Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Regret theory as an alternative framework in consumer food choice : An application of the random regret minimization model
Biondi, Beatrice - \ 2019
University of Bologna. Promotor(en): Ivo van der Lans; Luca Camanzi. - - 146 p.
Comparing wasted apples and oranges : An assessment of methods to measure household food waste
Herpen, Erica van; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Holthuysen, Nancy ; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska ; Quested, Tom E. - \ 2019
Waste Management 88 (2019). - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 71 - 84.
Caddy - Consumer - Diary - Photo - Survey - Waste

Food waste has become a global concern in recent years, especially the household food waste that is generated in the developed world. Multiple methods to measure household food waste have been proposed, but little is known about their validity. Five methods are selected and investigated empirically: survey questions about general food waste over a non-specified period of time, diaries, photo coding, kitchen caddies, and pre-announced survey questions regarding a specific time period. In an experiment, respondents were asked to assess their food waste using some or all of these methods depending on condition. Overall, the general survey questions appear to be less valid, as these lead to large underestimation of the level of food waste, low variance in reported food waste across households compared to the other methods, and low correlations with other measures. The other four methods are relatively highly correlated. A survey about food waste in the past week appears to be a useful method for large-scale measurements to differentiate households according to the amount of food waste each produces, although it should be noted that this method underestimates the amount of food waste. Kitchen caddies and photo coding seem to be valid methods and, for small samples, provide alternatives to food diaries, which have been more commonly used.

Farm-level risk factors for bovine mastitis in Dutch automatic milking dairy herds
Deng, Z. ; Koop, G. ; Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Lans, I.A. van der; Vernooij, J.C.M. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4522 - 4535.
automatic milking system - mastitis - nonlinear principal component analysis - principal component regression - risk factor

Automatic milking systems (AMS) are installed on a growing number of dairy farms worldwide. Management to support good udder health might be different on farms with an AMS compared with farms milking with a conventional milking system, as risk factors for mastitis on farms using an AMS may differ. The aim of this study was to identify farm level factors associated with mastitis on Dutch dairy farms using an AMS. In 2008, risk factor data were collected using a questionnaire combined with on-farm recordings of cow, stall, and AMS hygiene on 135 farms. These risk factor data were linked to 4 udder-health-associated dependent variables: average herd somatic cell count (HeSCCav), variance of the average herd somatic cell count (SCC) on test days (HeSCCvar), the average proportion of new high SCC cases (NHiSCC), and the farmer-reported annual incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM). We employed regression models using multiple imputation to deal with missing values. Due to the high dimensionality of the risk factor data, we also performed nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) and regressed the dependent variables on the principal components (PC). Good hygiene of cows and of AMS were found to be related to a lower HeSCCav and less NHiSCC. Effective postmilking teat disinfection was associated with a lower NHiSCC. A higher bulk tank milk SCC threshold for farmers' action was related to more NHiSCC. Larger farm size was related to lower HeSCCvar but higher NHiSCC. Negative attitude of farmers to animal health, higher frequency of checking AMS, and more time spent on viewing computer data were all positively related to higher IRCM. An NLPCA with 3 PC explained 16.3% of the variance in the risk factor variables. Only the first 2 PC were associated with mastitis. The first PC reflected older and larger farms with poor cow hygiene and AMS hygiene, and was related to higher HeSCCav and NHiSCC, whereas the second PC reflected newly built smaller farms with poor cow hygiene and low milk production, and was associated with higher HeSCCvar and NHiSCC, but lower IRCM. Our study suggests that many of the risk factors on conventional milking system farms are applicable to AMS farms, specifically concerning hygiene of the cows and the milking machine, but on large AMS farms, udder health may need more attention than on smaller AMS farms. Multiple imputation is instrumental to deal with missing values and NLPCA is a useful technique to process high dimensional data in our study.

A picture says it all? The validity of photograph coding to assess household food waste
Herpen, Erica van; Lans, Ivo van der - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 75 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 71 - 77.
Food waste - Household - Measurement - Photographs

Valid measurements are essential in studies into levels of household food waste and differences therein over time, cultures, or consumer groups. They are also key to identifying factors that affect waste levels and to testing the effects of potential interventions. Yet, there is a lack of valid measurement methods for household food waste. The current study assesses the validity of coding of photographs of food waste as a measurement method. In this study, nine coders each estimated 104 food waste instances from photographs, which structurally varied in food amount, food density, size of the container (plate, glass, bowl, pan, etc.) and food category. Comparisons of estimated weights with actual weights show that coders can accurately estimate the weight of food waste from photographs, without general over- or underestimation and with satisfactory correlations with actual weights. Food waste incidences that are more or less difficult to estimate are discussed, as well as differences between coders. Overall, the method appears promising for application in studies examining household food waste levels.

Modelling consumer choice through the random regret minimization model : An application in the food domain
Biondi, Beatrice ; Lans, Ivo A. Van der; Mazzocchi, Mario ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Trijp, Hans C.M. Van; Camanzi, Luca - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 73 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 97 - 109.
Choice experiment - Consumer behaviour - Discrete-choice model - Food choice - Individual differences - Regret minimization

In line with findings on post-purchase food-choice regret, one can expect that pre-purchase anticipated regret with respect to forgone (non-chosen) alternatives has an impact on consumer food choices, especially when the choice is considered to be important. The traditional Random Utility Maximization (RUM) models for discrete choices may not fully capture this impact. This study investigates the usefulness and potential in the food domain of a discrete choice model that follows the regret minimization principle, the Random Regret Minimization (RRM) model, as an alternative and complement to existing RUM models. The two models are applied to consumer stated choices of cheese in a choice experiment. The study also investigates whether and to what extent a number of personality traits determine whether particular consumers rather choose according to utility-maximization, or regret-minimization principles. Results show that at the aggregate level the two models have a similar goodness of fit to the data and prediction ability. Still, each of them shows better fit for particular subgroups of consumers, based on personality traits. Hence, the present study reveals a potential for the RRM model applications in the food domain, and adds to the empirical literature supporting previous findings on the RRM model found in other contexts. Further research is needed to explore in which situations and for which consumer segments the RRM model is the most useful model.

Educating for self-interest or -transcendence? An empirical approach to investigating the role of moral competencies in opportunity recognition for sustainable development
Ploum, Lisa ; Blok, Vincent ; Lans, Thomas ; Omta, Onno - \ 2019
Business Ethics: a European review. 28 (2019)2. - ISSN 0962-8770 - p. 243 - 260.

Entrepreneurship education with a focus on sustainable development primarily teaches students to develop a profit-driven mentality. As sustainable development is a value-oriented and normative concept, the role of individual ethical norms and values in entrepreneurial processes has been receiving increased attention. Therefore, this study addresses the role of moral competence in the process of idea generation for sustainable development. A mixed method design was developed in which would-be entrepreneurs were subjected to a questionnaire (n = 398) and to real-life decision-making processes in a case assignment (n = 96). The results provide stepping stones for implementing (moral) competencies in entrepreneurship education as a possible avenue to move away from a sole focus on a profit-driven mentality.

Explaining Organizational Export Performance by Single and Combined International Business Competencies
Birru, Worku Tuffa ; Runhaar, Piety ; Zaalberg, Ruud ; Lans, Thomas ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2019
Journal of Small Business Management 57 (2019)3. - ISSN 0047-2778 - p. 1172 - 1192.
This study explores relationships between export performance and international business competencies (international orientation, export market orientation and international entrepreneurial orientation), and interactions between the competencies. Data from on-site structured interviews with 159 owners and managers of exporting firms from different economic sectors show direct relationships between the competencies and export performance. However, analyses of the effects of interactions between the competencies and export performance show mixed results. The findings suggest developing the identified competencies to increase export performance, but if this would be exclusively based on the direct relationships between the competencies and export performance, results may be suboptimal.
The dynamic interplay between Individual- and Community based Entrepreneuring in Rural Ghana: the Case of the Ayigbe Community
Afari-Kwarteng, Jemima ; Dentoni, D. ; Lans, T. - \ 2018
In: 3rd Entrepreneurship as Practice conference. -
Sustainable Agricultural Entrepreneurship in Burundi: drivers and outcomes
Mufasoni, B. ; Kessler, A. ; Lans, T. - \ 2018
Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 25 (2018)1. - ISSN 1462-6004 - p. 64 - 80.
Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the emerging literature on sustainable entrepreneurship by studying knowledge, motivation and early stage outcomes of sustainable agricultural entrepreneurship in the context of farmer groups in Burundi.
Design/methodology/approach
Quantitative and qualitative data were combined in a multiple-source case study. Data were analyzed using content analysis and basic statistics.
Findings
Results revealed that farmer groups’ prior knowledge (PK) on environmental sustainability is better developed than their social and economic sustainability. This is reflected in the environmental sustainability part of the business plans (BPs), which is generally better than the economic and social sustainability parts. Moreover, the top groups on PK identified opportunities directly related to their PK. Pro-activeness of the group was a more determining factor than risk taking and innovativeness. Furthermore, there seemed to be a positive interplay between the groups’ PK, entrepreneurial orientation and knowledge motivation (KM) and the quality of the sustainable BP. In particular, KM seemed to be important, but other variables also explained the quality of the BP, such as level of education.
Originality/value
This research fills a gap in literature because there are few empirical studies on agricultural entrepreneurship that focus on the earliest phase of opportunity recognition, let alone studies that focus on sustainable opportunity recognition in the context of emerging economies such as Burundi. Furthermore, in this research, the authors studied well-known knowledge, motivations and outcomes of sustainable entrepreneurship
Astaxanthine 2.0 : hoogwaardige inhoudsstoffen uit algen in kassen
Boer, Lex de; Bos, Jelle van den; Graman, Wim ; Hazewinkel, Sander ; Hemming, Silke ; Kerkhof, Gerwien ; Lans, Cees van der; Luijendijk, Teus ; Prins, Robert ; Roebroek, Eurgene ; Ruijven, Jim van; Streminska, Marta ; Ven, Joost van de; Vermeer, Chris ; Voogt, Wim ; Wisse, Wilko - \ 2018
Bleiswijk : Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw (Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw rapport WPR 807) - 86
Het doel van dit project was de realisatie van een proof-of-principle keten voor de productie van astaxanthine als oleoresin uit de alg Haematococcus pluvialis in fotobioreactoren in Nederlandse kassen. Astaxanthine is een sterk antioxidant dat bij kan dragen aan een gezonde voeding voor consumenten. Astaxanthine kan in Nederlandse kassen duurzaam worden geproduceerd (kassen als zonnecollector, gebruik afval CO2 uit industrie, reinigen afvalwater). Binnen dit project is onderzoek verricht naar de selectie van natuurlijke algenstammen op kasniveau, klassieke stamverbetering op labniveau (uitgangsmateriaal), procesverbetering in alle fases van de productie (voorkweek, opkweek, groene fase, rode fase) door optimalisatie teeltfactoren en hygiënisatie (teelt en productie) en het maken van een proof-of-principle eindproduct (eindformulering) volgens marktspecificatie (markt en economie). Met het project is kennis vergaard om een nieuw verdienmodel voor de productie van een hoogwaardige stof (astaxanthine) in de tuinbouw te realiseren. Er is een proof-of-principle van een economisch rendabele productieketen van uitgangsmateriaal over productie tot product eindformulering volgens specificaties van de markt aangetoond voor de productie van astaxanthine uit Haematococcus pluvialis.---The aim of this project was the realization of a proof-of-principle value chain for the production of astaxanthin as oleoresin from the algae Haematococcus pluvialis in photobioreactors in Dutch greenhouses. Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant that can contribute to a healthy diet for consumers. Astaxanthin can be produced sustainably in Dutch greenhouses (greenhouses as solar collectors, usage of waste CO2 from industry, cleaning and recycling of waste water). Within this project, research was carried out into the selection of natural algae strains at the greenhouse level, classical strain improvement at lab level (starting material), process improvement at all stages of production, from pre-cultivation, cultivation, green phas and red phase, by the optimization of all cultivation factors and sanitation (growth and production) and designing a proof-of-principle end product (formulation) according to market specification (market and economy). With the project, knowledge has been gathered to realize a new revenue model for the production of a high-quality substance (astaxanthin) in horticulture. A proof-of-principle of an economically viable production chain of starting material from production to product final formulation according to market specifications has been demonstrated for the production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.
Towards more synergy in entrepreneurial competence research in entrepreneurship education
Lans, T. ; Baggen, Y. ; Ploum, L.J.L. - \ 2018
In: A research agenda for entrepreneurship education / Fayolle, Alain, Edward Elgar Publishing - ISBN 9781786432902 - p. 224 - 242.
To move forward as researchers interested in contributing to the (European) political debate on entrepreneurial competence, on the one hand, and conducting sound scientific research, on the other, we argue that it is time for researchers to move to the next level of entrepreneurial competence research. Therefore, this chapter discusses two important aspects associated with the concept of entrepreneurial competence, namely the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ question. Both questions seem to be common sense, but interestingly the fundaments behind these two questions receive limited attention in the entrepreneurship education (EE) literature. Concerning the ‘what’ question, to prevent the generation of endless lists of competencies we propose to cluster entrepreneurial competencies in four competence domains, including a cognition-orientated, function-oriented, social-oriented and meta-oriented domain. To illustrate the power of using this framework we discuss specific research that has been done on opportunity identification competence, social competence and moral competence. Concerning the ‘how’ question we invite EE research to embrace modern educational design principles that will help to develop targeted theoretical frameworks that direct empirical intervention studies in EE. Examples of pedagogical approaches discussed in this chapter that incorporate modern education principles come from problem-based learning, project-based learning, student-centred learning environments and boundary crossing theory.
Effects of sustainable design strategies on consumer preferences for redesigned packaging
Steenis, Nigel D. ; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Herpen, Erica van; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 205 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 854 - 865.
Circular economy - Consumer perception - Packaging design - Sustainability - Sustainable design

The environmental benefit from sustainable packaging is not only dependent on the characteristics of the packaging, but also on consumer willingness to purchase sustainably packaged products. Consumer response is likely influenced by the specific design strategies that are used to make packaging more sustainable. Based on the circular economy concept, this paper distinguishes between circular and linear design strategies, and investigates consumer responses to packaging redesigned according to such strategies. Two experiments were conducted to assess to what extent (combinations of) sustainable design strategies affect consumers’ purchase intentions. The results show that consumers are more positive toward redesigns following a circular design strategy (e.g., biodegradable materials) compared to linear redesigns (e.g., packaging lightweighting). Additionally, consumers are not more willing to buy packaging redesigns combining multiple sustainable design strategies, relative to those using only a single redesign strategy. Multi-strategy redesigns are perceived only as marginally more sustainable than single strategy redesigns. These diminishing returns can be attributed to a lack of increase in the moral satisfaction consumers achieve from buying product with multi-rather than single-strategy redesigned sustainable packaging.

Ondernemerschap in levensvatbare organisaties: ondernemende werknemers als sleutel tot duurzame inzetbaarheid
Baggen, Y. ; Biemans, H.J.A. ; Lans, T. ; Mulder, M. - \ 2018
Opleiding en Ontwikkeling (2018). - ISSN 0922-0895
Promoting healthy choices from vending machines : Effectiveness and consumer evaluations of four types of interventions
Bos, Colin ; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Kleef, Ellen van; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2018
Food Policy 79 (2018). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 247 - 255.
Acceptance - Choice evaluation - Effectiveness - Food choice - Intervention intrusiveness - Vending machine

Vending machines often provide relatively energy-dense snack foods and beverages at a wide variety of points-of-purchase. Vending-machine interventions that stimulate low-calorie choices can therefore play a role in improving the healthfulness of the food environment landscape. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of four vending-machine interventions, varying in level of intrusiveness, on consumers’ choices, consumers’ acceptance of such interventions, and consumers’ evaluations of the choice they made. In a between-subjects design experiment (N = 206), respondents were asked to purchase a snack and a beverage from a vending machine. In addition to a no-intervention condition, four types of incrementally intrusive interventions were implemented: calorie labelling, increasing accessibility of low-calorie choices, increasing prices of high-calorie choices, and restricting availability of high-calorie choices. A post-choice questionnaire included items concerning intervention acceptance, and assortment and choice evaluations. Compared to the no-intervention condition, the most intrusive intervention (i.e. restricting availability of high-calorie choices) led to more low-calorie choices (39% vs. 78%), while less intrusive interventions (i.e. calorie labelling, increasing accessibility of low-calorie choices, and increasing prices of high-calorie choices) did not. Intervention acceptance and choice evaluations were equally high across the four intervention types. Overall, the results suggest that restricting high-calorie options is a promising route to stimulate healthier choices from vending machines. As such, the present study provides intervention opportunities in the combat against obesity for governments and their potential allies, such as food manufacturers and the food service industry.

Food choice motives, attitude towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition
Rankin, Audrey ; Bunting, Brendan P. ; Poínhos, Rui ; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Almeida, M.D.V. ; Markovina, Jerko ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J. - \ 2018
Public Health Nutrition 21 (2018)14. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2606 - 2616.
Attitudes - Food choice motives - Food Choices Questionnaire - Food4Me - Intention - Nutrigenomics - Personalised nutrition - Survey

Objective: The present study explored associations between food choice motives, attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition, to inform communication strategies based on consumer priorities and concerns. Design/Setting: A survey was administered online which included the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and items assessing attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Subjects: Nationally representative samples were recruited in nine EU countries (n 9381). Results: Structural equation modelling indicated that the food choice motives ‘weight control’, ‘mood’, ‘health’ and ‘ethical concern’ had a positive association and ‘price’ had a negative association with attitude towards, and intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. ‘Health’ was positively associated and ‘familiarity’ negatively associated with attitude towards personalised nutrition. The effects of ‘weight control’, ‘ethical concern’, ‘mood’ and ‘price’ on intention to adopt personalised nutrition were partially mediated by attitude. The effects of ‘health’ and ‘familiarity’ were fully mediated by attitude. ‘Sensory appeal’ was negatively and directly associated with intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Conclusions: Personalised nutrition providers may benefit from taking into consideration the importance of underlying determinants of food choice in potential users, particularly weight control, mood and price, when promoting services and in tailoring communications that are motivationally relevant.

Searching for the entrepreneurs among new entrants in European Agriculture : the role of human and social capital
Pindado, Emilio ; Sánchez, Mercedes ; Verstegen, Jos A.A.M. ; Lans, Thomas - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 77 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 19 - 30.
It is stated that farmers need to become more entrepreneurial to compete in modern agriculture. Much of the literature on agricultural entrepreneurship, however, has been focused on established farmers and little is known about what determines this behaviour among new entrants. New entrants may provide a robust answer to the call for entrepreneurialism in agriculture. This paper examines the drivers for entrepreneurialism among 1,877 new entrants in Europe, in particular the effect of human and social capital on new business opportunity identification once they have started their farming activity. The results suggest that new part-time farmers who treat farming as their second job are less likely to identify new business opportunities. By contrast, new farmers with high levels of confidence in their entrepreneurial competencies tend to identify more new business opportunities. Farmers’ weak social ties and a positive attitude in their context towards entrepreneurship increases opportunity identification. The findings contribute to understanding the specifics of new entrants in agriculture and highlight the importance of specific entrepreneurial knowledge and professional networks for this group. This has consequences for tailoring education and training programs as well as for policy measures for this specific group.
The return of the Jedi in entrepreneurship?! : Developing a validated competence framework for sustainable entrepreneurship and exploring the specific role of moral competencies in the sustainable entrepreneurial process
Ploum, Lisa - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta, co-promotor(en): V. Blok; T. Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432238 - 192

Although the importance of competencies for sustainable entrepreneurship is recognized both from practical and theoretical point of view, the field of competencies for sustainable entrepreneurship is relatively young. The aim of this dissertation is therefore to contribute to the understanding of what competencies constitute a competence framework for sustainable entrepreneurship and how these competencies are enacted in entrepreneurial decision making processes. The main research question: What role do competencies for sustainable entrepreneurship play in sustainable entrepreneurial processes? addresses the aim and research issues of this dissertation. In addition, five sub-research questions were formulated:

1. What is the empirical strength of the existing key competence frameworks for sustainable entrepreneurship?

2. How do key competencies for sustainable entrepreneurship relate to well-known antecedents for entrepreneurial behavior?

3. Which individual moral antecedents play a role in the entrepreneurial process of opportunity recognition for sustainable development?

4. How is moral competence enacted in the early stage of the sustainable entrepreneurial process?

5. How are competencies for sustainable entrepreneurship enacted within the decision making process of sustainable entrepreneurs?

The competence framework is assessed on its validity in an educational context, reporting on the self-perceived scores of 402 respondents. Furthermore, a performance based assessment was developed to study the relation between the competence framework and opportunity recognition. Here, 96 respondents participated in an online platform that formed the foundation for the performance based assessment. Finally, 33 sustainable entrepreneurs were interviewed to assess the enactment of the competencies in actual decision making processes.

The different studies and sub-questions have mounted up to some main conclusions. The results show that the competencies can be operationalised and measured in a reliable and valid way in a framework consisting of 6 distinct competencies (diversity competence, systems thinking competence, foresighted thinking competence, interpersonal competence, normative competence and strategic action competence). When it comes to the opportunity recognition process, it becomes clear that the competencies that tap into values (i.e. normative competence and strategic action competence) are very important and could be seen as distinctive for sustainable entrepreneurs. During the different critical moments in the decision making process, some competencies surface more than others, which show the dynamic and context dependent character of the competencies. This dissertation has, besides several theoretical implications, implications for higher education institutions and sustainable start-up companies.

How employees perceive organizational learning: construct validation of the 25-item short form of the strategic learning assessment map (SF-SLAM)
Mainert, Jakob ; Niepel, Christoph ; Lans, T. ; Greiff, Samuel - \ 2018
Journal of Knowledge Management 22 (2018)1. - ISSN 1367-3270 - p. 57 - 75.
Purpose: The Strategic Learning Assessment Map (SLAM) originally assessed organizational learning (OL) at the level of the firm by addressing managers, who rated OL in the SLAM on five dimensions of individual learning, group learning, organizational learning, feed-forward learning, and feedback learning. However, as employees are getting their jobs done discretely and are increasingly making their own decisions, their perspective on OL genuinely matters. Hence, we assessed OL at the level of the individual by addressing employees on all levels, who rated OL in a short form of the SLAM (SF-SLAM). Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we focused on the construct validity of this SF-SLAM by investigated its reliability, factorial validity, and nomological network. First, we asked whether the SF-SLAM reliably measures OL on five dimensions of individual, group, organizational, feed-forward, and feedback learning. Next, we asked whether the SF-SLAM was associated with its nomological network of engaging in innovation-related learning activities, behaving innovatively on the job, and showing higher educational levels, intelligence, and individual job performances. We used a diverse German employee sample of skilled and unskilled workers and managers (N = 434) and analyzed the data with structural equation modeling. Findings: The SF-SLAM was reliable, but revealed both constrained factorial validity and validity on the basis of its nomological network. First, five dimensions found support in our employee sample, but their correlations were high or very high, except for individual learning. Second, the SF-SLAM showed only few differential relations with variables from its nomological network. Originality/value: Taken together, the SF-SLAM is short, reliable, and only valid for examining individual learning.
Toward a Validated Competence Framework for Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Ploum, L.J.L. ; Blok, V. ; Lans, T. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2018
Organization & Environment 31 (2018)2. - ISSN 1086-0266 - p. 113 - 132.
Knowledge, skills, and attitudes to manage sustainable development have become significant components of different career paths. Previous research has explored which competencies are needed for future change agents in the field of sustainable development. Sustainable entrepreneurship can be seen as a promising work context in which these competencies are truly at the forefront and enacted. Several researchers have compiled frameworks of key competencies. However, their work is exploratory in nature and a more in-depth analysis of these frameworks is called for. In this study, an existing competence framework for sustainable entrepreneurship was tested in terms of construct validity, among 402 would-be entrepreneurs. The results suggest the inclusion of six competencies, which constitute a competence framework with a good model fit. Furthermore, a new combination of two existing competencies is proposed. This study has important implications for the debate on which competencies for sustainable entrepreneurship are essential on theoretical and empirical grounds.
Exploring the relation between individual moral antecedents and entrepreneurial opportunity recognition for sustainable development
Ploum, Lisa ; Blok, Vincent ; Lans, Thomas ; Omta, Onno - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 172 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 1582 - 1591.
Moral competence - Opportunity recognition for sustainable development - Pro-environmental behavior values - Sustainable entrepreneurship
When dealing with complex value-driven problems such as sustainable development, individuals need to have values and norms that go beyond the appropriation of tangible business outcomes for themselves. This raises the question of the role played by individual moral antecedents in the entrepreneurial process of opportunity recognition for sustainable development. To answer this question, an exploratory empirical research design was used in which 96 would-be entrepreneurs were subjected to real-life decision-making processes in an online environment. The participants were guided through the process of opportunity recognition for sustainable development. Furthermore, they were subjected to several tests linked to individual moral antecedents. The mixed methods design used to analyze the results led to the conclusion that pro-environmental behavior values and moral competencies are important indicators of the ability to recognize opportunities for sustainable development. These results provide useful insights about relating moral antecedents to idea generation for sustainable development and can help researchers, higher education institutes, and sustainable entrepreneurs to further develop the concept of sustainable entrepreneurship and its underlying processes.
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