Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Genome-Wide association studies in apple reveal loci for aroma volatiles, sugar composition, and harvest Date
Larsen, Bjarne ; Migicovsky, Zoë ; Jeppesen, Anne Aae ; Gardner, Kyle M. ; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo ; Myles, Sean ; Ørgaard, Marian ; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin ; Pedersen, Carsten - \ 2019
The Plant Genome 12 (2019)2. - ISSN 1940-3372

Understanding the genetic architecture of fruit quality traits is crucial to target breeding of apple (Malus domestica L.) cultivars. We linked genotype and phenotype information by combining genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with fruit flavor volatile data, sugar and acid content, and historical trait data from a gene bank collection. Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of apple juice samples, we identified 49 fruit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We found a very variable content of VOCs, especially for the esters, among 149 apple cultivars. We identified convincing associations for the acetate esters especially butyl acetate and hexyl acetate on chromosome 2 in a region of several alcohol acyl-transferases including AAT1. For sucrose content and for fructose and sucrose in percentage of total sugars, we revealed significant SNP associations. Here, we suggest a vacuolar invertase close to significant SNPs for this association as candidate gene. Harvest date was in strong SNP association with a NAC transcription factor gene and sequencing identified two haplotypes associated with harvest date. The study shows that SNP marker characterization of a gene bank collection can be successfully combined with new and historical trait data for association studies. Suggested candidate genes may contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic basis for important traits and simultaneously provide tools for targeted breeding using marker-assisted selection (MAS).

A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production
Dainese, Matteo ; Martin, Emily A. ; Aizen, Marcelo A. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Carvalheiro, Luisa G. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Ghazoul, Jaboury ; Grab, Heather ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Karp, Daniel S. ; Kennedy, Christina M. ; Kleijn, David ; Kremen, Claire ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Poveda, Katja ; Rader, Romina ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Badenhausser, Isabelle ; Baensch, Svenja ; Bezerra, Antonio D.M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Boreux, Virginie ; Bretagnolle, Vincent ; Caballero-Lopez, Berta ; Cavigliasso, Pablo ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Chacoff, Natacha P. ; Classen, Alice ; Cusser, Sarah ; Silva E Silva, Felipe D. Da; Groot, A. de; Dudenhöffer, Jan H. ; Ekroos, Johan ; Fijen, Thijs ; Franck, Pierre ; Freitas, Breno M. ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hipólito, Juliana ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Hunt, Lauren ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Jha, Shalene ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Klatt, Björn K. ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Krewenka, Kristin M. ; Krishnan, Smitha ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Lavigne, Claire ; Liere, Heidi ; Maas, Bea ; Mallinger, Rachel E. ; Pachon, Eliana Martinez ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Nesper, Maike ; Nilsson, Lovisa ; O'Rourke, Megan E. ; Peters, Marcell K. ; Plećaš, Milan ; Potts, Simon G. ; L. Ramos, Davi de; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Sáez, Agustín ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schleuning, Matthias ; Schmack, Julia M. ; Sciligo, Amber R. ; Seymour, Colleen ; Stanley, Dara A. ; Stewart, Rebecca ; Stout, Jane C. ; Sutter, Louis ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Viana, Blandina F. ; Westphal, Catrin ; Willcox, Bryony K. ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Yoshioka, Akira ; Zaragoza-Trello, Carlos ; Zhang, Wei ; Zou, Yi ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)10. - ISSN 2375-2548

Human land use threatens global biodiversity and compromises multiple ecosystem functions critical to food production. Whether crop yield-related ecosystem services can be maintained by a few dominant species or rely on high richness remains unclear. Using a global database from 89 studies (with 1475 locations), we partition the relative importance of species richness, abundance, and dominance for pollination; biological pest control; and final yields in the context of ongoing land-use change. Pollinator and enemy richness directly supported ecosystem services in addition to and independent of abundance and dominance. Up to 50% of the negative effects of landscape simplification on ecosystem services was due to richness losses of service-providing organisms, with negative consequences for crop yields. Maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystem service providers is therefore vital to sustain the flow of key agroecosystem benefits to society.

Disease-free monoculture farming by fungus-growing termites
Otani, Saria ; Challinor, Victoria L. ; Kreuzenbeck, Nina B. ; Kildgaard, Sara ; Krath Christensen, Søren ; Larsen, Louise Lee Munk ; Aanen, Duur K. ; Rasmussen, Silas Anselm ; Beemelmanns, Christine ; Poulsen, Michael - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Fungus-growing termites engage in an obligate mutualistic relationship with Termitomyces fungi, which they maintain in monocultures on specialised fungus comb structures, without apparent problems with infectious diseases. While other fungi have been reported in the symbiosis, detailed comb fungal community analyses have been lacking. Here we use culture-dependent and -independent methods to characterise fungus comb mycobiotas from three fungus-growing termite species (two genera). Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene analyses using 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq showed that non-Termitomyces fungi were essentially absent in fungus combs, and that Termitomyces fungal crops are maintained in monocultures as heterokaryons with two or three abundant ITS variants in a single fungal strain. To explore whether the essential absence of other fungi within fungus combs is potentially due to the production of antifungal metabolites by Termitomyces or comb bacteria, we performed in vitro assays and found that both Termitomyces and chemical extracts of fungus comb material can inhibit potential fungal antagonists. Chemical analyses of fungus comb material point to a highly complex metabolome, including compounds with the potential to play roles in mediating these contaminant-free farming conditions in the termite symbiosis.

Volatile compounds as insect lures: factors affecting release from passive dispenser systems
Nielsen, Mette Cecilie ; Sansom, Catherine E. ; Larsen, Lesley ; Worner, Susan P. ; Rostás, Michael ; Chapman, Bruce ; Butler, Ruth C. ; Kogel, Willem J. de; Davidson, Melanie M. ; Perry, Nigel B. ; Teulon, David A.J. - \ 2019
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science (2019). - ISSN 0114-0671
homologues - methyl isonicotinate - non-pheromone semiochemical - pest management - release rates - Thysanoptera

Knowledge about the behaviour of passive dispensers used to release semiochemicals for insect pest management is essential to ensure the efficacy of monitoring and control methods based on the use of the semiochemicals. The release characteristics of different passive dispenser types (commercial sachet, altered commercial sachet, polyethylene bags and cotton rolls) were investigated in the laboratory under various conditions. Using the volatile compound methyl isonicotinate (MI), a known lure for western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and two additional homologues ethyl and n-propyl isonicotinate the effect of loading amount (0.5, 1.0 or 2.5 ml), temperatures (15°C, 25°C or 35°C) and air flow (0.1–0.15 m/s or 0.25–0.3 m/s) were tested in a low-speed laminar-flow wind tunnel. The results showed zero-order release kinetics for all tested dispenser types. Release rate kinetics relies on the type of molecule, dispenser type, and the climatic conditions with temperature being a major determinant of release rate. The results of the release characteristics of the different dispensers are discussed in regards to their practical use under greenhouse and field conditions.

A European interlaboratory trial to evaluate the performance of different PCR methods for Mycoplasma bovis diagnosis
Wisselink, H.J. ; Smid, B. ; Plater, J. ; Ridley, A. ; Andersson, Anna-Maria ; Aspán, A. ; Pohjanvirta, T. ; Vähänikkilä, Nella ; Larsen, Helena ; Hogberg, Jonas ; Colin, A. ; Tardy, Florence - \ 2019
BMC Veterinary Research 15 (2019). - ISSN 1746-6148
Background: Several species-specific PCR assays, based on a variety of target genes are currently used in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle herds with respiratory diseases and/or mastitis. With this diversity
of methods, and the development of new methods and formats, regular performance comparisons are required to ascertain diagnostic quality. The present study compares PCR methods that are currently used in six national
veterinary institutes across Europe. Three different sample panels were compiled and analysed to assess the analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity and comparability of the different PCR methods. The results were also compared, when appropriate, to those obtained through isolation by culture. The sensitivity and comparability panels were composed of samples from bronchoalveolar fluids of veal calves, artificially contaminated or naturally infected, and hence the comparison of the different methods included the whole workflow from DNA extraction to PCR analysis.
Results: The participating laboratories used i) five different DNA extraction methods, ii) seven different real-time and/or end-point PCRs targeting four different genes and iii) six different real-time PCR platforms. Only one
commercial kit was assessed; all other PCR assays were in-house tests adapted from published methods. The analytical specificity of the different PCR methods was comparable except for one laboratory where Mycoplasma agalactiae was tested positive. Frequently, weak-positive results with Ct values between 37 and 40 were obtained for non-target Mycoplasma strains. The limit of detection (LOD) varied from 10 to 103 CFU/ml to 103 and 106 CFU/ml for the real-time and end-point assays, respectively. Cultures were also shown to detect concentrations down to 102 CFU/ml. Although Ct values showed considerable variation with naturally infected samples, both between laboratories and tests, the final result interpretation of the samples (positive versus negative) was essentially the same between the different laboratories.
Conclusion: With a few exceptions, all methods used routinely in the participating laboratories showed comparable performance, which assures the quality of diagnosis, despite the multiplicity of the methods.
Recycling nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture: Pathways, processes, and products
Harder, Robin ; Wielemaker, Rosanne ; Larsen, Tove A. ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Öberg, Gunilla - \ 2019
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 49 (2019)8. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 695 - 743.
blackwater - carbon - feces - fertilizer - nitrogen - organic matter - Phosphorus - potassium - recovery - resource-oriented sanitation - sewage - soil amendment - source-separation - urine - wastewater

The need for better nutrient management has spurred efforts towards more comprehensive recycling of nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture. Research in this direction has intensified throughout the past years, continuously unfolding new knowledge and technologies. The present review aspires to provide a systematic synthesis of the field by providing an accessible overview of terminology, recovery pathways and treatment options, and products rendered by treatment. Our synthesis suggests that, rather than focusing on a specific recovery pathway or product and on a limited set of nutrients, there is scope for exploring how to maximize nutrient recovery by combining individual pathways and products and including a broader range of nutrients. To this end, finding ways to more effectively share and consolidate knowledge and information on recovery pathways and products would be beneficial. The present review aims to provide a template that aims to facilitate designing human excreta management for maximum nutrient recovery, and that can serve as foundation for organizing and categorizing information for more effective sharing and consolidation.

An Interlaboratory trial to evaluate the reliability of PCR methods for Mycoplasma bovis diagnosis in six european countries
Wisselink, H.J. ; Smid, B. ; Plater, J. ; Ridley, A. ; Andersson, A.M. ; Aspán, A. ; Pohjanvirta, T. ; Vähänikkilä, N. ; Larsen, H. ; Hogberg, J. ; Colin, A. ; Tardy, F. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
European experiences on the use of remote electronic monitoring
Mortensen, L. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Ulrich, C. ; Needle, C. ; Oesterwind, D. ; Kindt-Larsen, L. ; Catchpole, T. ; Mangi, Stephen ; Zimmermann, C. ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Bailey, N. ; Bergsson, Heidrikur ; Dalskov, J. ; Elson, Jon ; Hosken, Malo ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
PREVIEW study—Influence of a behavior modification intervention (PREMIT) in over 2300 people with pre-diabetes : Intention, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies during the early phase of a lifestyle intervention
Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Hansen, Sylvia ; Christensen, Pia ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Sandø-Pedersen, Finn ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Adam, Tanja C. ; Macdonald, Ian A. ; Taylor, Moira A. ; Martinez, J.A. ; Navas-Carretero, Santiago ; Handjiev, Svetoslav ; Poppitt, Sally D. ; Silvestre, Marta P. ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
Psychology Research and Behavior Management 11 (2018). - ISSN 1179-1578 - p. 383 - 394.
Cognition - Diabetes mellitus - Goals - Habits - Weight loss

Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of ≥ 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni-and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss (“achievers”) and those who did not (“non-achievers”). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between “achievers” (1,857) and “non-achievers” (163) were found. “Non-achievers” tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, “achievers” reported higher intentions (healthy eating χ2 (1)=2.57; P <0.008, exercising χ2 (1)=0.66; P <0.008), self-efficacy (F(2; 1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F(4; 1968)=11.22, P <0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the “new” behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.

A European interlaboratory evaluation of PCR and ELISA methods for Mycoplasma bovis diagnostics
Aspan, A. ; Wisselink, H.J. ; Ridely, Anne ; Andersson, Anna-Maria ; Pohjanvirta, Tarja ; Pelkonen, Sinikka ; Lauritsen, Klara T. ; Kenso, Jane ; Larsen, Helena ; Hogberg, Jonas ; Tardy, Florence - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; DeClerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2018
agroecology - biological control - natural enemies - pest control - pest - ecosystem services - landscape
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Review : Converting nutritional knowledge into feeding practices: A case study comparing different protein feeding systems for dairy cows
Lapierre, H. ; Larsen, M. ; Sauvant, D. ; Amburgh, M.E. van; Duinkerken, G. van - \ 2018
Animal 12 (2018)s2. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. s457 - s466.
dairy cows - energy - feeding system - milk protein yield - protein

Improving milk nitrogen efficiency through a reduction of CP supply without detrimental effect on productivity requires usage of feeding systems estimating both the flows of digestible protein, the exported true proteins and from these predict milk protein yield (MPY). Five feeding systems were compared in their ability to predict MPY v. observed MPY in two studies where either protein supply or protein and energy supply were changed. The five feedings systems were: Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (v6.5.5), Dutch protein evaluation system (1991 and 2007), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in France (INRA), National Research Council and NorFor. The key characteristic of the systems with the best predicted MPY was the inclusion of a variable efficiency of utilisation of protein supply taking into account the supply of both protein and energy. The systems still using a fixed efficiency had the highest slope bias in their prediction of MPY. Therefore, the development of new feeding systems or improvement of existing systems should include a variable efficiency of utilisation of the protein related to both the protein and energy supply. The limitation of the current comparison did not allow determining if additional factors, as used in INRA, were beneficial. This concept should also probably be transferred to essential amino acids.

Demographic and Social-Cognitive Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Overweight, Pre-diabetic Participants of the PREVIEW Study
Hansen, Sylvia ; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Sluik, Diewertje ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora ; Macdonald, Ian ; Martinez, Alfredo J. ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Poppitt, Sally ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 25 (2018)6. - ISSN 1070-5503 - p. 682 - 692.
Behavioral determination - Lifestyle intervention - Social-cognitive factors - Weight loss

Purpose: Weight loss has been demonstrated to be a successful strategy in diabetes prevention. Although weight loss is greatly influenced by dietary behaviors, social-cognitive factors play an important role in behavioral determination. This study aimed to identify demographic and social-cognitive factors (intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support, and motivation with regard to dietary behavior and goal adjustment) associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants from the PREVIEW study who had pre-diabetes. Method: Prospective correlational data from 1973 adult participants were analyzed. The participants completed psychological questionnaires that assessed social-cognitive variables with regard to dietary behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify baseline demographic and social-cognitive factors associated with weight loss. Results: Overall, being male, having a higher baseline BMI, having a higher income, perceiving fewer disadvantages of a healthy diet (outcome expectancies), experiencing less discouragement for healthy eating by family and friends (social support), and lower education were independently linked to greater weight loss. When evaluating females and males separately, education was no longer associated with weight loss. Conclusion: The results indicate that a supportive environment in which family members and friends avoid discouraging healthy eating, with the application of a strategy that uses specific behavior change techniques to emphasize the benefits of outcomes, i.e., the benefits of a healthy diet, may support weight loss efforts. Weight loss programs should therefore always address the social environment of persons who try to lose body weight because family members and friends can be important supporters in reaching a weight loss goal.

Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Declerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; O’Rourke, Megan E. ; Rusch, Adrien ; Poveda, Katja ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Schellhorn, Nancy A. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Zhang, Wei ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Adler, Lynn S. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Alignier, Audrey ; Angelella, Gina M. ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Avelino, Jacques ; Batáry, Péter ; Baveco, Johannes M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bohnenblust, Eric W. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Brewer, Michael J. ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Carrière, Yves ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Cayuela, Luis ; Centrella, Mary ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Henri, Dominic Charles ; Chabert, Ariane ; Costamagna, Alejandro C. ; La Mora, Aldo De; Kraker, Joop De; Desneux, Nicolas ; Diehl, Eva ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Eckberg, James O. ; Entling, Martin H. ; Fiedler, Daniela ; Franck, Pierre ; Veen, F.J.F. van; Frank, Thomas ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Getachew, Awraris ; Gonthier, David J. ; Goodell, Peter B. ; Graziosi, Ignazio ; Groves, Russell L. ; Gurr, Geoff M. ; Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary ; Heimpel, George E. ; Herrmann, John D. ; Huseth, Anders S. ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Ingrao, Adam J. ; Iv, Phirun ; Jacot, Katja ; Johnson, Gregg A. ; Jones, Laura ; Kaiser, Marina ; Kaser, Joe M. ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lavandero, Blas ; Lavigne, Claire ; Ralec, Anne Le; Lemessa, Debissa ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Liere, Heidi ; Lu, Yanhui ; Lubin, Yael ; Luttermoser, Tim ; Maas, Bea ; Mace, Kevi ; Madeira, Filipe ; Mader, Viktoria ; Cortesero, Anne Marie ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martinez, Eliana ; Martinson, Holly M. ; Menozzi, Philippe ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Miyashita, Tadashi ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. ; O’Neal, Matthew E. ; Opatovsky, Itai ; Ortiz-Martinez, Sebaastian ; Nash, Michael ; Östman, Örjan ; Ouin, Annie ; Pak, Damie ; Paredes, Daniel ; Parsa, Soroush ; Parry, Hazel ; Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo ; Perović, David J. ; Peterson, Julie A. ; Petit, Sandrine ; Philpott, Stacy M. ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Plećaš, Milan ; Pluess, Therese ; Pons, Xavier ; Potts, Simon G. ; Pywell, Richard F. ; Ragsdale, David W. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Raymond, Lucie ; Ricci, Benoît ; Sargent, Chris ; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre ; Saulais, Julia ; Schäckermann, Jessica ; Schmidt, Nick P. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Sivakoff, Frances S. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin ; Stutz, Sonja ; Szendrei, Zsofia ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thomson, Linda J. ; Tricault, Yann ; Tsafack, Noelline ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Valantin-Morison, Muriel ; Trinh, Mai Van; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Vierling, Kerri T. ; Werling, Ben P. ; Wickens, Jennifer B. ; Wickens, Victoria J. ; Woodcock, Ben A. ; Wyckhuys, Kris ; Xiao, Haijun ; Yasuda, Mika ; Yoshioka, Akira - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7863 - E7870.
IPM
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Evaluation of ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition as screening tests in serosurveillance for H5/H7 avian influenza in commercial chicken flocks
Arnold, M.E. ; Slomka, M.J. ; Breed, A.C. ; Hjulsager, C.K. ; Pritz-Verschuren, S. ; Venema-Kemper, S. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Trebbien, R. ; Zohari, S. ; Ceeraz, V. ; Larsen, L.E. ; Manvell, R.J. ; Koch, G. ; Brown, I.H. - \ 2018
Epidemiology and Infection 146 (2018)3. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 306 - 313.
AIV (avian influenza virus) - Bayesian - ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) - H5/H7 AIV surveillance - HI (haemagglutination inhibition)

Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any ‘gold standard’. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.

The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
Granby, Kit ; Rainieri, Sandra ; Rasmussen, Rie Romme ; Kotterman, Michiel J.J. ; Sloth, Jens Jørgen ; Cederberg, Tommy Licht ; Barranco, Alex ; Marques, António ; Larsen, Bodil Katrine - \ 2018
Environmental Research 164 (2018). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 430 - 443.
Elimination - Gene expression - Microplastics - PBDE - PCB
When microplastics pollute fish habitats, it may be ingested by fish, thereby contaminating fish with sorbed contaminants. The present study investigates how combinations of halogenated contaminants and microplastics associated with feed are able to alter toxicokinetics in European seabass and affect the fish. Microplastic particles (2%) were added to the feed either with sorbed contaminants or as a mixture of clean microplastics and chemical contaminants, and compared to feed containing contaminants without microplastics. For the contaminated microplastic diet, the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in fish was significantly higher, increasing up to 40 days of accumulation and then reversing to values comparable to the other diets at the end of accumulation. The significant gene expression results of liver (cyp1a, il1β gstα) after 40 days of exposure indicate that microplastics might indeed exacerbate the toxic effects (liver metabolism, immune system, oxidative stress) of some chemical contaminants sorbed to microplastics. Seabass quickly metabolised BDE99 to BDE47 by debromination, probably mediated by deiodinase enzymes, and unlike other contaminants, this metabolism was unaffected by the presence of microplastics. For the other PCBs and BFRs, the elimination coefficients were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with contaminants sorbed to microplastic compared to the other diets. The results indicate that microplastics affects liver detoxification and lipid distribution, both of which affect the concentration of contaminants.
Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with prediabetes : The PREVIEW study
Swindell, Nils ; Mackintosh, Kelly ; Mcnarry, Melitta ; Stephens, Jeffrey W. ; Sluik, Diewertje ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Macdonald, Ian ; Martinez, J.A. ; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora ; Poppitt, Sally D. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Larsen, Thomas M. ; Raben, Anne ; Stratton, Gareth - \ 2018
Diabetes Care 41 (2018)3. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 562 - 569.
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the association among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and cardiometabolic risk in adults with prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 2,326; 25-70 years old, 67% female) from eight countries, with a BMI >25 kg · m22 and impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol · L21) or impaired glucose tolerance (7.8-11.0 mmol · L21 at 2 h), participated. Seven-day accelerometry objectively assessed PA levels and ST. RESULTS Multiple linear regression revealed that moderate-To-vigorous PA (MVPA) was negatively associated withHOMAof insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (standardizedb =20.078 [95% CI20.128,20.027]), waist circumference (WC) (b =20.177 [20.122,20.134]), fasting insulin (b = 20.115 [20.158, 20.072]), 2-h glucose (b = 20.069 [20.112, 20.025]), triglycerides (b = 20.091 [20.138, 20.044]), and CRP (b = 20.086 [20.127, 20.045]). ST was positively associated with HOMA-IR (b = 0.175 [0.114, 0.236]), WC (b = 0.215 [0.026, 0.131]), fasting insulin (b = 0.155 [0.092, 0.219]), triglycerides (b = 0.106 [0.052, 0.16]), CRP (b = 0.106 [0.39, 0.172]), systolic blood pressure (BP) (b = 0.078 [0.026, 0.131]), and diastolic BP (b = 0.106 [0.39, 20.172]). Associations reported between total PA (counts · min21), and all risk factors were comparable or stronger than for MVPA: HOMA-IR (b = 20.151 [20.194, 20.107]), WC (b = 20.179 [20.224, 20.134]), fasting insulin (b = 20.139 [20.183, 20.096]), 2-h glucose (b = 20.088 [20.131, 20.045]), triglycerides (b = 20.117 [20.162, 20.071]), and CRP (b = 20.104 [20.146, 20.062]). CONCLUSIONS In adults with prediabetes, objectively measured PA and ST were associated with cardiometabolic risk markers. Total PA was at least as strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk markers as MVPA, which may imply that the accumulation of total PA over the day is as important as achieving the intensity of MVPA.
Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults : Observational data from the DiOGenes study
Andriessen, Charlotte ; Christensen, Pia ; Vestergaard Nielsen, Lone ; Ritz, Christian ; Astrup, Arne ; Meinert Larsen, Thomas ; Martinez, J.A. ; Saris, Wim H.M. ; Baak, Marleen A. van; Papadaki, Angeliki ; Kunesova, Marie ; Jebb, Susan ; Blundell, John ; Lawton, Clare ; Raben, Anne - \ 2018
Appetite 125 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 314 - 322.
Body weight maintenance - Hunger - LCD - Leeds food choice questionnaire - Visual analogue scale - Weight loss
People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD). Subjective appetite and food preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p < 0.05), decreased desire to eat (p < 0.05) and decreased prospective consumption (p < 0.05) after consuming the test meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p < 0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption was decreased by 18.1%, 20.2% and 21.1% respectively whereas AUC for fullness increased by 13.9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p < 0.05). High-carbohydrate and high-fat preference decreased by 11.4% and 16.2% before the test meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p < 0.05). No other effects were observed. These results suggest that LCD induced weight loss decreases the appetite perceptions of overweight volunteers whilst decreasing their preference for high-fat-, high-carbohydrate-, and low-energy products.
Biomethane from industrial and municipal wastewater
Eekert, Miriam H.A. van; Zeeman, Grietje - \ 2017
In: Microbial Fuels CRC Press - ISBN 9781498763790 - p. 47 - 76.

Remains of drainage systems to remove waste and latrines have been found in houses from the Mesopotamian Empire (3500-2500 BC); ancient Rome had its Cloaca Maxima, and there still exists a working 4000-year-old sewer system in Greece. Nevertheless, it was not until the late nineteenth century, and after a fourteenth-century long dark age, that it was recognized that municipal waste water needs to be removed from its origin and treated to prevent the outbreak of diseases (Lofrano and Brown 2010). Until then, wastewater had been discharged in surface water or so-called “night soil” (toilet waste) and collected and used for fertilization. Later, in the early twentieth century, biological oxygen demand (BOD) was introduced as a measure of pollution and the first wastewater treatment systems were installed. Recently, the recovery of nutrients, reuse of water, production of intermediates, and generation of energy have become important incentives for the treatment of wastewater from both industrial and municipal origins. This may be more feasible through separation at the source and improved design of water usage and treatment systems (Guest et al. 2009; Larsen et al. 2009). Aerobic treatment was and still is the main technology used for the treatment of municipal wastewater in the north and cold climate areas. In the twentieth century, the possible application of anaerobic systems for the treatment of industrial wastewater and municipal wastewater in warmer climates was recognized after the development of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system in Wageningen in the 1970s (Lettinga 2014; van Lier et al. 2015). Nowadays, with new treatment designs and the paradigm shift toward seeing wastewater as a source of valuable resources, the application of anaerobic technology may be expanded toward treating municipal sewage in cold climates as well. Anaerobic treatment has its advantages, for example, lower excess sludge production, high applicable loadings, and lower energy demands, combined with biogas production. Initially, those were the reasons for the application of anaerobic treatment. Nowadays, the fact that nutrients (N and P) are not destroyed (e.g., emitted as N2) but released as recoverable ions is considered an additional advantage, since this facilitates recovery. Therefore, anaerobic technology has a central role in existing and newly developed waste treatment systems (Figure 3.1). It is, however, important to consider that in most cases, posttreatment of anaerobic effluent is warranted to guarantee that limits for safe discharge of the effluent are met (von Sperling and de Lemos Chrenicharo 2002).

A communal catalogue reveals Earth's multiscale microbial diversity
Thompson, Luke R. ; Sanders, Jon G. ; Mcdonald, D. ; Fogliano, V. ; Jurburg, S.D. ; Larsen, Peter - \ 2017
Nature 551 (2017)7681. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 457 - 463.
Our growing awareness of the microbial world’s importance and diversity contrasts starkly with our limited understanding of its fundamental structure. Despite recent advances in DNA sequencing, a lack of standardized protocols and common analytical frameworks impedes comparisons among studies, hindering the development of global inferences about microbial life on Earth. Here we present a meta-analysis of microbial community samples collected by hundreds of researchers for the Earth Microbiome Project. Coordinated protocols and new analytical methods, particularly the use of exact sequences instead of clustered operational taxonomic units, enable bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA gene sequences to be followed across multiple studies and allow us to explore patterns of diversity at an unprecedented scale. The result is both a reference database giving global context to DNA sequence data and a framework for incorporating data from future studies, fostering increasingly complete characterization of Earth’s microbial diversity.
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