Effect of nickel, cobalt, and iron on methanogenesis from methanol and cometabolic conversion of 1,2-dichloroethene by Methanosarcina barkeri
Paulo, Lara M. ; Hidayat, Mohamad R. ; Moretti, Giulio ; Stams, Alfons J.M. ; Sousa, Diana Z. - \ 2020
Biotechnology and applied biochemistry (2020). - ISSN 0885-4513
cometabolic dechlorination - metals - methanogenesis
Methanogens are responsible for the last step in anaerobic digestion (AD), in which methane (a biofuel) is produced. Some methanogens can cometabolize chlorinated pollutants, contributing for their removal during AD. Methanogenic cofactors involved in cometabolic reductive dechlorination, such as F430 and cobalamin, contain metal ions (nickel, cobalt, iron) in their structure. We hypothesized that the supplementation of trace metals could improve methane production and the cometabolic dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) by pure cultures of Methanosarcina barkeri. Nickel, cobalt, and iron were added to cultures of M. barkeri growing on methanol and methanol plus DCE. Metal amendment improved DCE dechlorination to vinyl chloride (VC): assays with 20 µM of Fe3+ showed the highest final concentration of VC (5× higher than in controls without Fe3+), but also in assays with 5.5 µM of Co2+ and 5 µM of Ni2+ VC formation was improved (3.5–4× higher than in controls without the respective metals). Dosing of metals could be useful to improve anaerobic removal of chlorinated compounds, and more importantly decrease the detrimental effect of DCE on methane production in anaerobic digesters.
Taking stock of national climate policies to evaluate implementation of the Paris Agreement
Roelfsema, Mark ; Soest, Heleen L. van; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Bertram, Christoph ; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas ; Iacobuta, Gabriela ; Krey, Volker ; Kriegler, Elmar ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Riahi, Keywan ; Ueckerdt, Falko ; Després, Jacques ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Frank, Stefan ; Fricko, Oliver ; Gidden, Matthew ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Huppmann, Daniel ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Fragkiadakis, Kostas ; Gi, Keii ; Keramidas, Kimon ; Köberle, Alexandre C. ; Aleluia Reis, Lara ; Rochedo, Pedro ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Oshiro, Ken ; Vrontisi, Zoi ; Chen, Wenying ; Iyer, Gokul C. ; Edmonds, Jae ; Kannavou, Maria ; Jiang, Kejun ; Mathur, Ritu ; Safonov, George ; Vishwanathan, Saritha Sudharmma - \ 2020
Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Many countries have implemented national climate policies to accomplish pledged Nationally Determined Contributions and to contribute to the temperature objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change. In 2023, the global stocktake will assess the combined effort of countries. Here, based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, we show that implementation of current policies leaves a median emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq by 2030 with the optimal pathways to implement the well below 2 °C and 1.5 °C Paris goals. If Nationally Determined Contributions would be fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by a third. Interestingly, the countries evaluated were found to not achieve their pledged contributions with implemented policies (implementation gap), or to have an ambition gap with optimal pathways towards well below 2 °C. This shows that all countries would need to accelerate the implementation of policies for renewable technologies, while efficiency improvements are especially important in emerging countries and fossil-fuel-dependent countries.
GIS-based soil erosion modelling under various steep-slope vineyard practices
Pijl, Anton ; Reuter, Lara E.H. ; Quarella, Edoardo ; Vogel, Teun A. ; Tarolli, Paolo - \ 2020
Catena 193 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162
High-resolution topography - RUSLE - SIMWE - Soil erosion modeling - Steep-slope agriculture - Vineyard terraces
Soil erosion can cause a progressive degradation of hillslopes, especially in steep-slope agricultural landscapes. In this study, the formation of spatial erosion patterns was evaluated in three typical steep-slope vineyard cultivation practices in northern Italy: dry-stone wall terraces, earth bank terraces and vertical cultivation (Italian: rittochino). UAV surveys in three vineyards provided high-resolution data on topography and land use serving as input for two GIS-based erosion models: the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and SIMulated Water Erosion model (SIMWE). Annual RUSLE simulations showed how the two terracing practices (i.e. dry-stone walls and earth banks) effectively safeguarded large areas from soil loss, whereas the non-terraced vertical cultivation produced widely distributed soil loss with increasing severity according to slope length and steepness. In intense single-event conditions simulated by SIMWE, all three practices showed the formation of critical preferential surface flow patterns, corresponding to several field-observed erosion patterns (piping of stone walls, landslides on earth banks, and rill erosion in the non-terraced vineyard), while also in this case showing the highest erosion rates for the non-terraced vertical cultivation. Simulated flow concentration was strongly determined by the spatial organisation of the hillslope, roads and vines, and several strategies were discussed for erosion mitigation (including drainage systems or enhanced soil cover). Furthermore, the results indicated that SIMWE is an optimal approach for the recognition of soil erosion processes occurring during intense rainfall conditions. This study provides an example of high-resolution erosion risk evaluation, which should play a crucial role in the design and management of steep-slope vineyards.
National wetland map 5 : An improved spatial extent and representation of inland aquatic and estuarine ecosystems in South Africa
Deventer, Heidi van; Niekerk, Lara van; Adams, Janine ; Dinala, Millicent Ketelo ; Gangat, Ridhwannah ; Lamberth, Stephen J. ; Lötter, Mervyn ; Mbona, Namhla ; Mackay, Fiona ; Nel, Jeanne L. ; Ramjukadh, Carla Louise ; Skowno, Andrew ; Weerts, Steven P. - \ 2020
Water SA 46 (2020)1. - ISSN 0378-4738 - p. 66 - 79.
Estuarine functional zone - Inland aquatic ecosystems - Macro estuaries - Micro estuaries - National Biodiversity Assessment - National Wetland Map - Ramsar - Reporting - Sustainable Development Goal(SDG) - Wetland inventory
The improved representation of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and associated data was a key component of the 2018 National Biodiversity Assessment, and is an essential step in enhancing defensible land use planning and decision making. This paper reports on the enhancement of the National Wetland Map (NWM) version 5 for South Africa and other data layers associated with the South African Inventory of Inland Aquatic Ecosystems. Detail is provided on (i) the extent of wetlands mapped in NWM5, compared to previous versions of the NWMs; (ii) the improved extent of inland wetlands mapped in focus areas in NWM5 relative to NWM4; (iii) the type of cover associated with the wetlands (inundated, vegetated or arid); (iv) the ecotone between rivers and estuaries; and (v) level of confidence for the inland wetlands in terms of how well the extent and hydrogeomorphic units were captured for each sub-quaternary catchment of South Africa. A total of 4 596 509 ha (3.8% of South Africa) of inland aquatic ecosystems and artificial wetlands have now been mapped, with NWM5 delineating 23% more inland wetlands (2 650 509 ha or 2.2% of SA) compared with NWM4. The estuarine functional zone, which encapsulates all estuarine processes, and associated habitats and biota, was refined for 290 systems totalling 200 739 ha, with the addition of 42 micro-estuaries totalling 340 ha. Nearly 600 000 ha (0.5% of SA) of artificial wetlands were mapped in SA. Inland wetlands are predominantly palustrine (55%), with some arid (34%) and a few inundated systems (11%). Ecotones between rivers and estuaries, ecotones where biota and processes continuously vary from freshwater to estuarine, formed a small fraction (<1.5%) of river total extent (164 018 km). Most inland wetlands (~70%) had a low confidence ranking for designation of extent and typing, because they were not mapped by a wetland specialist and not verified in the field. Future improvements of the map should be focused on catchment-based improvements, particularly in strategic water-source areas, areas of high development pressure and those with low confidence designation.
Mass spectrometry searches using MASST
Wang, Mingxun ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Vargas, Fernando ; Aksenov, Alexander A. ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Weldon, Kelly ; Petras, Daniel ; Silva, Ricardo da; Quinn, Robert ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Aceves, Christine M. ; Panitchpakdi, Morgan ; Brown, Elizabeth ; Ottavio, Francesca Di; Sikora, Nicole ; Elijah, Emmanuel O. ; Labarta-Bajo, Lara ; Gentry, Emily C. ; Shalapour, Shabnam ; Kyle, Kathleen E. ; Puckett, Sara P. ; Watrous, Jeramie D. ; Carpenter, Carolina S. ; Bouslimani, Amina ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Swafford, Austin D. ; Zúñiga, Elina I. ; Balunas, Marcy J. ; Klassen, Jonathan L. ; Loomba, Rohit ; Knight, Rob ; Bandeira, Nuno ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2020
Nature Biotechnology 38 (2020). - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 23 - 26.
Managing Forests for Both Downstream and Downwind Water
Creed, Irena F. ; Jones, Julia A. ; Archer, Emma ; Claassen, Marius ; Ellison, David ; Mcnulty, Steven G. ; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Vira, Bhaskar ; Wei, Xiaohua ; Bishop, Kevin ; Blanco, Juan A. ; Gush, Mark ; Gyawali, Dipak ; Jobbágy, Esteban ; Lara, Antonio ; Little, Christian ; Martin-ortega, Julia ; Mukherji, Aditi ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Pol, Paola Ovando ; Sullivan, Caroline A. ; Xu, Jianchu - \ 2019
Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 2 (2019). - ISSN 2624-893X
An international outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis linked to eggs from Poland: a microbiological and epidemiological study
Pijnacker, Roan ; Dallman, Timothy J. ; Tijsma, Aloys S.L. ; Hawkins, Gillian ; Larkin, Lesley ; Kotila, Saara M. ; Amore, Giusi ; Amato, Ettore ; Suzuki, Pamina M. ; Denayer, Sarah ; Klamer, Sofieke ; Pászti, Judit ; McCormick, Jacquelyn ; Hartman, Hassan ; Hughes, Gareth J. ; Brandal, Lin C.T. ; Brown, Derek ; Mossong, Joël ; Jernberg, Cecilia ; Müller, Luise ; Palm, Daniel ; Severi, Ettore ; Gołębiowska, Joannna ; Hunjak, Blaženka ; Owczarek, Slawomir ; Hello, Simon Le; Garvey, Patricia ; Mooijman, Kirsten ; Friesema, Ingrid H.M. ; Weijden, Coen van der; Voort, Menno van der; Rizzi, Valentina ; Franz, Eelco ; Bertrand, Sophie ; Brennan, Martine ; Browning, Lynda ; Bruce, Ryan ; Cantaert, Vera ; Chattaway, Marie ; Coia, John ; Couper, Sarah ; Žohar Čretnik, Tjaša ; Daniel, Ondřej ; Dionisi, Anna Maria ; Fabre, Laetitia ; Fitz-James, Ife ; Florek, Karolina ; Florianová, Martina ; Fox, Eithne ; Frelih, Tatjana ; Grilc, Eva ; Katalinic Jankovic, Vera ; Jourdan, Nathalie ; Karpíšková, Renata ; Kerkhof, Hans van den; Kuiling, Sjoerd ; Kurečić Filipović, Sanja ; Laisnez, Valeska ; Lange, Heidi ; deLappes, Niall ; Leblanc, Judith ; Luzzi, Ida ; Mandilara, Georgia ; Mather, Henry ; Mattheus, Wesley ; Mellou, Kassiani ; Morgan, Deborah ; Pinna, Elizabeth de; Ragimbeau, Catherine ; Røed, Margrethe Hovda ; Salmenlinna, Saara ; Smith, Robert ; Smith-Palmer, Alison ; Špačková, Michaela ; Torpdahl, Mia ; Trkov, Marija ; Trönnberg, Linda ; Tzani, Myrsini ; Utsi, Lara ; Wasyl, Dariusz ; Weicherding, Pierre - \ 2019
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 19 (2019)7. - ISSN 1473-3099 - p. 778 - 786.
Background: Salmonella spp are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe. We investigated a large multi-country outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in the EU and European Economic Area (EEA). Methods: A confirmed case was defined as a laboratory-confirmed infection with the outbreak strains of S Enteritidis based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS), occurring between May 1, 2015, and Oct 31, 2018. A probable case was defined as laboratory-confirmed infection with S Enteritidis with the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis outbreak profile. Multi-country epidemiological, trace-back, trace-forward, and environmental investigations were done. We did a case-control study including confirmed and probable cases and controls randomly sampled from the population registry (frequency matched by age, sex, and postal code). Odds ratios (ORs) for exposure rates between cases and controls were calculated with unmatched univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Findings: 18 EU and EEA countries reported 838 confirmed and 371 probable cases. 509 (42%) cases were reported in 2016, after which the number of cases steadily increased. The case-control study results showed that cases more often ate in food establishments than did controls (OR 3·4 [95% CI 1·6–7·3]), but no specific food item was identified. Recipe-based food trace-back investigations among cases who ate in food establishments identified eggs from Poland as the vehicle of infection in October, 2016. Phylogenetic analysis identified two strains of S Enteritidis in human cases that were subsequently identified in salmonella-positive eggs and primary production premises in Poland, confirming the source of the outbreak. After control measures were implemented, the number of cases decreased, but increased again in March, 2017, and the increase continued into 2018. Interpretation: This outbreak highlights the public health value of multi-country sharing of epidemiological, trace-back, and microbiological data. The re-emergence of cases suggests that outbreak strains have continued to enter the food chain, although changes in strain population dynamics and fewer cases indicate that control measures had some effect. Routine use of WGS in salmonella surveillance and outbreak response promises to identify and stop outbreaks in the future. Funding: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; Directorate General for Health and Food Safety, European Commission; and National Public Health and Food Safety Institutes of the authors' countries (see Acknowledgments for full list).
A user guide to environmental protistology: primers, metabarcoding, sequencing, and analyses
Geisen, Stefan ; Vaulot, Daniel ; Mahe, Frederic ; Lara, Enrique ; Vargas, Colomban de; Bass, David - \ 2019
BioRxiv - 34 p.
Protists – all eukaryotes besides fungi, animals, and plants - represent a major part of the taxonomic and functional diversity of eukaryotic life on the planet and drive many ecosystem processes. However, knowledge of protist communities and their diversity lags behind that of most other groups of organisms, largely due to methodological constraints. While protist communities differ markedly between habitats and biomes, they can be studied in very similar ways. Here we provide a guide to current molecular approaches used for studying protist diversity, with a particular focus on amplicon-based high-throughput sequencing (metabarcoding). We highlight that the choice of suitable primers artificially alters community profiles observed in metabarcoding studies. While there are no true ‘universal’ primers to target all protist taxa as a whole, we identify some primer combinations with a wide taxonomic coverage and provide detailed information on their properties. Although environmental protistan ecological research will probably shift towards PCR-free metagenomics or/and transcriptomic approaches in a near future, metabarcoding will remain the method of choice for in-depth community analyses and taxon inventories in biodiversity surveys and ecological studies, due its great cost-efficiency, sensitivity, and throughput. In this paper we provide a guide for scientists from a broad range of disciplines to implement protists in their ecological analyses
Standards and Regulations for the Bio‐based Industry STAR4BBI
Oever, M.J.A. van den; Vural Gürsel, Iris ; Bos, H.L. ; Dammer, Lara ; Babayan, Tatevik ; Ladu, Luana ; Clavell, Janire ; Vrins, Minique ; Berg, Janwillem van den - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 52 p.
This report describes possible solution directions to overcome market entry barriers due to regulation and standardisation that companies that are active in the bio‐based economy experience. The market entry barriers were investigated and described in the deliverable D2.1. Five main hurdles were described in D2.1:
‐ A number of issues around End‐of‐Life of bio‐based products
‐ Certification and standards
‐ Biofuel policy, and the fact that supporting policy for bio‐based products is missing
‐ Missing long term policy that helps to promote bio‐based products
‐ Communication and image.
In order to define possible solution routes to the hurdles, for each hurdle the
relevant stakeholders and their drivers towards the hurdle were investigated. Based on this investigation directions for solutions were defined and discussed with various stakeholders. Furthermore a workshop was held where the solutions were presented and discussed with a broad group of stakeholders.
Solution directions defined for the first four identified hurdles are:
‐ End‐of‐Life issues: There is no general agreement on which EOL option is most preferable for a several bio‐based products. This relates to present regulations, recycling targets, and industrial operation practices and business models of waste processors. All parties involved would benefit from clear LCA data for EOL options for (groups of) products. This would allow governments, municipalities, consumers and waste processors to decide which product best goes where. Clear icons indicating the preferable EOL, EU wide can help to minimise products going into the “wrong” bin. And in particular cases it may be useful to indicate what is not the desired EOL route, e.g. for products which look like a particular
material but in fact are not. Furthermore research on recycling of bio‐based plastics and composting of biodegradable plastics is proposed with both the bio‐based plastics suppliers and the waste processors being stakeholders in the project.
‐ Certification and standards: Several possible solutions are proposed to overcome the hurdle related to certification and standards. In principle, it is important to involve as many stakeholders as possible in the standardization process, in order to achieve a widely supported middle ground that corresponds as well as possible with everyday practice. Besides this, to give new materials the possibility to enter the market, standards should focus on the functioning of materials instead of the material itself. In the field of certificates, solutions lie in mutual compatibility, alignment and transparency in tests. However, aligning all involved parties can be (politically) challenging due to competition (between schemes). Moreover, amending standards is time consuming, but in the end
these proposed solutions could open the door more easily to new bio‐based materials.
‐ Biofuel policy: The RED puts pressure on availability and price of biomass for bio‐based products. Different options are considered as potential solutions. One option is to reform the RED in order to integrate bio‐based chemicals and materials. Another option is without changing the RED to create a link of bio‐based materials to the RED through a “bio‐ticket” system. The third option considered is a new directive special for bio‐based materials. Furthermore a harmonized classification system of wastes and residues across EU is
necessary, which needs to be implemented under the EU Waste Framework Directive (WFD). Where the use of feedstocks by the bio‐based products industry is possible, such Elimination of hurdles in standards and regulation uses must be incentivized. The same classification system that will be needed to be
developed by the WFD will need to be adopted by the Biofuel policy for defining the feedstocks of “advanced biofuels”.
‐ Missing long term policy: In order to level the playing field between fossil‐based and biobased products two possible solutions are proposed. In the first place, the producer should be responsible for paying for the negative externalities of the production processes (e.g. possible damage to the environment) and not the whole society. Furthermore, sustainable
certifications, currently often asked only for bio‐based products, should be requested for all products. The lack of clear, robust methodologies and criteria for assessing the sustainability of both bio‐based and fossil‐based products represents a major gap that is hampering the future development of the bio‐based industry. Development of the same sustainability criteria for all types of feedstock (bio‐based and fossil based) and all sectors (materials and fuels/energy) across the whole life‐cycle (material production, use and EOL)
is proposed as a potential solution. And harmonization of LCA procedures is described to be important for this.
During the investigation process it was found that the fifth hurdle, communication and image, was an integral part of the other four hurdles, it was therefore not investigated and presented separately, but integral with the other hurdles.
The solution directions described in this report are focused specifically on the hurdles that were collected in D2.1 by interviewing a number of companies. During the investigation also more general aspects to stimulate the introduction of bio‐based products came up. An overview of these is presented in appendix A.
The analysis laid down in this report has served as the basis for a deeper investigation and proposals to overcome specific market barriers, which are presented in D4.4, and proposals for supporting policy, presented in D3.3.
D4.4 Regulation action plan
Ladu, Luana ; Clavell, Janire ; Quitzow, Rainer ; Costenoble, Ortwin ; Vrins, Minique ; Berg, Janwillem van den; Babayan, Tatevik ; Berg, Christopher vom; Dammer, Lara ; Partanen, Asta ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Vural Gürsel, Iris ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2019
EU - 63 p.
The bioeconomy is a new market field that was not considered when most of the existing regula-tions were drafted in several areas, including, for example, regulations on the end-of-life (EOL) stage of plastics. Consequentially, even though an EU bioeconomy strategy exists, a coherent and coor-dinated policy framework is still missing1. In addition, the lack of necessary mechanisms (e.g. regu-lative carbon pricing) and the fact that existing policies and standards are mostly based only on fossil-based products (e.g. existing EOL schemes are focused on fossil-based products and do not consider bio-based counterparts) are hampering the development of the bioeconomy.
Designing Ecological Solidarity / Construire la solidarité écologique
Lara, Elizabeth ; Driessen, C.P.G. - \ 2019
In: Design as a Tool for Transition / Le design comme outil de transition Design as a Tool for Transition / Le design comme outil de transition (2019).Luma Arles - p. 122 - 133.
Effect of nickel and cobalt on methanogenic enrichment cultures and role of biogenic sulphide in metal toxicity attenuation
Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Lara da; Ramiro Garcia, Javier ; Mourik, Simon van; Stams, Fons ; Machado de Sousa, Diana - \ 2019
PRJEB20620 - ERP022789
Metals play an important role in microbial metabolism by acting as cofactors for many enzymes. Supplementation of biological processes with metals may result in improved performance, but high metal concentrations are often toxic to microorganisms. In this work, methanogenic enrichment cultures growing on H2/CO2 or acetate were supplemented with trace concentrations of nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), but no significant increase in methane production was observed in most of the tested conditions. However, high concentrations of these metals were detrimental to methanogenic activity of the cultures. The amount of methane produced from H2/CO2 was reduced in 50% in the presence of 8 mM of Ni or 30 mM of Co (after 6 days of incubation), compared to controls without metal supplementation. When acetate was used as substrate, methane production was also reduced: in 18% with 8 mM of Ni and in 53% with 30 mM of Co (after 6 days of incubation). Metal precipitation with sulphide was further tested as a possible method to alleviate metal toxicity. Anaerobic sludge was incubated with Co (30 mM) and Ni (8mM) in the presence of sulphate or sulphide. The addition of sulphide helped to mitigate the toxic effect of the metals. Methane production from H2/CO2 was negatively affected in the presence of sulphate, possibly due to strong competition of hydrogenotrophic methanogens by sulphate-reducing bacteria. However, in the enrichment cultures growing on acetate, biogenic sulphide had a positive effect and higher amounts of methane were produced in these incubations than in similar assays without sulphate addition. The degree of competition between methanogens and sulphate-reducing bacteria is a determinant factor for the success of using biogenic sulphide as detoxification method.
A comparative assessment of local municipal food policy integration in the Netherlands
Sibbing, Lara ; Candel, Jeroen ; Termeer, Katrien - \ 2019
International Planning Studies (2019). - ISSN 1356-3475
food systems - local government - policy analysis - policy integration - Urban food policy
Local governments around the world increasingly engage in food governance, aiming to address food system challenges such as obesity, food waste, or food insecurity. However, the extent to which municipalities have actually integrated food across their policies remains unknown. This study addresses this question by conducting a medium-n systematic content analysis of local food policy outputs of 31 Dutch municipalities. Policy outputs were coded for the food goals and instruments adopted by local governments. Our analysis shows that most municipalities integrate food to a limited extent only, predominantly addressing health and local food production or consumption. Furthermore, municipalities seem hesitant to use coercive instruments and predominantly employ informative and organizational instruments. Nonetheless, a small number of municipalities have developed more holistic approaches to address food challenges. These cities may prove to be a leading group in the development of system-based approaches in Dutch local food policy.
The Potential Impact of Underwater Exhausted CO2 from Innovative Ships on Invertebrate Communities
Wei, Yuzhu ; Plath, Lara ; Penning, Anne ; Linden, Maartje van der; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Foekema, Edwin M. - \ 2019
International Journal Environmental Research 13 (2019)4. - ISSN 1735-6865 - p. 669 - 678.
Underwater exhaust - Periphyton - Plankton - Benthos - Mesocosm - ocean acidification
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered ships equipped with an underwater exhaust system to reduce the ship’s water resistance could form a future generation of energy-efficient ships. The potential consequences of the underwater exhaust gas to the local ecosystems are still unknown. Especially, the CO2 levels may locally exceed estimated future global levels. The present study exposes marine communities to a wide range of CO2 dosages, resulting in pH 8.6–5.8 that was remained for 49 days. We found that the zooplankton and benthic community were adversely affected by high CO2 exposure levels. In detail, (1) between pH 6.6 and 7.1 polychaete worms became the dominating group of the benthic community and their larvae dominated the zooplankton group. (2) Due to the reduced grazing pressure and the flux of nutrients from decaying organic material planktonic microalgae (phytoplankton) stared blooming at the highest exposure level. The periphyton (fouling microalgae) community was not able to take advantage under these conditions. (3) Marine snails’ (periwinkle) shell damage and high mortality were observed at pH < 6.6. However, the growth of the surviving periwinkles was not directly related to pH, but was positively correlated with the availability of periphyton and negatively correlated with the polychaete worm density that most likely also used the periphyton as food source. Our result indicates that the impact of underwater exhaust gasses depends on various factors including local biological and abiotic conditions, which will be included in future research.
Correction: Free fatty acid release from vegetable and bovine milk fat-based infant formulas and human milk during two-phase: In vitro digestion
Hageman, Jeske H.J. ; Keijer, Jaap ; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup ; Zeper, Lara W. ; Carrière, Frédéric ; Feitsma, Anouk L. ; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G. - \ 2019
Food & Function 10 (2019)5. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 3018 - 3020.
The authors regret that the lipid composition of IF1 was reported incorrectly. The percentage of C18:1n-9 should be 42.3%. Since the incorrect value was also used for some calculations, this also affects some of the results: it increases the total amount of fatty acids in the sample, and consequently the percentage of released FFA is lower. The FFA release (as a percentage of initial composition), both of total FFA and C18:1, is similar for both IFs. One small difference between IF1 and IF2 that was seen when using the incorrect value, i.e. a faster early duodenal digestion for IF1, was found to be no longer statistically significant. This has no consequences for the conclusions of the manuscript. Page 2106 should read " The human milk samples showed less release of FFA during the gastric phase compared to IF1 and IF2 (2.0 ± 0.2% vs. 4.3 ± 0.2% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively, p < 0.01). Compared to the amount of FFA released after the digestion, during the gastric phase 4% of FFA were released from human milk, about 10% from IF1, and about 11% from IF2. Except for 45 minutes (p = 0.04), i.e. 15 minutes after the start of the duodenal phase, no differences were found in FFA release between the IFs compared to the human milk samples during this phase. The total release of FAs at the end of the digestion, as percentage of initial composition, was found to be similar for the different samples (43.9 ± 2.0%, 42.2 ± 1.4%, and 52.3 ± 4.5% for IF1, IF2 and human milk respectively, p = 0.14)". The correspondingly updated Fig. 2B, Fig. 5K, Table 2 and Table 3 are as presented below.(Table Persented).
Free fatty acid release from vegetable and bovine milk fat-based infant formulas and human milk during two-phase in vitro digestion
Hageman, Jeske H.J. ; Keijer, Jaap ; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup ; Zeper, Lara W. ; Carrière, Frédéric ; Feitsma, Anouk L. ; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G. - \ 2019
Food & Function 10 (2019)4. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 2102 - 2113.
Background: Bovine milk fat is increasingly used in infant formula (IF). The triacylglycerol (TAG) structure of bovine milk fat might be beneficial for digestion and absorption. We investigated the release of fatty acids (FAs) of IF containing different fat blends and compared this to human milk. Methods: Fresh human milk was sampled and two IFs were produced; one containing 100% vegetable fat (IF1) and one with 67% bovine milk fat and 33% vegetable fat (IF2). Using a static in vitro infant digestion model, consisting of a gastric and duodenal phase, the time dependent release of individual free fatty acids (FFA) was studied and analysed using GC-MS, and residual TAG levels were determined by GC-FID. Results: Human milk and the IFs showed comparable total FA release. In the gastric phase, 4-11% of lipolysis occurred, and mainly short (SCFA)- and medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) were released. In the duodenal phase, lipolysis proceeded with release of C4:0 but was marked by a fast release of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). The digestion of the IFs resulted in different FFA profiles during and at the end of digestion. IF2 gave more release of C4:0-C11:0, which reflects the FA composition of bovine milk. Conclusion: The addition of bovine milk fat to IF resulted in a total FA release comparable to an IF with only vegetable fat and human milk. However, it did lead to a different time-dependent release of individual FAs, which might result in differences in absorption and other health effects in vivo.
Smeltende gletsjers in Himalaya veel erger voor Pakistan dan voor India en Bangladesh
Biemans, Hester - \ 2019
Homoeostatic maintenance of nonstructural carbohydrates during the 2015–2016 El Niño drought across a tropical forest precipitation gradient
Dickman, Lee Turin ; McDowell, Nate G. ; Grossiord, Charlotte ; Collins, Adam D. ; Wolfe, Brett T. ; Detto, Matteo ; Wright, S.J. ; Medina-Vega, José A. ; Goodsman, Devin ; Rogers, Alistair ; Serbin, Shawn P. ; Wu, Jin ; Ely, Kim S. ; Michaletz, Sean T. ; Xu, Chonggang ; Kueppers, Lara ; Chambers, Jeffrey Q. - \ 2019
Plant, Cell & Environment 42 (2019)5. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1705 - 1714.
climate - ENSO - NSC - Panama - storage - sugars - tropics - vegetation
Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are essential for maintenance of plant metabolism and may be sensitive to short- and long-term climatic variation. NSC variation in moist tropical forests has rarely been studied, so regulation of NSCs in these systems is poorly understood. We measured foliar and branch NSC content in 23 tree species at three sites located across a large precipitation gradient in Panama during the 2015–2016 El Niño to examine how short- and long-term climatic variation impact carbohydrate dynamics. There was no significant difference in total NSCs as the drought progressed (leaf P = 0.32, branch P = 0.30) nor across the rainfall gradient (leaf P = 0.91, branch P = 0.96). Foliar soluble sugars decreased while starch increased over the duration of the dry period, suggesting greater partitioning of NSCs to storage than metabolism or transport as drought progressed. There was a large variation across species at all sites, but total foliar NSCs were positively correlated with leaf mass per area, whereas branch sugars were positively related to leaf temperature and negatively correlated with daily photosynthesis and wood density. The NSC homoeostasis across a wide range of conditions suggests that NSCs are an allocation priority in moist tropical forests.
|The effect of different eggshell temperature patterns during incubation on broiler chicken behavior determined by an automatic tracking system
Molenaar, R. ; Haas, E.N. de; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Olde Bolhaar, Lara ; Wijnen, H.J. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2018
In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 248 - 248.
behaviour - broiler chicken - incubation - tracking - compensatory growth - delayed nutrition - early nutrition
Hoe het uit de hand liep in de Oostvaardersplassen
Breman, B.C. - \ 2018
Het natuurgebied de Oostvaardersplassen was de afgelopen maanden het toneel voor protest tegen het beleid van Staatsbosbeheer. En daarbij liepen de emoties hoog.
De protesten houden aan en inmiddels zijn de toegangswegen tot het gebied met betonblokken afgesloten. Daarmee wil Staatsbosbeheer actievoerders tegenhouden die dit weekend dieren met paardentrailers uit het gebied willen ophalen.
Sociale media spelen een belangrijke rol bij de protesten en wetenschappers van de Universiteit Wageningen hebben de discussie daar geanalyseerd. Wij praten erover met Bas Breman, onderzoeker natuurbeelden en natuursentiment aan de Universiteit Wageningen