Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    ADIAS - Assessing & supporting Dairy Input & Advisory service Systems for resilient market-oriented smallholder dairy systems in the Ethiopian & Kenyan highlands
    Lee, Jan van der; Klerkx, Laurens ; Bebe, B.O. ; Mengistu, Ashenafi ; Kingiri, Ann - \ 2020
    Evaluation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) sources and sinks and ozone production in Colombia and surrounding areas
    Barten, Johannes G.M. ; Ganzeveld, Laurens N. ; Visser, Auke J. ; Jiménez, Rodrigo ; Krol, Maarten C. - \ 2020
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 (2020)15. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 9441 - 9458.

    In Colombia, industrialization and a shift towards intensified agriculture have led to increased emissions of air pollutants. However, the baseline state of air quality in Colombia is relatively unknown. In this study we aim to assess the baseline state of air quality in Colombia with a focus on the spatial and temporal variability in emissions and atmospheric burden of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and evaluate surface NOx , ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios. We quantify the magnitude and spatial distribution of the four major NOx sources (lightning, anthropogenic activities, soil biogenic emissions and biomass burning) by integrating global NOx emission inventories into the mesoscale meteorology and atmospheric chemistry model, namely Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled with Chemistry (collectively WRF-Chem), at a similar resolution ( 25 km) to the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) anthropogenic emission inventory and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) remote sensing observations. The model indicates the largest contribution by lightning emissions (1258 GgNyr1), even after already significantly reducing the emissions, followed by anthropogenic (933 GgNyr1), soil biogenic (187 GgNyr1) and biomass burning emissions (104 GgNyr1). The comparison with OMI remote sensing observations indicated a mean bias of tropospheric NO2 columns over the whole domain (WRF-Chem minus OMI) of 0.02 (90% CI: [0:43, 0.70])1015 molecules cm2, which is < 5% of the mean column. However, the simulated NO2 columns are overestimated and underestimated in regions where lightning and biomass burning emissions dominate, respectively. WRFChem was unable to capture NOx and CO urban pollutant mixing ratios, neither in timing nor in magnitude. Yet, WRFChem was able to simulate the urban diurnal cycle of O3 satisfactorily but with a systematic overestimation of 10 parts per billion (ppb) due to the equally large underestimation of NO mixing ratios and, consequently, titration. This indicates that these city environments are in the NOx-saturated regime with frequent O3 titration. We conducted sensitivity experiments with an online meteorology-chemistry singlecolumn model (SCM) to evaluate how WRF-Chem subgridscale- enhanced emissions could explain an improved representation of the observed O3, CO and NOx diurnal cycles. Interestingly, the SCM simulation, showing especially a shallower nocturnal inversion layer, results in a better representation of the observed diurnal cycle of urban pollutant mixing ratios without an enhancement in emissions. This stresses that, besides application of higher-resolution emission inventories and model experiments, the diurnal cycle in boundary layer dynamics (and advection) should be critically evaluated in models such as WRF-Chem to assess urban air quality. Overall, we present a concise method to quantify air quality in regions with limited surface measurements by integrating in situ and remote sensing observations. This study identifies four distinctly different source regions and shows their interannual and seasonal variability during the last 1.5 decades. It serves as a base to assess scenarios of future air quality in Colombia or similar regions with contrasting emission regimes, complex terrain and a limited air quality monitoring network.

    The future(s) of digital agriculture and sustainable food systems: An analysis of high-level policy documents
    Lajoie-O'Malley, Alana ; Bronson, Kelly ; Burg, Simone van der; Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2020
    Ecosystem Services 45 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0416
    Agriculture 4.0 - Digital transformation - Directionality - Food security - Frame analysis - Future visions - Normative orientation

    Ecosystem services delivery is influenced by food systems and vice versa. As the application of digital technologies in agriculture continues to expand, digital technologies might affect the delivery of ecosystem services in view of the sorts of food systems in which they are embedded. The direction food systems develop towards the future, and the role digital technologies play in this development, is influenced by imaginings, hopes and visions about what these technologies mean for future food systems. In this article, we investigate what roles are being imagined for these technologies by international actors with the ability to influence the future of food systems. We analyze outward-facing policy documents as well as conference proceedings on digital agriculture produced by the World Bank, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Using qualitative textual analysis, we show that these organisations envision future food systems that prioritize maximizing food output through technology. We illustrate how this vision reflects a long-standing narrative about the role of technology in food systems innovation, which makes the controversial assumption that increases in food production lead to improvements in food security. Based on this finding, we suggest that evaluations of how digital agricultural technologies might affect the delivery of ecosystem services must begin by considering what visions of future food systems are take into account in science, technology development and policy making. Supporting similar research on high-level narratives surrounding agroecology and climate smart agriculture, we find that the dominant narrative in our dataset supports the status quo global, industrial agriculture and food system. This system continues to be criticized by many scholars for its environmental impacts. Based on our findings, we suggest that ecosystems service researchers could contribute substantially to the evaluation of environmental impacts of digital agriculture by analyzing the impact digital agriculture may have on the trade-offs between provisioning, regulatory, and cultural ecosystem services for several different food system futures. Such analyses can feed into processes of responsible innovation.

    N = many me’s: self-surveillance for Precision Public Health
    Vegter, Mira W. ; Landeweerd, Laurens ; Zwart, Hub A.E. - \ 2020
    BioSocieties (2020). - ISSN 1745-8552
    This paper focuses on Precision Public Health (PPH), described in the scientific literature as an effort to broaden the scope of precision medicine by extrapolating it towards public health. By means of the “All of Us” (AoU) research program, launched by the National Institutes of Health in the U.S., PPH is being developed based on health data shared through a broad range of digital tools. PPH is an emerging idea to harness the data collected for precision medicine to be able to tailor preventive interventions for at-risk groups. The character of these data concern genetic identity, lifestyle and overall health and therefore affect the ‘intimacy’ of personhood. Through the concept of biological citizenship, we elucidate how AoU and its recruitment tactics, by resonating ‘diversity’, at the same time appeal to and constitute identity, defining individuals as ‘data sharing subjects’. Although PPH is called for; the type of bio-citizenship that is enacted here, has a particular definition, where participant recruitment focuses on ‘citizenship’ in terms of empowerment (front), it is the ‘bio’ prefix that has become the main focus in terms of research. i.e. biosubjectivities vs biocapital. This raises the question whether the societal challenges that often underlie public health issues can be sufficiently dealt with based on the way ‘diversity’ is accounted for in the program. We suggest that the AoU still risks of harming underrepresented groups based on the preconditions and the design of the program.
    The Hybridity of Inclusive Innovation Narratives Between Theory and Practice: A Framing Analysis
    Opola, Felix Ouko ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Leeuwis, Cees ; W. Kilelu, Catherine - \ 2020
    European Journal of Development Research (2020). - ISSN 0957-8811
    Inclusive innovation remains an under-conceptualised and ambiguous concept despite garnering political and academic interest in recent decades. This paper explores the narratives of inclusive innovation that exist in literature and how these are framed in practice, using a case study of the Kenyan agricultural sector. Findings indicate that while there is significant similarity between the theoretical and empirical framing of the concept, there are also stark differences. In addition, different actors such as the state, development agencies, the private sector or universities do not fully ascribe to any of the existing theoretical narratives on inclusive innovation. Instead, they frame it based on their own contexts, mandate and interests using concepts borrowed from existing theoretical narratives. This indicates that instead of a grand theory of inclusive innovation that applies universally, there are several ways of enacting inclusive innovation. This also limits the transferability of a one-size-fits-all model of inclusive innovation.
    Supporting food systems transformation : The what, why, who, where and how of mission-oriented agricultural innovation systems
    Klerkx, Laurens ; Begemann, Stephanie - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 184 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Agricultural knowledge and innovation systems (AKIS) - Directionality - Food systems transformation - Mission-oriented innovation policy - Mission-oriented innovation systems - Multi-sector interaction - Sustainability transitions

    Agricultural innovation systems has become a popular approach to understand and facilitate agricultural innovation. However, there is often no explicit reflection on the role of agricultural innovation systems in food systems transformation and how they relate to transformative concepts and visions (e.g. agroecology, digital agriculture, Agriculture 4.0, AgTech and FoodTech, vertical agriculture, protein transitions). To support such reflection we elaborate on the importance of a mission-oriented perspective on agricultural innovation systems. We review pertinent literature from innovation, transition and policy sciences, and argue that a mission-oriented agricultural innovation systems (MAIS) approach can help understand how agricultural innovation systems at different geographical scales develop to enable food systems transformation, in terms of forces, catalysts, and barriers in transformative food systems change. Focus points can be in the mapping of missions and sub-missions of MAIS within and across countries, or understanding the drivers, networks, governance, theories of change, evolution and impacts of MAIS. Future work is needed on further conceptual and empirical development of MAIS and its connections with existing food systems transformation frameworks. Also, we argue that agricultural systems scholars and practitioners need to reflect on how the technologies and concepts they work on relate to MAIS, how these represent a particular directionality in innovation, and whether these also may support exnovation.

    Digitalization in the agri-food industry : the relationship between technology and sustainable development
    Carmela Annosi, Maria ; Brunetta, Federica ; Capo, Francesca ; Heideveld, Laurens - \ 2020
    Management Decision (2020). - ISSN 0025-1747
    Agri-food - Digitalization - Sustainable development - Technology adoption - Technology usage

    Purpose: Digitalization is becoming the subject of considerable interest in the literature. This is in view of its relevance in addressing social problems and contributing to the development of communities and societies. In the agri-food-industry, digitalization is also expected to contribute significantly to solve several challenges the sector is facing at this moment, such as the increasing food demand and resource use. However, the effects of advanced technologies are less a function of the technologies themselves than of how they are used by people. The study analyses the dominant challenges faced by firms in the agri-food industry in the usage and adoption of digital technology. Also, they show how these challenges impact on the sustainable development of digital technology for firms in the industry and provide avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a structured literature review aiming to investigate the following research question: what are the main challenges faced by firms within the agri-food industry in the adoption of smart technologies? Findings: Results illustrate the dominant challenges faced by firms in the agri-food industry in the usage and adoption of digital technology. Also, they show how these challenges impact on the sustainable development of digital technology for firms in the industry and provide avenues for future research. Originality/value: So far, in the context of digitalization in the agri-food industry, various researchers have analysed different kinds of challenges to the adoption of smart technologies. This work reviews these contributions to create a clear reference framework of the challenges faced by agri-food firms while providing future avenues of research and implications at a policymaking, economic-managerial and socio-environmental level.

    Getting your article published in the Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension : how to avoid a desk-rejection
    Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2020
    The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 26 (2020)4. - ISSN 1389-224X - p. 331 - 333.
    Effects of proximity to markets on dairy farming intensity and market participation in Kenya and Ethiopia
    Lee, Jan van der; Oosting, Simon ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Opinya, Felix ; Bebe, Bockline Omedo - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 184 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Commercialization - Crop-livestock interaction - Farming system design - Food security - Input supply - Sustainable intensification

    The effect of proximity to markets on dairy farming intensity and market participation traditionally has been viewed as a market quality effect stemming from distance to end-markets with resultant travel time. This study departs from this by distinguishing three travel time components: travel time to local service center for inputs and services, to dairy delivery point, and to end-markets. Dairy farms in nine villages each in Ethiopia and Kenya were sampled and interviewed along a double proximity gradient. Effects on many production and marketing parameters were measured and compared using regression analysis, to test the hypothesis that intensity of dairy farming and degree of market participation increase with proximity to end-markets and with proximity to local service centers. Findings prove the hypothesis for proximity to local service center, which causes better market quality for inputs and outputs, smaller farms with less available labor, use of more purchased feeds and services, higher stocking rates, higher yields, and higher margins per hectare. Findings only partly prove the hypothesis for proximity to end-markets, mainly due to unexpected land scarcity in the most remote locations. Low productivity and low dairy farming intensity and market participation for remote farms in Ethiopia are attributed to limited and volatile market demand, a coarse milk-collection grid, and low quality of input and service markets, which are largely publicly organized. Implication of this study is that the common typology of dairy farms in ‘(peri-) urban’ and ‘rural’ farms needs adjustment by outlining local market access and connectivity. ‘Remote’ rural farms need to be connected to milk collection infrastructure, input shops and services to even have the choice to increase participation in dairy- or other markets.

    Genetic Safeguards for Safety-by-design: So Close Yet So Far
    Asín García, E. ; Kallergi, Amalia ; Landeweerd, Laurens ; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P. - \ 2020
    Trends in Biotechnology (2020). - ISSN 0167-7799
    Safety-by-design (SbD) is paramount for risk management in synthetic biology, with genetic safeguards being a key technology for its implementation. While attractive in theory, the integration of genetic safeguards into SbD strategies is rarely exercised in practice, despite technological advances. Here we question why and what might be done about it.
    Drivers of decoupling and recoupling of crop and livestock systems at farm and territorial scales
    Garrett, Rachael D. ; Ryschawy, Julie ; Bell, Lindsay W. ; Cortner, Owen ; Ferreira, Joice ; Garik, Anna Victoria N. ; Gil, Juliana D.B. ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Moraine, Marc ; Peterson, Caitlin A. ; Reis, Júlio César Dos; Valentim, Judson F. - \ 2020
    Ecology and Society 25 (2020)1. - ISSN 1708-3087
    Innovation - Integrated crop livestock systems - Mixed farming systems - Socio-technical transitions - Sustainable agriculture - Technology adoption

    Crop and livestock production have become spatially decoupled in existing commercial agricultural regimes throughout the world. These segregated high input production systems contribute to some of the world’s most pressing sustainability challenges, including climate change, nutrient imbalances, water pollution, biodiversity decline, and increasingly precarious rural livelihoods. There is substantial evidence that by closing the loop in nutrient and energy cycles, recoupling crop and livestock systems at farm and territorial scales can help reduce the environmental externalities associated with conventional commercial farming without declines in profitability or yields. Yet such “integrated” crop and livestock systems remain rare as a proportion of global agricultural area. Based on an interdisciplinary workshop and additional literature review, we provide a comprehensive historical and international perspective on why integrated crop and livestock systems have declined in most regions and what conditions have fostered their persistence and reemergence in others. We also identify levers for encouraging the reemergence of integrated crop and livestock systems worldwide. We conclude that a major disruption of the current regime would be needed to foster crop-livestock reintegration, including a redesign of research programs, credit systems, payments for ecosystem services, insurance programs, and food safety regulations to focus on whole farm outcomes and the creation of a circular economy. An expansion of the number of integrated crop and livestock systems field trials and demonstrations and efforts to brand integrated crop and livestock systems as a form of sustainable agriculture through the development of eco-labels could also improve adoption, but would likely be unsuccessful at encouraging wide-scale change without a more radical transformation of the research and policy landscape.

    Anchoring innovation methodologies to ‘go-to-scale’; a framework to guide agricultural research for development
    Seifu, Mikinay ; Paassen, Annemarie van; Klerkx, Laurens ; Leeuwis, Cees - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 182 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Agricultural Innovation System - Anchoring - Farmer research group - Innovation platform - Out-scaling - Up-scaling

    Research for development (R4D) projects increasingly engage in multi-stakeholder innovation platforms (IPs) as an innovation methodology, but there is limited knowledge of how the IP methodology spreads from one context to another. That is, how experimentation with an IP approach in one context leads to it being succesfully replicated in other contexts. To inspire development actors to consider the fit of an innovation methodology for a context, following work on anchoring for scaling, we developed a framework for networking-, methodological, and institutional anchoring and applied it to a R4D IP in order to test the value of such an anchoring approach for understanding the scaling of innovation methodologies such as IP. We selected a R4D project with a Farmer Research Group-Innovation Platform in Ethiopia, whose technical output and methodological approach were greatly appreciated by the actors involved. Using the anchoring framework, the executed or non-executed tasks were identified. Besides, the embedding of the methodological experiment the potential up-scaling and out-scaling were systematically analyzed. The analysis yielded the strengths and weaknesses of the anchoring work done so far to scale the innovation methodology used, and provided concrete suggestions of how to proceed if an innovation project considers ‘going to scale’. We recommend R4D projects to valorize their work and pay more explicit attention to anchoring. With a flexible, multi-pronged anchoring approach and continuous scanning of the progress made in context, more R4D projects and their associated innovation methodologies can ‘go to scale’.

    Advisory services and transformation, plurality and disruption of agriculture and food systems : towards a new research agenda for agricultural education and extension studies
    Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2020
    The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 26 (2020)2. - ISSN 1389-224X - p. 131 - 140.
    Positioning of systemic intermediaries in sustainability transitions : Between storylines and speech acts
    Lente, Harro van; Boon, Wouter P.C. ; Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2020
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (2020). - ISSN 2210-4224 - 13 p.
    Innovation intermediaries - Positioning theory - Speech act - Storyline - Sustainability transitions

    How do systemic intermediaries obtain legitimate roles for themselves in innovation systems and transition processes? This is still an understudied question in the study of systemic intermediaries. We start from the observation that roles, or positions, are not given, but emerge in interactions as a negotiated set of rights and obligations. Inspired by positioning theory, which has its roots in symbolic interactionism, we analyse how positions are invoked in the actors’ various actions and statements (‘speech acts’) and how they draw from the mutually constructed narratives (‘storylines’) that enable and constrain the range of possible positions. We analyse, over time, the positioning of three Dutch systemic intermediaries in agriculture, energy production, and healthcare. We conclude that systemic intermediaries move together with the promise of the field and, as a consequence, have to reposition themselves. In different phases, they both profit and suffer from the dilemma between initiating and sustaining innovative systemic changes.

    Why are cluster farmers adopting more aquaculture technologies and practices? The role of trust and interaction within shrimp farmers' networks in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
    Joffre, Olivier M. ; Vries, Jasper R. De; Klerkx, Laurens ; Poortvliet, Marijn - \ 2020
    Aquaculture 523 (2020). - ISSN 0044-8486
    Adoption - Farmer clusters - Group farming - Shrimp farming - Trust - Vietnam

    A common avenue to enable adoption of technologies and practices by small-scale producers is by means of farmer clusters. These are achieved by building networks and partnerships between farmers and other actors within the supply chain. This paper examines the role that farmer clusters play in the adoption of practices and technologies by shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Understanding the decisions that lead to adoption is important because these have a key impact on sustainable land use in aquaculture. We report on two complementary studies that test the role of farmer clusters in accessing different sources of knowledge and the trust associated with each of the knowledge sources. First, a survey (N = 193) tested the relationship between cluster membership and adoption, and showed that shrimp farmers who are members of farmer clusters are more likely to adopt three types of pond management practices (i.e. water quality management, feed input, and disease control practices). Furthermore, frequency of interaction with, and trust related to, key stakeholder actors could partly explain this relationship. Second, focus group discussions further zoomed into the dynamics that underlie the adoption of technologies and practices by cluster farmers and non-cluster farmers, respectively. We found that input retailers, buyers and hatcheries were only valued for their input on specific products and issues, but not trusted, as the information always needed being verified through testing by, amongst others, neighbors. Consequently, trust relations with these actors can be described as strongly calculative. Farmer clusters increase trust and tighten relationships between members. As a result, members trust each other when verifying information or sharing knowledge acquired from less trusted sources. On the basis of these results, we argue that reliance on existing farmer networks (i.e. clusters) is a viable tool to improve adoption of sustainable technologies and achieve land use planning objectives. Further implications for research and policy are discussed.

    Sustainability transition pathways through ecological intensification: an assessment of vegetable food systems in Chile
    Gaitán-Cremaschi, Daniel ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Duncan, Jessica ; Trienekens, Jacques H. ; Huenchuleo, Carlos ; Dogliotti, Santiago ; Contesse, María E. ; Benitez-Altuna, Francisco J. ; Rossing, Walter A.H. - \ 2020
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 18 (2020)2. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 131 - 150.
    alternative food system - conventional food system - ecological intensification - Food system - sustainability transition

    Ecological intensification has been proposed as a promising lever for a transition towards more sustainable food systems. Various food systems exist that are based on ecological intensification and may have potential for a sustainability transition. Little is known, however, about their diversity and about how they perform against dominant systems in terms of the multiple societal goals. The aim of this study is to contribute to knowledge about sustainability transitions in food systems through an empirical analysis of vegetable food systems in Chile. The study (i) characterizes the diversity of vegetable food systems in Chile (ii) evaluates the food systems in terms of multiple societal goals, and (iii) assesses their potential for supporting sustainability transition pathways from the perspective of ecological intensification. Results indicate that among the five vegetable food system types, the agroecological and the small organic have potential to foster a sustainability transition. Nevertheless, these systems are small and localized, and scaling them requires actions to remove barriers in the relations with the agri-food regime and among themselves. The broader relevance of this analysis is that there needs to be awareness in research on transitions about the diversity of food systems present in countries and how they interact.

    Unravelling inclusive business models for achieving food and nutrition security in BOP markets
    Danse, Myrtille ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Reintjes, Jorrit ; Rabbinge, Rudy ; Leeuwis, Cees - \ 2020
    Global Food Security 24 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
    Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) - Business models - Cross-sector partnerships - Food and nutrition security - Inclusive business - Private sector

    There is a growing consensus that one of the key priorities to address food and nutrition security is to aim at the transformation of agriculture and food systems. The private sector can fulfil an important role in this. It is often argued that the success at low income markets (denoted here as Bottom of the Pyramid - BOP) requires innovative and inclusive business models. However, research findings on this have been quite descriptive and generic. The literature on private sector engagement and food and nutrition security has a strong focus on the participation of businesses in the value chain and the food system, but does generally not unravel the specific characteristics of the inclusive business model itself. This article aims to contribute to an improved understanding with regard to inclusive business model characteristics of private sector interventions aiming at food and nutrition security improvements, by scrutinizing 16 cases from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The study focuses on the internal fitness of the strategic business model by analysing the foundation level components of the inclusive business model. Important findings are the relevance of quality of product or service besides its affordability, marketing and distribution strategies to link the different actors in the value chain, and training as well as coalition building to overcome institutional and cultural gaps and increase the success of the inclusive business model for improved nutrition and food security. An important conclusion is that the business model and business ecosystem of BOP markets is crucial. Also, the findings indicate a need for intermediaries to overcome cultural and institutional gaps in implementing inclusive business models.

    Approaches to analyse and model changes in impacts: reply to discussions of “How to improve attribution of changes in drought and flood impacts”*
    Kreibich, Heidi ; Blauhut, Veit ; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H. ; Bouwer, Laurens M. ; Lanen, Henny A.J. Van; Mejia, Alfonso ; Mens, Marjolein ; Loon, Anne F. Van - \ 2020
    Hydrological Sciences Journal 65 (2020)3. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 491 - 494.
    damage - dynamic risk - hydrological extremes - new data - projecting risk

    We thank the authors, Brunella Bonaccorso and Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen for their constructive contributions to the discussion about the attribution of changes in drought and flood impacts. We appreciate that they support our opinion, but in particular their additional new ideas on how to better understand changes in impacts. It is great that they challenge us to think a step further on how to foster the collection of long time series of data and how to use these to model and project changes. Here, we elaborate on the possibility to collect time series of data on hazard, exposure, vulnerability and impacts and how these could be used to improve e.g. socio-hydrological models for the development of future risk scenarios.

    Dealing with the game-changing technologies of Agriculture 4.0 : How do we manage diversity and responsibility in food system transition pathways?
    Klerkx, Laurens ; Rose, David - \ 2020
    Global Food Security 24 (2020). - ISSN 2211-9124
    Agricultural innovation systems - Industry 4.0. - Mission oriented innovation policy - Responsible research and innovation - Sustainability transitions

    Agriculture 4.0 is comprised of different already operational or developing technologies such as robotics, nanotechnology, synthetic protein, cellular agriculture, gene editing technology, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and machine learning, which may have pervasive effects on future agriculture and food systems and major transformative potential. These technologies underpin con­cepts such as ver­ti­cal farm­ing and food systems, dig­i­tal agri­cul­ture, bioe­con­omy, cir­cu­lar agri­cul­ture, and aquapon­ics. In this perspective paper, we argue that more attention is needed for the inclusion and exclusion effects of Agriculture 4.0 technologies, and for reflection on how they relate to diverse transition pathways towards sustainable agricultural and food systems driven by mission-oriented innovation systems. This would require processes of responsible innovation, anticipating the potential impacts of Agriculture 4.0 through inclusive processes, and reflecting on and being responsive to emerging effects and where needed adjusting the direction and course of transition pathways.

    Scaling practices within agricultural innovation platforms : Between pushing and pulling
    Totin, Edmond ; Mierlo, Barbara van; Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 179 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Agricultural innovation systems - Agricultural transformation - Innovation platforms - Institutional change - Technology adoption and diffusion

    Growing empirical evidence suggests that innovation platforms can be effective in enhancing agricultural research impact by creating an enabling environment for scaling of innovations such as novel technologies, practices and busines models . However, efforts to understand how these innovation platforms operate to scale innovations are insufficient. Such knowledge is critical for improving the design of agricultural innovation systems, specifically within the context of a rising interest in the innovation platform approach to support the transformation of agriculture across Africa. This paper investigates the scaling approaches employed by innovation platforms established in Rwanda. The study focused on four innovation platforms created as part of the Sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program and analysed their activities and the resulting scaling outcomes. The findings show that two approaches can be effectively combined during the intervention; (1) the innovation process that resembles a traditional, linear approach of finding short-term solutions to specific problems (push approach) and (2) the network building process where platforms employed multi-level, transdisciplinary processes (pull approach). In two areas, the platform activities appeared to have contributed to increased revenues of farmers. The alignment of the innovation platform activities with political agendas or broadly, the extent to which the scaling strategy considers the existing conducive context is shown to play a critical role in the scaling process. The study shows that a balanced combination of both push and pull approaches and a strategic linkage between the platform activities and external development – government policies and interventions – are critical for a productive agricultural transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa. The findings also indicate that the scaling processes require a “protected space” to materialise, and the scaling approach needs flexibility to accommodate the complexity of each innovation.

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