Improving environmental risk assessments of chemicals: Steps towards evidence-based ecotoxicology
Martin, Olwenn V. ; Adams, Julie ; Beasley, Amy ; Belanger, Scott ; Breton, Roger L. ; Brock, Theo C.M. ; Buonsante, Vito A. ; Galay Burgos, Malyka ; Green, John ; Guiney, Patrick D. ; Hall, Tilghman ; Hanson, Mark ; Harris, Meagan J. ; Henry, Tala R. ; Huggett, Duane ; Junghans, Marion ; Laskowski, Ryszard ; Maack, Gerd ; Moermond, Caroline T.A. ; Panter, Grace ; Pease, Anita ; Poulsen, Veronique ; Roberts, Mike ; Rudén, Christina ; Schlekat, Christian E. ; Schoeters, Ilse ; Solomon, Keith R. ; Staveley, Jane ; Stubblefield, Bill ; Sumpter, John P. ; Warne, Michael S.J. ; Wentsel, Randall ; Wheeler, James R. ; Wolff, Brian A. ; Yamazaki, Kunihiko ; Zahner, Holly ; Ågerstrand, Marlene - \ 2019
Environment International 128 (2019). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 210 - 217.
Chemical safety - Decision-making - Ecological risk assessment - Ecotoxicology - Environmental risk assessment - Evidence-based
Scientific Opinion on the state of the art of Toxicokinetic/Toxicodynamic (TKTD) effect models for regulatory risk assessment of pesticides for aquatic organisms
Ockleford, Colin ; Adriaanse, Paulien ; Berny, Philippe ; Brock, Theodorus ; Duquesne, Sabine ; Grilli, Sandro ; Hernandez‐Jerez, Antonio F. ; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard ; Klein, Michael ; Kuhl, Thomas ; Laskowski, Ryszard ; Machera, Kyriaki ; Pelkonen, Olavi ; Pieper, Silvia ; Smith, Robert H. ; Stemmer, Michael ; Sundh, Ingvar ; Tiktak, Aaldrik ; Topping, Christopher J. ; Wolterink, Gerrit ; Cedergreen, Nina ; Charles, Sandrine ; Focks, Andreas ; Reed, Melissa ; Arena, Maria ; Ippolito, Alessio ; Byers, Harry ; Teodorovic, Ivana - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)8. - ISSN 1831-4732
Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) developed an opinion on the state of the art of Toxicokinetic/Toxicodynamic (TKTD) models and their use in prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) for pesticides and aquatic organisms. TKTD models are species‐ and compound‐specific and can be used to predict (sub)lethal effects of pesticides under untested (time‐variable) exposure conditions. Three different types of TKTD models are described, viz., (i) the ‘General Unified Threshold models of Survival’ (GUTS), (ii) those based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEBtox models), and (iii) models for primary producers. All these TKTD models follow the principle that the processes influencing internal exposure of an organism, (TK), are separated from the processes that lead to damage and effects/mortality (TD). GUTS models can be used to predict survival rate under untested exposure conditions. DEBtox models explore the effects on growth and reproduction of toxicants over time, even over the entire life cycle. TKTD model for primary producers and pesticides have been developed for algae, Lemna and Myriophyllum. For all TKTD model calibration, both toxicity data on standard test species and/or additional species can be used. For validation, substance and species‐specific data sets from independent refined‐exposure experiments are required. Based on the current state of the art (e.g. lack of documented and evaluated examples), the DEBtox modelling approach is currently limited to research applications. However, its great potential for future use in prospective ERA for pesticides is recognised. The GUTS model and the Lemna model are considered ready to be used in risk assessment.
Scientific Opinion of the PPR Panel on the follow‐up of the findings of the External Scientific Report ‘Literature review of epidemiological studies linking exposure to pesticides and health effects’
Ockleford, C. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Berny, P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Duquesne, S. ; Grilli, S. ; Hougaard Bennekou, S. ; Klein, M. ; Kuhl, T. ; Laskowski, R. - \ 2017
EFSA Journal 15 (2017)10. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 101 p.
epidemiology, pesticides, risk assessment, quality assessment, evidence synthesis, lines of evidence, weight-of-evidence
In 2013, EFSA published a comprehensive systematic review of epidemiological studies published from 2006 to 2012 investigating the association between pesticide exposure and many health outcomes. Despite the considerable amount of epidemiological information available, the quality of much of this evidence was rather low and many limitations likely affect the results so firm conclusions cannot be drawn. Studies that do not meet the ‘recognised standards’ mentioned in the Regulation (EU) No 1107/2009 are thus not suited for risk assessment. In this Scientific Opinion, the EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their residues (PPR Panel) was requested to assess the methodological limitations of pesticide epidemiology studies and found that poor exposure characterisation primarily defined the major limitation. Frequent use of case–control studies as opposed to prospective studies was considered another limitation. Inadequate definition or deficiencies in health outcomes need to be avoided and reporting of findings could be improved in some cases. The PPR Panel proposed recommendations on how to improve the quality and reliability of pesticide epidemiology studies to overcome these limitations and to facilitate an appropriate use for risk assessment. The Panel recommended the conduct of systematic reviews and meta‐analysis, where appropriate, of pesticide observational studies as useful methodology to understand the potential hazards of pesticides, exposure scenarios and methods for assessing exposure, exposure–response characterisation and risk characterisation. Finally, the PPR Panel proposed a methodological approach to integrate and weight multiple lines of evidence, including epidemiological data, for pesticide risk assessment. Biological plausibility can contribute to establishing causation.
Mixture toxicity : Linking approaches from ecological and human toxicology
Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Jonker, Martijs J. ; Kammenga, Jan E. ; Laskowski, Ryszard ; Svendsen, Claus - \ 2016
CRC Press - ISBN 9781439830086 - 269 p.
In the last decade and a half, great progress has been made in the development of concepts and models for mixture toxicity, both in human and environmental toxicology. However, due to their different protection goals, developments have often progressed in parallel but with little integration. Arguably the first book to clearly link ecotoxicology and classic human toxicology, Mixture Toxicity: Linking Approaches from Ecological and Human Toxicology incorporates extensive reviews of exposure to toxicants, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, toxicity of mixtures, and risk assessment. The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address: Exposure - how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism. Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism - how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time. Toxicity - what are the chemicals' detrimental effects on the organism. Test design and complex mixture characterization - how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals. Risk assessment - how to assess for risks in humans and the environment. An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.
Root patterning : It takes two to tangle
Scheres, Ben ; Laskowski, Marta - \ 2016
Journal of Experimental Botany 67 (2016)5. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1201 - 1203.
Arabidopsis - bending hypothesis - lateral root initiation - oscillation hypothesis - pattern formation - root architecture - waving growth
The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher and Schopfer manipulate growth direction to demonstrate the importance of both sources of patterning information.
Phyllotaxis and Rhizotaxis in Arabidopsis Are Modified by Three PLETHORA Transcription Factors
Hofhuis, H. ; Laskowski, M. ; Du, Y.J. ; Prasad, K. ; Grigg, S. ; Pinon, V. ; Scheres, B. - \ 2013
Current Biology 23 (2013)11. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 956 - 962.
lateral root initiation - auxin transport - thaliana - growth - arf19 - gene - expression - nph4/arf7 - proteins - system
Background: The juxtaposition of newly formed primordia in the root and shoot differs greatly, but their formation in both contexts depends on local accumulation of the signaling molecule auxin. Whether the spacing of lateral roots along the main root and the arrangement of leaf primordia at the plant apex are controlled by related underlying mechanisms has remained unclear. Results: Here, we show that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, three transcriptional regulators implicated in phyllotaxis, PLETHORA3 (PLT3), PLT5, and PLT7, are expressed in incipient lateral root primordia where they are required for primordium development and lateral root emergence. Furthermore, all three PLT proteins prevent the formation of primordia close to one another, because, in their absence, successive lateral root primordia are frequently grouped in close longitudinal or radial clusters. The triple plt mutant phenotype is rescued by PLT-vYFP fusion proteins, which are expressed in the shoot meristem as well as the root, but not by expression of PLT7 in the shoot alone. Expression of all three PLT genes requires auxin response factors ARF7 and ARF19, and the reintroduction of PLT activity suffices to rescue lateral root formation in arf7,arf19. Conclusions: Intriguingly PLT 3, PLT5, and PLT7 not only control the positioning of organs at the shoot meristem but also in the root; a striking observation that raises many evolutionary questions.
|Effects of heavy metals on the badger Meles meles: interaction between habitat quality and fragmentation
Klok, T.C. ; Roos, A. de; Broekhuizen, S. ; Apeldoorn, R.C. van - \ 2000
In: Demography in ecotoxicology / Kammenga, J., Laskowski, R., Chichester : Wiley - p. 73 - 89.
|Demographic approaches in ecotoxicology-Open problems
Kammenga, J. ; Laskowski, R. - \ 2000
In: Demography in Ecotoxicology / Jan Kammenga and Ryszard Laskowski Chichester, England : Wiley - ISBN 9780471490029 - p. 265 - 275.
|Demographic approaches in Ecotoxicology : State of the art
Kammenga, J. ; Laskowski, R. - \ 2000
In: Demographic approaches in Ecotoxicology: State of the art / Jan Kammenga and Ryszard Laskowski Chichester, England : Wiley - ISBN 9780471490029 - p. 3 - 8.
|Demography in Ecotoxicology
Kammenga, J. ; Laskowski, R. - \ 2000
Chichester [etc.] : Wiley - ISBN 9780471490029 - 297
toxicologie - ecologie - demografie - verontreinigende stoffen - ecotoxicologie - toxicology - ecology - demography - pollutants - ecotoxicology
|Multi-generation effects at the population level : Fitness maximisation and optimal allocation in a nematode
Kammenga, J. ; Arts, M.J. ; Doroszuk, A. - \ 2000
In: Demography in Ecotoxicology / Jan Kammenga and Ryszard Laskowski Chichester, England : Wiley - ISBN 9780471490029 - p. 163 - 178.
|Implications for Ecological risk assessment : the risk quotient life-cycle approach
Kammenga, J. - \ 2000
In: Demography in Ecotoxicology / Jan Kammenga and Ryszard Laskowski Chichester, England : John Wiley - ISBN 9780471490029 - p. 277 - 286.