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Defining and applying the concept of Favourable Reference Values for species habitats under the EU Birds and Habitats Directives : examples of setting favourable reference values
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Agrillo, E. ; Attorre, F. ; Boitani, L. ; Brunner, A. ; Evans, P. ; Foppen, R. ; Gubbay, S. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Langhout, W. ; Pacifici, M. ; Ramirez, I. ; Rondinini, C. ; Roomen, M. van; Siepel, H. ; Swaaij, C.A.M. van; Winter, H.V. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2929) - 219
Defining and applying the concept of Favourable Reference Values for species habitats under the EU Birds and Habitats Directives : technical report
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Agrillo, E. ; Attorre, F. ; Boitani, L. ; Brunner, A. ; Evans, P. ; Foppen, R. ; Gubbay, S. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Langhout, W. ; Noordhuis, R. ; Pacifici, M. ; Ramirez, I. ; Rondinini, C. ; Roomen, M. van; Siepel, H. ; Winter, H.V. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2928) - 93
Prevalence of dental disorders in degus and evaluation of diagnostic methods to determine dental disease and its prognosis
Bolhuis, Hester van; Hoffen, Lotte van; Zijll Langhout, Martine van; Engeldorp Gastelaars, Heleen van; Hendriks, Wouter ; Lamberts, Marnix ; Kik, Marja - \ 2017
Veterinary Record 181 (2017)23. - ISSN 0042-4900
apical elongation - calcium - malocclusion - octodon degus - phosphorus - radiography
Degus (Octodon degus) are prone to develop dental disease with deleterious health effects. The two studies reported here aimed to determine the prevalence of dental disorders in degus and to identify and evaluate diagnostic tools for determination of prognosis of these disorders. In study A, health data from 225 degus at AAP, Rescue Center for Exotic Animals in the Netherlands, were collated and the prevalence of dental disorders and differences in sex and age at clinical onset of symptoms associated with dental disorders were described. The prevalence was 34.7 per cent and higher (P<0.01) in males than in females. The occurrence of cheek teeth malocclusion was highly positively (P<0.0001) correlated to mortality. In study B, 36 skulls were examined by macroscopic evaluation, radiography and histology. Additionally, the calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) of mandibular bone in degus with and without dental disorders were determined. There was no significant (P=0.10) difference in Ca:P between the two groups. Quantifying mandibular apical cheek teeth elongation via macroscopic evaluation was highly correlated (P<0.01) to the results obtained via radiography. Examination for apical elongation by palpation and diagnostic imaging should be included in routine health monitoring of degus. Apical elongation appeared to develop before coronal elongation and when cheek teeth malocclusion occurred, prognosis for recovery of dental disease was poor.
Small intestine development in chicks after hatch and in pigs around the time of weaning and its relation with nutrition: A review
Wijtten, P.J.A. ; Langhout, D.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2012
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A-Animal Science 62 (2012)1. - ISSN 0906-4702 - p. 1 - 12.
epithelial-cell migration - early-weaned pigs - digestive enzyme-activity - acid-supplemented diets - dried porcine plasma - coli k88 challenge - egg-yolk antibody - gastrointestinal-tract - growth-performance - broiler-chickens
The period after hatch in broilers and around the time of weaning in pigs is critical for development and for adaptation of the small intestine to the nutritional changes. In broilers, the small-intestinal weight relative to body weight and villous height increase rapidly during the first week after hatch. After the first week, the relative small-intestinal weight decreases gradually, but the villous height continues to increase. In pigs, at 4 d after weaning, villous height decreases to about 60% of the pre-weaning height when weaned between 1 and 4 wk of age. Two weeks after weaning, this recovers to similar values as in unweaned control animals independent of weaning age. Small-intestinal development after hatch and after weaning consistently deteriorates at low feed intake levels and with suboptimal protein nutrition. These findings stress the importance of applying an optimal nutritional strategy in these phases of life to reach optimal small-intestinal development.
Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy farming in the Netherlands
Wagenaar, J.P. ; Langhout, D.J. - \ 2009
melkveehouderij - zogen - spenen - speengewicht - melkkwaliteit - biologische landbouw - celgetal - dairy farming - suckling - weaning - weaning weight - milk quality - organic farming - somatic cell count
In an on-farm experiment three calf rearing methods were compared: bucket feeding of milk replacer, bucket feeding of tank milk and suckling of mother or nurse cow up to three months of age. Aim was to determine whether the technical results of suckling systems in calf rearing were satisfactory. Calves reared in a suckling system reached significantly higher liveweights at weaning (90 days). Although the average growth rate between weaning and the age of 1 year did not differ significantly, liveweight at 1 year did still differ significantly. Compared to both bucket fed rearing groups, suckling did not have a significant effect on Somatic Cell Count (SCC) of mothers. Suckling systems in calf rearing in organic dairy production show satisfactory technical results. Calves have the potential to grow fast and no negative effect of suckling on SCC or general animal health were observed.
The potential of suckling systems in calf rearing in Dutch organic dairy farming: practical implementation and live weight development
Wagenaar, J.P. ; Langhout, D.J. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Livestock Research, - \ 2009
Practical implications of increasing 'natural living' through suckling systems in organic dairy calf rearing; Theme: Values in Organic Agriculture
Wagenaar, J.P. ; Langhout, D.J. - \ 2007
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54 (2007)4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 375 - 386.
melkkwaliteit - diergedrag - paratuberculose - spenen - zogen - melkvee - biologische landbouw - milk quality - animal behaviour - paratuberculosis - weaning - suckling - dairy cattle - organic farming - calves - cows
The introduction of suckling systems in organic dairy calf rearing has the potential to enhance animal welfare in terms of ‘natural living’ and to live up to consumers’ expectations about organic agriculture. This study describes the implications of suckling systems in a practical organic dairy context. Results show that farmers can successfully develop and implement a suckling system in calf rearing. The consumption of mothers’ milk resulted in high weaning weights at 3 months of age. No immediate animal health problems linked to suckling systems occurred. Compared with traditional bucket feeding of milk, suckling systems resulted in increased natural behaviour such as calff–cow bonding, natural sucking behaviour and care-taking behaviour. Some farmers had difficulties accepting negative implications of suckling systems such as stress after weaning and loss of marketable milk. Although suckling of the own mother was seen as the most natural suckling system, farmers adapted their suckling system to calves suckling nurse cows. In order to implement successfully a suckling system, farmers have to step back from control and give calf and cow a chance. In the case of increasing ‘natural living’ through implementation of a suckling system, farmers should be encouraged to take enough time to accomplish this attitude change.
The introduction of suckling systems in organic dairy calf rearing has the potential to enhance animal welfare in terms of 'natural living' and to live up to consumers' expectations about organic agriculture. This study describes the implications of suckling systems in a practical organic dairy context. Results show that farmers can successfully develop and implement a suckling system in calf rearing. The consumption of mothers' milk resulted in high weaning weights at 3 months of age. No immediate animal health problems linked to suckling systems occurred. Compared with traditional bucket feeding of milk, suckling systems resulted in increased natural behaviour such as calf-cow bonding, natural sucking behaviour and care-taking behaviour. Some farmers had difficulties accepting negative implications of suckling systems such as stress after weaning and loss of marketable milk. Although suckling of the own mother was seen as the most natural suckling system, farmers adapted their suckling system to calves suckling nurse cows. In order to implement successfully a suckling system, farmers have to step back from control and give calf and cow a chance. In the case of increasing 'natural living' through implementation of a suckling system, farmers should be encouraged to take enough time to accomplish this attitude change.
Effect of viscosity on digestion of nutrients in conventional and germ-free chicks
Langhout, D.J. ; Schutte, J.B. ; Jong, J. de; Sloetjes, H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 2000
The British journal of nutrition 83 (2000)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 533 - 540.
A study was conducted with conventional and germ-free broiler chicks to obtain more information on the role of the intestinal microflora in the anti-nutritive effects of NSP in broiler chicks. As the NSP source, highly methylated citrus pectin (HMC) was used at a dose level of 30 g/kg in a maize-based diet. The diets fed to the germ-free chicks were -irradiated, whereas those fed to the conventional chicks were not. Feeding the HMC diet to conventional birds depressed weight gain and food utilization (P < 0?05), whereas in germ-free birds only weight gain was reduced (P < 0?05). Feeding the HMC diet to conventional birds reduced digestibilities of energy and starch at the end of the jejunum. Ileal digestibilities of starch and energy were not strongly affected when birds were fed on the HMC-containing diet. Faecal digestibilities of organic matter, crude fat, starch and amino acids, N retention and metabolizable energy were reduced when conventional chicks were fed on the HMC diet. Feeding the HMC diet to germ-free birds hardly affected faecal digestibility of nutrients and N retention, whereas metabolizable energy was increased. Feeding the HMC diet to conventional or germ-free birds increased the viscosity of the digesta in the small intestine. This increase in digesta viscosity was more pronounced in conventional than in germ-free birds. The pH of ileal digesta was reduced when HMC was added to the diet of conventional chicks, but not in germ-free chicks. Feeding the HMC diet to conventional birds markedly affected morphology of the gut wall, whereas in germ-free chicks very little effect was found on gut morphology. Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the gastrointestinal microflora mediates the magnitude of the anti-nutritive effects of HMC in broiler chicks. However, the exact role of the microflora in chicks in the magnitude of the anti-nutritional effects of HMC could not be derived from the present study, since the results might have been influenced by -irradiation of the diets fed to the germ-free chicks.
|Dietary factors affecting ammonia and odour release from pig manure
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Sutton, A.L. ; Canh, T.T. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Langhout, D.J. - \ 1999
In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry. Proceedings of Alltech's 14th Annual Symposium, Kentucky (USA), Nottingham Univ. Press (UK) / Lyons, T.P., Jacques, K.A., - p. 45 - 59.
Effect of dietary high- and low-methylated citrus pulp pectin on the activity of the ileal microflora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks
Langhout, D.J. ; Schutte, J.B. ; Leeuwen, P. van; Wiebenga, J. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 1999
British Poultry Science 40 (1999). - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 340 - 347.
The role of the intestinal flora as affected by non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chicks
Langhout, D.J. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.W.A. Verstegen; S. Tamminga; J.B. Schutte. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789054859123 - 173
vleeskuikens - kippen - voer - viscositeit - polysacchariden - antinutritionele factoren - darmmicro-organismen - darmen - ileum - dunne darm - verteerbaarheid - pectinen - rogge - tarwe - broilers - fowls - feeds - viscosity - polysaccharides - antinutritional factors - intestinal microorganisms - intestines - ileum - small intestine - digestibility - pectins - rye - wheat
It is well established that the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) of wheat, rye and barley have anti-nutritive properties in broiler chicks. The water-soluble fraction of these NSP are assumed to be primary responsible for the anti-nutritive activity, producing depression in digestibility of nutrients and performance.
This study was undertaken to investigate the role of the intestinal microflora on the anti-nutritive properties of water-soluble NSP by using citrus pectin as model substrate. Citrus pectin is a highly fermentable NSP fraction of a viscous nature. Inclusion of high-methylated citrus pectin (HMC) in diets of young chicks resulted in a decreased nutrient digestibility and performance. This was associated with an increase of the microbial activity in the small intestine. In addition, ileal composition of the microflora and the morphology of the small intestinal wall was changed. Furthermore, degradation of conjugated bile acids was increased significantly by including HMC in the diet.
The effect of low-methylated citrus pectin (LMC) on these parameters was less pronounced than with HMC. When the HMC diet was fed to germ-free chicks, digestibility of nutrients and performance were hardly affected. It was concluded that the intestinal microflora mediates the magnitude of the anti-nutritive properties of water-soluble NSP in broiler chicks.
Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing-finishing pigs.
Canh, T.T. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Schutte, J.B. ; Sutton, A.L. ; Langhout, D.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1998
Livestock Production Science 56 (1998). - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 181 - 191.
The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine cystine, threonine and tryptophan, but differed in CP content (16.5, 14.5 and 12.5%). In the balance experiment, 18 castrated males of about 55 kg body weight were allotted to the three diets. The experiment lasted 9 weeks, which were divided into three 3-week periods. In each period, urine and faeces were collected separately for 7 days in metabolism cages and mixed as slurry. A sample of this slurry was placed in a laboratory system to measure ammonia emission for 7 days. In the barn experiment, 216 pigs were housed in three compartments and fed the experimental diets. Ammonia emission was measured directly from the compartments for 7 days during each of the 3-week periods. There was no effect of dietary CP level on faecal nitrogen excretion. Urinary nitrogen excretion and slurry pH decreased when dietary CP decreased. Both balance and barn experiments showed similar effects of dietary CP on ammonia emission from slurry. Ammonia emission was reduced by 10–12.5% for each percent decrease in dietary CP. It is concluded that lowering dietary CP and supplementing essential amino acids while maintaining normal growth rate reduces urinary nitrogen and ammonia emission from the slurry of growing–finishing pigs.
|Effects on chick performance and nutrient digestibility of an endo-xylanase added to a wheat and rye-based diet in relation to fat source.
Langhout, P.J. ; Schutte, J.B. ; Geerse, C. ; Kies, A.K. ; Jong, J. de; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1997
British Poultry Science 38 (1997). - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 557 - 563.
Dietary vitamin E and fat source and lactating performance of primiparous sows and their piglets.
Babinszky, L. ; Langhout, D.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Zandstra, T. ; Bakker, R.L.G. ; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. - \ 1992
Livestock Production Science 30 (1992). - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 155 - 168.
|Vitamine E in voeders voor zeugen.
Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Joling, P. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Langhout, D.J. - \ 1991
In: Roche Benelux Symposium, Brussel/ Mijdrecht - p. 67 - 76.
|Effect of vitamin E and fat source in sow diet on immune response of suckling and weaned piglets.
Babinszky, L. ; Langhout, D.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Joling, P. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. - \ 1991
Journal of Animal Science 69 (1991). - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1833 - 1842.
|Effect of alpha-tocopherol and dietary fat source on some blood and immunological variables in lactating sows.
Babinszky, L. ; Langhout, D.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Joling, P. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. - \ 1991
Animal Production 52 (1991). - ISSN 0003-3561 - p. 367 - 375.
|Effect of vitamin E on some immunological parameters and milk production in lactating sows.
Langhout, D.J. ; Babinszky, L. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Joling, P. ; Nieuwland, M. ; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. ; Bakker, P.L.G. - \ 1990
In: Proc. 41st Ann. Meeting EAAP, Toulouse, France - p. 322 - 323.
|Vitamin E in sow nutrition.
Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Joling, P. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Langhout, P.J. - \ 1990
In: Roche Benelux Symp., Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands (1990)
|Uitslepen van langhout met paard met uitsleeppan
Kofman, P.D. - \ 1981
Wageningen : Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no. 266) - 14
bosbouw - transport - stamhout - trekdieren - dunnen - Nederland - bosopstanden - forestry - logs - draught animals - thinning - Netherlands - forest stands