed higher frequency of the protective alleles compared to most other European breeds. Our results suggest that PRNP genetic variety in Sicilian sheep and goats can be a resource for TSE resistance breeding programmes while maintaining the conservation of endangered breeds and valorisation of their typical food products.

Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds
Windig, J.J. ; Hoving, R.A.H. ; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 133 (2016)5. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 366 - 374.
Goat - Haplotype frequency - Scrapie

Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142/S240 and M142/P240. Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds.

Prion type-dependent deposition of PRNP allelic products in heterozygous sheep
Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Hunter, N. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Lantier, F. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Bossers, A. - \ 2016
Journal of Virology 90 (2016)2. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 805 - 812.

Susceptibility or resistance to prion infection in humans and animals depends on single prion protein (PrP) amino acid substitutions in the host, but the agent's modulating role has not been well investigated. Compared to disease incubation times in wild-type homozygous ARQ/ARQ (where each triplet represents the amino acids at codons 136, 154, and 171, respectively) sheep, scrapie susceptibility is reduced to near resistance in ARR/ARR animals while it is strongly enhanced in VRQ/VRQ carriers. Heterozygous ARR/VRQ animals exhibit delayed incubation periods. In bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection, the polymorphism effect is quite different although the ARR allotype remains the least susceptible. In this study, PrP allotype composition in protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) from brain of heterozygous ARR/ VRQ scrapie-infected sheep was compared with that of BSE-infected sheep with a similar genotype. A triplex Western blotting technique was used to estimate the two allotype PrP fractions in PrPres material from BSE-infected ARR/VRQ sheep. PrPres in BSE contained equimolar amounts of VRQ- and ARR-PrP, which contrasts with the excess (>95%) VRQPrP fraction found in PrP in scrapie. This is evidence that transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent properties alone, perhaps structural aspects of prions (such as PrP amino acid sequence variants and PrP conformational state), determine the polymorphic dependence of the PrPres accumulation process in prion formation as well as the disease-associated phenotypic expressions in the host.

Immunolabelling of non-phosphorylated neurofilament indicates damage of spinal cord axons in TSE-infected goats
Nadeem, M. ; Spitzbarth, I. ; Haist, V. ; Rohn, K. ; Tauscher, K. ; Rohn, K. ; Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J. ; Papasavva-Stylianou, P. ; Groschup, M.H. ; Baumgärtner, W. ; Gerhauser, I. ; Fast, C. - \ 2016
Veterinary Record 178 (2016)6. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 141 - 141.
Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds
Goldmann, W. ; Stewart, P. ; Marier, E. ; Konold, T. ; Street, S. ; Windl, O. ; Ortiz-Pelaez, A. ; Langeveld, J. - \ 2016
Veterinary Record 178 (2016)7. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 168 - 168.

Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level.

Cost-effective and integrated optimization of the Eindhoven urban wastewater system: From modelling to implementation
Benedetti, Lorenzo ; Langeveld, Jeroen ; Amerlinck, Youri ; Jonge, Jarno de; Klein, Jeroen de; Flameling, Tony ; Nopens, Ingmar ; Zanten, Oscar van; Weijers, Stefan - \ 2015
In: 88th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2015. - Water Environment Federation - ISBN 9781510870468 - p. 344 - 347.
Cost-effective systems upgrade - Impact based real-time control - Integrated urban wastewater system modelling - Optimization

This project aims at finding cost-efficient adaptive measures to meet the EU Water Framework Directive goals for the Dommel River (The Netherlands). Both acute and long-term impacts of the urban wastewater system (treatment plant and sewers) on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied. An integrated model, which proved to be a powerful tool to analyse the interactions within the integrated urban wastewater system, was used to evaluate several different measures in the urban wastewater system both using the existing as well as new infrastructure and real-time control (RTC) strategies. In this paper, emphasis is put on the results from the latest integrated RTC design and model-based evaluation, and on the first tests on the real system of selected measures, i.e. modified primary treatment, and improved rain buffer tank control and in-stream aeration.

Fokken en scrapie resistentie in Nederlandse geiten
Windig, J.J. ; Hoving, A.H. ; Priem, J. ; Keulen, L. van; Langeveld, J. - \ 2015
Behoud TSE-ongevoelige geiten (TSE=overdraagbare sponsvormige hersenaandoening zoals scrapie, atypische scrapie, of BSE)
Windig, J.J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Hoving, A.H. - \ 2015
Zeldzaam huisdier 2015 (2015). - ISSN 0929-905X
Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP polymorphic variants in the susceptibility of goats to oral infections with Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia ; Fast, C. ; Tauscher, Kerstin ; Espinosa, J.C. ; Groschup, M.H. ; Muhammad, Nadeem ; Goldmann, W. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Bossers, A. ; Andreoletti, O. - \ 2015
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 212 (2015)4. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 664 - 672.
Background. The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear.

Methods. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP genotypes were orally inoculated with a goat-BSE isolate to assess their relative susceptibility to BSE infection. Goats were killed at different time points during the incubation period and after the onset of clinical signs, and their brains as well as several peripheral tissues were analyzed for the accumulation of pathological prion protein (PrPSc) and prion infectivity by mouse bioassay.

Results. R/Q211 goats displayed delayed clinical signs compared with wild-type goats. Deposits of PrPSc were detected only in brain, whereas infectivity was present in peripheral tissues too. In contrast, none of the Q/K222 goats showed any evidence of clinical prion disease. No PrPSc accumulation was observed in their brains or peripheral tissues, but very low infectivity was detected in some tissues very long after inoculation (44–45 months).

Conclusions. These results demonstrate that transmission of goat BSE is genotype dependent, and they highlight the pivotal protective effect of the K222 PRNP variant in the oral susceptibility of goats to BSE.
Goat scrapie resistance: Monitoring, genotyping and breeding
Hoving, A.H. ; Windig, J.J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Priem, J. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2015
Climate Change in Southern Africa: Farmers’ Perceptions and Responses
Kuivanen, K. ; Alvarez, S. ; Langeveld, C.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 46 p.
climatic change - farmers - attitudes - knowledge systems - adaptation - rural communities - southern africa - klimaatverandering - boeren - kennissystemen - adaptatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - zuidelijk afrika
Southern Africa is characterized by natural climate variability onto which human-induced climate change is being superimposed. Rural communities that depend heavily on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate-related change. This report takes stock of existing perceptions of- and responses to climate change among smallholder farmers in the region, in the hope of contributing to a better understanding of the complexities of local knowledge- and adaptation systems.
Vaak scrapieresistentie bij Nederlandse Toggenburgers
Hoving-Bolink, A.H. ; Windig, J.J. ; Koekoek, A. ; Hoekstra, H. ; Oldenbroek, J.K. ; Langeveld, J. - \ 2015
Zeldzaam huisdier 40 (2015)1. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 20 - 21.
rassen (dieren) - geitenrassen - zeldzame rassen - genetische variatie - scrapie - ziekteresistentie - nederlandse toggenburgergeit - geitenziekten - dierveredeling - toegepast onderzoek - breeds - goat breeds - rare breeds - genetic variation - disease resistance - dutch toggenburg - goat diseases - animal breeding - applied research
Zeldzame Nederlandse rassen zijn niet alleen onderdeel van ons cultureel erfgoed, maar hebben soms ook een verrassende genetische variant. Zo is sinds een paar jaar bekend dat er een allel bestaat dat bescherming biedt tegen scrapie. In onderzoek van Wageningen UR met de geitensector blijkt dat het relatief kleine ras de Nederlandse Toggenburger veel dieren kent met het scrapieresistentie allel.
TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrPSc profiles and triplex Western blot
Keulen, L.J.M. van; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Dolstra, C.H. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Bossers, A. ; Zijderveld, F.G. van - \ 2015
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 41 (2015)6. - ISSN 1365-2990 - p. 756 - 779.
TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of mice infected with the same TSE strain and to variation between observers and laboratories in scoring vacuolation and determining the final incubation period. Aim: We investigated the potential of PrPSc immunohistochemistry and triplex Western blotting as possible alternative methods to differentiate between TSE strains. Methods: TSE reference strains ME7, 87A/87V, 22A/22C, 79A/79V and 301C/301V were intracerebrally inoculated in RIII or VM inbred mice that differ in their PrP genotype. Immunohistochemical PrPSc profiles were drawn up by scanning light microscopy both on coronal and sagittal sections. Results: On the basis of the localization of PrPSc in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex and the overall type of PrPSc staining, all TSE strains could be well differentiated from each other through their typical strain dependent characteristics. In addition, Western blot showed that the combination of glycosylation profile and 12B2 epitope content of PrPSc allowed to distinguish between all reference strains except for ME7 and 22A in VM mice. Conclusion: TSE strains in mice can be identified on the basis of their PrPSc profile alone. The potential to identify TSE strains in ruminants with these PrPSc profiles after a single primary passage in mice will be the topic of future studies.
Sheep prions with molecular properties intermediate between classical scrapie, BSE and CH1641-scrapie
Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Jacobs, J.G. ; Erkens, J.H.F. ; Baron, T. ; Andreoletti, O. ; Yokoyama, T. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Davidse, A. ; Hope, J. ; Tang, Y. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2014
Prion 8 (2014)4. - ISSN 1933-6896 - p. 296 - 305.
Efforts to differentiate bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from scrapie in prion infected sheep have resulted
in effective methods to decide about the absence of BSE. In rare instances uncertainties remain due to assumptions
that BSE, classical scrapie and CH1641–a rare scrapie variant–could occur as mixtures. In field samples including those
from fallen stock, triplex Western blotting analyses of variations in the molecular properties of the proteinase K resistant
part of the disease‑associated form of prion protein (PrPres) represents a powerful tool for quick discrimination
purposes. In this study we examined 7 deviant ovine field cases of scrapie for some typical molecular aspects of PrPres
found in CH1641‑scrapie, classical scrapie and BSE. One case was most close to scrapie with respect to molecular mass
of its non-glycosylated fraction and N-terminally located 12B2‑epitope content. Two cases were unlike classical scrapie
but too weak to differentiate between BSE or CH1641. The other 4 cases appeared intermediate between scrapie and
CH1641 with a reduced molecular mass and 12B2‑epitope content, together with the characteristic presence of a
second PrPres population. The existence of these 2 PrPres populations was further confirmed through deglycosylation by
PNGaseF. The findings indicate that discriminatory diagnosis between classical scrapie, CH1641 and BSE can remain
inconclusive with current biochemical methods. Whether such intermediate cases represent mixtures of TSE strains
should be further investigated e.g. in bioassays with rodent lines that are varying in their susceptibility or other
techniques suitable for strain typing.
Analyzing the effect of biofuel expansion on land use in major producing countries: evidence of increased multiple cropping
Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Dixon, J. ; Keulen, H. van; Quist-Wessel, P.M.F. - \ 2014
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 8 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 49 - 58.
Estimates on impacts of biofuel production often use models with limited ability to incorporate changes in land use, notably cropping intensity. This review studies biofuel expansion between 2000 and 2010 in Brazil, the USA, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Mozambique, South Africa plus 27 EU member states. In 2010, these countries produced 86 billion litres of ethanol and 15 billion litres of biodiesel. Land use increased by 25 Mha, of which 11 Mha is associated with co-products, i.e. by-products of biofuel production processes used as animal feed. In the decade up to 2010, agricultural land decreased by 9 Mha overall. It expanded by 22 Mha in Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Mozambique, some 31 Mha was lost in the USA, the EU, and South Africa due to urbanization, expansion of infrastructure, conversion into nature, and land abandonment. Increases in cropping intensity accounted for 42 Mha of additional harvested area. Together with increased co-product availability for animal feed, this was sufficient to increase the net harvested area (NHA, crop area harvested for food, feed, and fiber markets) in the study countries by 19 Mha. Thus, despite substantial expansion of biofuel production, more land has become available for non-fuel applications. Biofuel crop areas and NHA increased in most countries including the USA and Brazil. It is concluded that biofuel expansion in 2000-2010 is not associated with a decline in the NHA available for food crop production. The increases in multiple cropping have often been overlooked and should be considered more fully in calculations of (indirect) land-use change (iLUC). (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Evaluation of two commercial, rapid, ELISA kits testing or scrapie in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes in sheep
Kittelberger, R. ; McIntuyre, L. ; Watts, S. ; MacDiarmid, S. ; Hannah, M.J. ; Jenner, J. ; Bueno, R. ; Swainsbury, R. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Wemheuer, W.M. ; Richt, J.A. ; Sorenson, S.J. ; Pigott, C.J. ; O'Keefe, J.S. - \ 2014
New Zealand Veterinary Journal 62 (2014)6. - ISSN 0048-0169 - p. 343 - 350.
natural scrapie - prion protein - immunohistochemical detection - new-zealand - prp - accumulation - diagnosis - genotypes - tissues - brain
AIMS: To estimate the number of cases of scrapie that would occur in sheep of different prion protein (PrP) genotypes if scrapie was to become established in New Zealand, and to compare the performance of two commercially available, rapid ELISA kits using ovine retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) from non-infected and infected sheep of different PrP genotypes. METHODS: Using published data on the distribution of PrP genotypes within the New Zealand sheep flock and the prevalence of cases of scrapie in these genotypes in the United Kingdom, the annual expected number of cases of scrapie per genotype was estimated, should scrapie become established in New Zealand, assuming a total population of 28 million sheep. A non-infected panel of RLN was collected from 737 sheep from New Zealand that had been culled, found in extremis or died. Brain stem samples were also collected from 131 of these sheep. A second panel of infected samples comprised 218 and 117 RLN from confirmed scrapie cases that had originated in Europe and the United States of America, respectively. All samples were screened using two commercial, rapid, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy ELISA kits: Bio-Rad TeSeE ELISA (ELISA-BR), and IDEXX HerdChek BSE-Scrapie AG Test (ELISA-ID). RESULTS: If scrapie became established in New Zealand, an estimated 596 cases would occur per year; of these 234 (39%) and 271 (46%) would be in sheep carrying ARQ/ARQ and ARQ/VRQ PrP genotypes, respectively. For the non-infected samples from New Zealand the diagnostic specificity of both ELISA kits was 100%. When considering all infected samples, the diagnostic sensitivity was 70.4 (95% CI=65.3-75.3)% for ELISA-BR and 91.6 (95% CI=88.2-94.4)% for ELISA-ID. For the ARQ/ARQ genotype (n=195), sensitivity was 66.2% for ELISA-BR and 90.8% for ELISA-ID, and for the ARQ/VRQ genotype (n=107), sensitivity was 81.3% for ELISA-BR and 98.1% for ELISA-ID. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the ELISA-ID kit demonstrated a higher diagnostic sensitivity for detecting scrapie in samples of RLN from sheep carrying scrapie-susceptible PrP genotypes than the ELISA-BR kit at comparable diagnostic specificity.
A framework with an integrated computer support tool to assess regional biomass delivery chains
Elbersen, B.S. ; Annevelink, E. ; Roos Klein-Lankhorst, J. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Elbersen, H.W. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 967 - 980.
netherlands - scenarios
In this paper, we first provide a brief overview of other decision support tools for bioenergy and assess to which extent the integrated tool central in this paper is different and novel. Next, a description is given of the tool, the different models used and the functionalities. The working of the tool is then illustrated with three case studies based in the northern part of The Netherlands. The computerised tool is meant to support the communication process between stakeholders to come to the implementation of regional biomass delivery chains. It helps to create a quick and common understanding of optimal biomass use in a region. Although the tool has been applied only to bioenergy chains, other biochemical and biomaterial chains are also suitable to be incorporated. The three case studies presented include a conventional sugar beet bioethanol production chain, an advanced Miscanthus bioethanol conversion chain and a straw-based electricity chain. The main conclusions are that optimal biomass use for nonfood purposes from a sustainability and resource-efficient perspective depend on many different factors specific to the conversion chains. For example, the green house gas (GHG) emission and mitigation potential of a sugar beetbased bioethanol chain requires careful organisation particularly on the primary biomass production and transport, while in a straw-based electricity chain, the largest efficiency gains can be reached in the conversion part. Land use change (LUC) to sugar beet generally causes more negative environmental impacts than LUC to Miscanthus. This applies to both GHG efficiency, soil organic carbon content and emissions of nitrogen to surface waters. At the same time, it becomes clear that the different scenario assumptions can be very influential, particularly on the final economic performance of a chain. Overall, it is clear from the cases that the users understand much better under which circumstances and through which mechanisms the designed chains can become profitable and can become more environmentally sustainable.
Biofuel production in southern Africa
Quist-Wessel, P.M.F. ; Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Berg, M. van der; Leonardo, W.J. - \ 2014
In: Biofuel Cropping Systems - Carbon, land and food / Langeveld, J.W.A., Dixon, J., van Keulen, H., Earthscan - ISBN 9780415539531 - p. 174 - 194.
Evaluation of the Effect of Agricultural Management on Energy Yield and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction of Bioenergy Production Chains
Conijn, S. ; Corre, W.J. ; Langeveld, H. ; Davies, J.A.R. - \ 2014
Natural Resources 5 (2014). - ISSN 2158-7086 - p. 322 - 335.
The role of energy crops in reducing fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is much debated. To improve decision making on the use of crops for producing bioenergy, a tool (Energy Crop Simulation Model or E-CROP) has been developed to calculate 1) sustainable crop dry matter yield levels as function of agricultural inputs, and 2) gross and net energy yield and greenhouse gas emission reduction, covering the entire bioenergy production chain from sowing to distribution of bioenergy. E-CROP can be applied to a wide range of crops, soils, climatic conditions, management choices, and conversion technologies. This paper describes E-CROP and focuses on its application on four arable crops, as cultivated on two contrasting sites in the Netherlands (potato and sugar beet for bioethanol, winter oilseed rape for biodiesel and silage maize for bioelectricity) and on the effect of crop management (viz. irrigation and nitrogen fertilisation). In all situations, gross energy output exceeded total energy input. Calculated for an average situation, net energy yield ranged from 45 to 140 GJ·ha-1. Lowering irrigation and/or fertilisation input levels generally resulted in a reduction of net energy yields. The net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the average situation ranged from 0.60 to 6.5 t CO2-eq·ha-1. In general, N2O emission from nitrogen fertiliser caused large variations in the net reduction of greenhouse gas emission, which even became negative in some situations. Lowering nitrogen fertilisation to levels that are suboptimal for net energy yields enhanced the net reduction in greenhouse gas emission, implicating that both goals cannot be optimised simultaneously. Agricultural knowledge is important for optimising the outputs of bioenergy production chains.
Prion disease tempo determined by host-dependent substrate reduction
Mays, C.E. ; Kim, C. ; Haldiman, T. ; Merwe, J. v.d.; Lau, A. ; Yang, J. ; Grams, J. ; Bari, M.A. Di; Nonno, R. ; Telling, G.C. ; Kong, Q. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; McKenzie, D. ; Westaway, D. ; Safar, J.G. - \ 2014
The Journal of Clinical Investigation 124 (2014)2. - ISSN 0021-9738 - p. 847 - 858.
chronic wasting disease - transgenic mice - cyclic amplification - cultured-cells - sheep scrapie - prpsc levels - protein - propagation - immunoassay - strains
The symptoms of prion infection can take years or decades to manifest following the initial exposure. Molecular markers of prion disease include accumulation of the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc), which is derived from its cellular precursor (PrPC), as well as downregulation of the PrP-like Shadoo (Sho) glycoprotein. Given the overlapping cellular environments for PrPC and Sho, we inferred that PrPC levels might also be altered as part of a host response during prion infection. Using rodent models, we found that, in addition to changes in PrPC glycosylation and proteolytic processing, net reductions in PrPC occur in a wide range of prion diseases, including sheep scrapie, human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and cervid chronic wasting disease. The reduction in PrPC results in decreased prion replication, as measured by the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique for generating PrPSc in vitro. While PrPC downregulation is not discernible in animals with unusually short incubation periods and high PrPC expression, slowly evolving prion infections exhibit downregulation of the PrPC substrate required for new PrPSc synthesis and as a receptor for pathogenic signaling. Our data reveal PrPC downregulation as a previously unappreciated element of disease pathogenesis that defines the extensive, presymptomatic period for many prion strains
Enhanced virulence of sheep-passaged bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent is revealed by decreased polymorphism barriers in prion protein conversions studies.
Priem, J. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Andreoletti, O. ; Bossers, A. - \ 2014
Journal of Virology 88 (2014)5. - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 2903 - 2912.
misfolding cyclic amplification - in-vitro amplification - cell-free conversion - susceptibility-linked polymorphisms - transgenic mice - natural scrapie - classical scrapie - oral-transmission - infectious prions - resistant forms
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to small ruminants (sheep and goats) with certain prion protein (PrP) genotypes. Polymorphisms in PrP of both the host and donor influence the transmission efficiency of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in general. These polymorphisms in PrP also modulate the PrP conversion underlying TSE agent replication. Here we demonstrate that single-round protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) can be used to assess species and polymorphism barriers at the molecular level. We assessed those within and between the ovine and bovine species in vitro using a variety of natural scrapie and experimentally generated cross-species BSE agents. These BSE agents include ovBSE-ARQ isolates (BSE derived from sheep having the ARQ/ARQ PrP genotype), and two unique BSE-derived variants: BSE passaged in VRQ/VRQ sheep and a cow BSE agent isolate generated by back-transmission of ovBSE-ARQ into its original host. PMCA allowed us to quantitatively determine PrP conversion profiles that correlated with known in vivo transmissibility and susceptibility in the two ruminant species in which strain-specific molecular signatures, like its molecular weight after protease digestion, were maintained. Furthermore, both BSE agent isolates from ARQ and VRQ sheep demonstrated a surprising transmission profile in which efficient transmissions to both sheep and bovine variants was combined. Finally, all data support the notion that ARQ-derived sheep BSE points to a significant increase in virulence compared to all other tested scrapie- and BSE-derived variants reflected by the increased conversion efficiencies of previously inefficient convertible PrP variants (including the so-called “resistant” sheep ARR variant).
To like or not to like: Neural substrates of subjective flavor preferences
Bosch, I. van den; Dalenberg, J.R. ; Renken, R. ; Langeveld, A.W.B. van; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Horst, G.J. ter; Graaf, C. de; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2014
Behavioural Brain Research 269 (2014). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 128 - 137.
human orbitofrontal cortex - human brain - different representations - selective attention - prefrontal cortex - taste stimuli - humans - reward - pleasantness - activation
Flavor preferences vary; what one enjoys may be disgusting to another. Previous research has indicated several brain regions associated with flavor preferences. However, by using different stimuli or different internal states to obtain differences in liking, results of these studies may be confounded. Therefore, we used one target stimulus (grapefruit juice) and fMRI to compare brain activation patterns between participants that either liked (n = 16) or disliked (n = 18) this stimulus. Our first aim was to investigate whether differential neural activation exists that accounts for the difference in subjective flavor preference for the target stimulus. Secondly, multivariate analysis was used to investigate whether differences in subjective liking for the target revealed similar activation patterns as differences in general liking for a sweet and bitter solution. A direct comparison of likers and dislikers of the target stimulus revealed only small differences in activations in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). However, when using multivariate analysis, a broader activation pattern (including OFC, dACC, pregenual anterior cingulate, anterior insula and ventral striatum) was identified that discriminated likers from dislikers with an 88% success rate. Interestingly though, little overlap was found between this pattern and the pattern that discriminates liking for the sweet and bitter solutions and lesser voxels contributed to the former compared with the latter. These differences between patterns discerning innate versus learned preferences may suggest that different mechanisms are at work and highlight the importance of elucidating the neural processes of how subjective preferences are learned and acquired.
Prion Protein-specific antibodies that detect multiple TSE Agents with high sensitivity
McCutcheon, S. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Tan, B.C. ; Gill, A.C. ; Wolf, C.A. de; Martin, S. ; Gonzalez, L. ; Alibhai, J. ; Alejo Blanco, A.R. ; Campbell, L. ; Hunter, N. ; Houston, E.F. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
bovine spongiform encephalopathy - creutzfeldt-jakob-disease - prp monoclonal-antibodies - cellular prion - scrapie prion - immunofluorometric assay - differential-diagnosis - pentosan polysulfate - nonhuman-primates - infected sheep
This paper describes the generation, characterisation and potential applications of a panel of novel anti-prion protein monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The mAbs were generated by immunising PRNP null mice, using a variety of regimes, with a truncated form of recombinant ovine prion protein spanning residues 94–233. Epitopes of specific antibodies were mapped using solid-phase Pepscan analysis and clustered to four distinct regions within the PrP molecule. We have demonstrated the utility of these antibodies by use of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in tissues from a range of different species affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In comparative tests against extensively-used and widely-published, commercially available antibodies, similar or improved results can be obtained using these new mAbs, specifically in terms of sensitivity of detection. Since many of these antibodies recognise native PrPC, they could also be applied to a broad range of immunoassays such as flow cytometry, DELFIA analysis or immunoprecipitation. We are using these reagents to increase our understanding of TSE pathogenesis and for use in potential diagnostic screening assays.
Behoud TSE-ongevoelige geiten
Langeveld, Jan - \ 2014
Ethanol from sugar beet in The Netherlands: energy production and efficiency
Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Vries, S.C. de; Brink, L. van den; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2014
International Journal of Sustainable Development 17 (2014)1. - ISSN 0960-1406 - p. 78 - 88.
Prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in The Netherlands have been analysed using measured production data from two experimental farms and literature on beet to ethanol conversion. The analyses include beet cultivation and harvesting, transport to the factory, conversion into ethanol and delivery of the ethanol to distribution points. Under the prevailing conditions, ethanol production from sugar beet shows to be reasonably energy efficient. A net energy production has been calculated of 32 and 37 GJ/ha. Crop and ethanol yields are above those reported elsewhere, as is the energy use per hectare which is related to crop yield. Applying alternative energy generating technology at the ethanol factory suggests that considerable energy gains can be realised. Another source of variation is the allocation ratio of energy to ethanol and by-products. The calculations suggest that the prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in Europe can be considerable, if energy inputs can be reduced, by using crop residues
Impact-based integrated real-time control for improvement of the Dommel River water quality
Langeveld, J. ; Benedetti, L. ; Klein, J.J.M. de; Nopens, I. ; Amerlinck, Y. ; Nieuwenhuijzen, A.F. van; Flameling, T. ; Zanten, O. van; Weijers, S. - \ 2013
Urban Water Journal 10 (2013)5. - ISSN 1573-062X - p. 312 - 329.
drainage systems - treatment-plant - models - calibration - pollution - design
The KALLISTO project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the river Dommel. Within the project, both acute and long term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied with an integral monitoring campaign in the urban wastewater system (WWTP and sewers) and in the river. Based on this monitoring campaign, detailed models were calibrated. These models are partly simplified and integrated in a single model, which is validated using the detailed submodels. The integrated model was used to study the potential for impact-based real-time control (RTC). Impact based RTC proved to be able to improve the quality of the receiving waters significantly, although additional measures remain necessary to be able to meet the WFD requirements
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