Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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WGS of pygmy hog and Babyrousa babyrussa
Liu, Langqing ; Bosse, Mirte ; Megens, Hendrik-Jan ; Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Lee, Young Lim ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Narayan, Goutam ; Groenen, Martien ; Madsen, Ole - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
PRJEB30129 - ERP112560 - Babyrousa babyrussa - Porcula salvania
Enhancing the Antioxidant Activity of Technical Lignins by Combining Solvent Fractionation and Ionic-Liquid Treatment
Majira, Amel ; Godon, Blandine ; Foulon, Laurence ; Putten, Jacinta C. van der; Cézard, Laurent ; Thierry, Marina ; Pion, Florian ; Bado-Nilles, Anne ; Pandard, Pascal ; Jayabalan, Thangavelu ; Aguié-Béghin, Véronique ; Ducrot, Paul Henri ; Lapierre, Catherine ; Marlair, Guy ; Gosselink, Richard J.A. ; Baumberger, Stephanie ; Cottyn, Betty - \ 2019
ChemSusChem 12 (2019)21. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 4799 - 4809.
antioxidants - biorefinery - green chemistry - ionic liquids - lignins

A grass soda technical lignin (PB1000) underwent a process combining solvent fractionation and treatment with an ionic liquid (IL), and a comprehensive investigation of the structural modifications was performed by using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, 31P NMR spectroscopy, thioacidolysis, and GC–MS. Three fractions with distinct reactivity were recovered from successive ethyl acetate (EA), butanone, and methanol extractions. In parallel, a fraction deprived of EA extractives was obtained. The samples were treated with methyl imidazolium bromide ([HMIM]Br) by using either conventional heating or microwave irradiation. The treatment allowed us to solubilize 28 % of the EA-insoluble fraction and yielded additional free phenols in all the fractions, as a consequence of depolymerization and demethylation. The gain of the combined process in terms of antioxidant properties was demonstrated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) radical-scavenging tests. Integrating further IL safety-related data and environmental considerations, this study paves the way for the sustainable production of phenolic oligomers competing with commercial antioxidants.

Contribution of the land sector to a 1.5 °C world
Roe, Stephanie ; Streck, Charlotte ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Frank, Stefan ; Griscom, Bronson ; Drouet, Laurent ; Fricko, Oliver ; Gusti, Mykola ; Harris, Nancy ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Hausfather, Zeke ; Havlík, Petr ; House, Jo ; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan ; Popp, Alexander ; Sánchez, María José Sanz ; Sanderman, Jonathan ; Smith, Pete ; Stehfest, Elke ; Lawrence, Deborah - \ 2019
Nature Climate Change 9 (2019). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 817 - 828.
The Paris Agreement introduced an ambitious goal of limiting warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here we combine a review of modelled pathways and literature on mitigation strategies, and develop a land-sector roadmap of priority measures and regions that can help to achieve the 1.5 °C temperature goal. Transforming the land sector and deploying measures in agriculture, forestry, wetlands and bioenergy could feasibly and sustainably contribute about 30%, or 15 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e) per year, of the global mitigation needed in 2050 to deliver on the 1.5 °C target, but it will require substantially more effort than the 2 °C target. Risks and barriers must be addressed and incentives will be necessary to scale up mitigation while maximizing sustainable development, food security and environmental co-benefits.
Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila
Hoedjes, Katja M. ; Heuvel, Joost Van Den; Kapun, Martin ; Keller, Laurent ; Flatt, Thomas ; Zwaan, Bas J. - \ 2019
Evolution Letters (2019). - ISSN 2056-3744
Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, although studies of large‐effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomes of experimentally evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to a factorial combination of two selection regimes: reproductive age (early versus postponed), and diet during the larval stage (“low,” “control,” “high”), resulting in six treatment combinations with four replicate populations each. Selection on reproductive age consistently affected lifespan, with flies from the postponed reproduction regime having evolved a longer lifespan. In contrast, larval diet affected lifespan only in early‐reproducing populations: flies adapted to the “low” diet lived longer than those adapted to control diet. Here, we find genomic evidence for strong independent evolutionary responses to either selection regime, as well as loci that diverged in response to both regimes, thus representing genomic interactions between the two. Overall, we find that the genomic basis of longevity is largely independent of dietary adaptation. Differentiated loci were not enriched for “canonical” longevity genes, suggesting that naturally occurring genic targets of selection for longevity differ qualitatively from variants found in mutant screens. Comparing our candidate loci to those from other “evolve and resequence” studies of longevity demonstrated significant overlap among independent experiments. This suggests that the evolution of longevity, despite its presumed complex and polygenic nature, might be to some extent convergent and predictable.
Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe
Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Haile, James ; Lin, Audrey T. ; Scheu, Amelie ; Geörg, Christina ; Benecke, Norbert ; Alexander, Michelle ; Linderholm, Anna ; Mullin, Victoria E. ; Daly, Kevin G. ; Battista, Vincent M. ; Price, Max ; Gron, Kurt J. ; Alexandri, Panoraia ; Arbogast, Rose Marie ; Arbuckle, Benjamin ; Bǎlǎşescu, Adrian ; Barnett, Ross ; Bartosiewicz, László ; Baryshnikov, Gennady ; Bonsall, Clive ; Borić, Dušan ; Boroneanţ, Adina ; Bulatović, Jelena ; Çakirlar, Canan ; Carretero, José Miguel ; Chapman, John ; Church, Mike ; Crooijmans, Richard ; Cupere, Bea De; Detry, Cleia ; Dimitrijevic, Vesna ; Dumitraşcu, Valentin ; Plessis, Louis Du; Edwards, Ceiridwen J. ; Erek, Cevdet Merih ; Erim-Özdoǧan, Asli ; Ervynck, Anton ; Fulgione, Domenico ; Gligor, Mihai ; Götherström, Anders ; Gourichon, Lionel ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Helmer, Daniel ; Hongo, Hitomi ; Horwitz, Liora K. ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Lebrasseur, Ophélie ; Lesur, Joséphine ; Malone, Caroline ; Manaseryan, Ninna ; Marciniak, Arkadiusz ; Martlew, Holley ; Mashkour, Marjan ; Matthews, Roger ; Matuzeviciute, Giedre Motuzaite ; Maziar, Sepideh ; Meijaard, Erik ; McGovern, Tom ; Megens, Hendrik Jan ; Miller, Rebecca ; Mohaseb, Azadeh Fatemeh ; Orschiedt, Jörg ; Orton, David ; Papathanasiou, Anastasia ; Pearson, Mike Parker ; Pinhasi, Ron ; Radmanović, Darko ; Ricaut, François Xavier ; Richards, Mike ; Sabin, Richard ; Sarti, Lucia ; Schier, Wolfram ; Sheikhi, Shiva ; Stephan, Elisabeth ; Stewart, John R. ; Stoddart, Simon ; Tagliacozzo, Antonio ; Tasić, Nenad ; Trantalidou, Katerina ; Tresset, Anne ; Valdiosera, Cristina ; Hurk, Youri Van Den; Poucke, Sophie Van; Vigne, Jean Denis ; Yanevich, Alexander ; Zeeb-Lanz, Andrea ; Triantafyllidis, Alexandros ; Gilbert, M.T.P. ; Schibler, Jörg ; Rowley-Conwy, Peter ; Zeder, Melinda ; Peters, Joris ; Cucchi, Thomas ; Bradley, Daniel G. ; Dobney, Keith ; Burger, Joachim ; Evin, Allowen ; Girdland-Flink, Linus ; Larson, Greger - \ 2019
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (2019)35. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 17231 - 17238.
Domestication - Evolution - Gene flow - Neolithic

Archaeological evidence indicates that pig domestication had begun by ∼10,500 y before the present (BP) in the Near East, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that pigs arrived in Europe alongside farmers ∼8,500 y BP. A few thousand years after the introduction of Near Eastern pigs into Europe, however, their characteristic mtDNA signature disappeared and was replaced by haplotypes associated with European wild boars. This turnover could be accounted for by substantial gene flow from local European wild boars, although it is also possible that European wild boars were domesticated independently without any genetic contribution from the Near East. To test these hypotheses, we obtained mtDNA sequences from 2,099 modern and ancient pig samples and 63 nuclear ancient genomes from Near Eastern and European pigs. Our analyses revealed that European domestic pigs dating from 7,100 to 6,000 y BP possessed both Near Eastern and European nuclear ancestry, while later pigs possessed no more than 4% Near Eastern ancestry, indicating that gene flow from European wild boars resulted in a near-complete disappearance of Near East ancestry. In addition, we demonstrate that a variant at a locus encoding black coat color likely originated in the Near East and persisted in European pigs. Altogether, our results indicate that while pigs were not independently domesticated in Europe, the vast majority of human-mediated selection over the past 5,000 y focused on the genomic fraction derived from the European wild boars, and not on the fraction that was selected by early Neolithic farmers over the first 2,500 y of the domestication process.

Can timber provision from Amazonian production forests be sustainable?
Piponiot, Camille ; Rödig, Edna ; Putz, Francis E. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Sist, Plinio ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Blanc, Lilian ; Derroire, Géraldine ; Descroix, Laurent ; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro ; Coronado, Euridice Honorio ; Huth, Andreas ; Kanashiro, Milton ; Licona, Juan Carlos ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Oliveira, Marcus Vinicio Neves D'; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Rodney, Ken ; Shenkin, Alexander ; Souza, Cintia Rodrigues De; Vidal, Edson ; West, Thales A.P. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Hérault, Bruno - \ 2019
Environmental Research Letters 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
Amazonia - disturbance - ecosystem recovery - macroecology - Selective logging - tropical forestry

Around 30 Mm3 of sawlogs are extracted annually by selective logging of natural production forests in Amazonia, Earth's most extensive tropical forest. Decisions concerning the management of these production forests will be of major importance for Amazonian forests' fate. To date, no regional assessment of selective logging sustainability supports decision-making. Based on data from 3500 ha of forest inventory plots, our modelling results show that the average periodic harvests of 20 m3 ha-1 will not recover by the end of a standard 30 year cutting cycle. Timber recovery within a cutting cycle is enhanced by commercial acceptance of more species and with the adoption of longer cutting cycles and lower logging intensities. Recovery rates are faster in Western Amazonia than on the Guiana Shield. Our simulations suggest that regardless of cutting cycle duration and logging intensities, selectively logged forests are unlikely to meet timber demands over the long term as timber stocks are predicted to steadily decline. There is thus an urgent need to develop an integrated forest resource management policy that combines active management of production forests with the restoration of degraded and secondary forests for timber production. Without better management, reduced timber harvests and continued timber production declines are unavoidable.

Plant trait-based approaches to improve nitrogen cycling in agroecosystems
Abalos, Diego ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Philippot, Laurent ; Lubbers, Ingrid M. ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Ecology 56 (2019)11. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2454 - 2466.
agroecosystems - fertilizer - functional traits - nitrogen cycling - nitrogen losses - plant mixtures - plant traits - plant–soil interactions

Intensive agriculture is dominated by monocultures of high-yielding plants that receive large applications of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to boost plant productivity. However, these systems have low N use efficiency (NUE) as fertilized plants generally take up less than half of the N applied. A large fraction of the remainder N is susceptible to be lost from the agroecosystem generating a cascade of environmental and socio-economic problems. Climate change and projected global increases in fertilizer use pose further risks to N losses and yield stability. We review and translate concepts from ecology in natural systems to demonstrate that NUE in intensive agroecosystems can be strongly increased by fine-tuning the traits of the plant communities to the levels of N fertilization intensity. We present key plant traits of importance for N-cycling (architectural, morphological and physiological traits, as well as symbiotic associations and exudation patterns); discuss ecological (with soil fauna and N-cycling microbial communities) and agronomic interactions of this approach; propose interdisciplinary methodologies for future research ranging from pot to global scales; and highlight possible solutions leading to an optimal balance between N fertilizer use and productivity. Synthesis and applications. By showing the strong links between plant traits and nitrogen (N) cycling, our work opens possibilities to test ecologically informed hypotheses across gradients of soil fertility and N fertilizer management intensity, setting a research agenda for the coming years. Accordingly, the choice of plant species based on their functional traits will play a central role for the development of modern and productive agroecosystems that retain and use N more efficiently.

A methodological framework to embrace soil biodiversity
Geisen, Stefan ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Gan, Huijie ; Behan-Pelletier, Valerie M. ; Friman, Ville Petri ; Groot, G.A. de; Hannula, S.E. ; Lindo, Zoë ; Philippot, Laurent ; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Wall, Diana H. - \ 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 136 (2019). - ISSN 0038-0717
Biodiversity - Fauna - Food-webs - Microorganisms - Molecular methods - Soil functions and health

Soils host the vast majority of life on Earth including microorganisms and animals, and supporting all terrestrial vegetation. While soil organisms are pivotal for ecosystem functioning, the assemblages of different biota from a taxonomic and functional perspective, as well as how these different organisms interact, remains poorly known. We provide a brief overview of the taxonomic and functional diversity of all major groups of soil biota across different scales and organism sizes, ranging from viruses to prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This reveals knowledge gaps in relation to all soil biodiversity groups, which are especially evident for viruses, protists, micro- and meso-fauna. We review currently-available methods to study the taxonomic and functional diversity of soil organisms by grouping all commonly-used methods into morphological, biochemical and molecular approaches. We list potentials and limitations of the methods to reveal that there is, as yet, no single method to fully characterize the biodiversity even of a single group of soil biota. Yet, we stress that we now have the methods available to enable scientists to disentangle the taxonomic and functional diversity of virtually all soil organisms. We provide a user-friendly guide to help researchers address a wider variety of soil biodiversity in their studies by discussing and critically analysing the various potentials and limitations of diverse methods to study distinct groups of soil life. We highlight that integrative methodological approaches, ideally in collaborative interactions, are key to advancing our understanding of soil biodiversity, such as the combination of morphological and molecular approaches to overcome method-specific limitations. Together, integrative efforts can provide information on the abundance, biomass, diversity and function of several groups of soil biota simultaneously. This newly-obtained integrative information on soil biodiversity will help to define the importance of soil biodiversity in ecosystem processes, functions, and services, and serve to refine food-web and earth system models.

Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH)–a community perspective
Blöschl, Günter ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Chambel, Antonio ; Cudennec, Christophe ; Destouni, Georgia ; Fiori, Aldo ; Kirchner, James W. ; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Stumpp, Christine ; Toth, Elena ; Volpi, Elena ; Carr, Gemma ; Lupton, Claire ; Salinas, Josè ; Széles, Borbála ; Viglione, Alberto ; Aksoy, Hafzullah ; Allen, Scott T. ; Amin, Anam ; Andréassian, Vazken ; Arheimer, Berit ; Aryal, Santosh K. ; Baker, Victor ; Bardsley, Earl ; Barendrecht, Marlies H. ; Bartosova, Alena ; Batelaan, Okke ; Berghuijs, Wouter R. ; Beven, Keith ; Blume, Theresa ; Bogaard, Thom ; Borges de Amorim, Pablo ; Böttcher, Michael E. ; Boulet, Gilles ; Breinl, Korbinian ; Brilly, Mitja ; Brocca, Luca ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Castellarin, Attilio ; Castelletti, Andrea ; Chen, Xiaohong ; Chen, Yangbo ; Chen, Yuanfang ; Chifflard, Peter ; Claps, Pierluigi ; Clark, Martyn P. ; Collins, Adrian L. ; Croke, Barry ; Dathe, Annette ; David, Paula C. ; Barros, Felipe P.J. de; Rooij, Gerrit de; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di; Driscoll, Jessica M. ; Duethmann, Doris ; Dwivedi, Ravindra ; Eris, Ebru ; Farmer, William H. ; Feiccabrino, James ; Ferguson, Grant ; Ferrari, Ennio ; Ferraris, Stefano ; Fersch, Benjamin ; Finger, David ; Foglia, Laura ; Fowler, Keirnan ; Gartsman, Boris ; Gascoin, Simon ; Gaume, Eric ; Gelfan, Alexander ; Geris, Josie ; Gharari, Shervan ; Gleeson, Tom ; Glendell, Miriam ; Gonzalez Bevacqua, Alena ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Grimaldi, Salvatore ; Gupta, A.B. ; Guse, Björn ; Han, Dawei ; Hannah, David ; Harpold, Adrian ; Haun, Stefan ; Heal, Kate ; Helfricht, Kay ; Herrnegger, Mathew ; Hipsey, Matthew ; Hlaváčiková, Hana ; Hohmann, Clara ; Holko, Ladislav ; Hopkinson, Christopher ; Hrachowitz, Markus ; Illangasekare, Tissa H. ; Inam, Azhar ; Innocente, Camyla ; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan ; Jarihani, Ben ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Kalvans, Andis ; Khanal, Sonu ; Khatami, Sina ; Kiesel, Jens ; Kirkby, Mike ; Knoben, Wouter ; Kochanek, Krzysztof ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Kolechkina, Alla ; Krause, Stefan ; Kreamer, David ; Kreibich, Heidi ; Kunstmann, Harald ; Lange, Holger ; Liberato, Margarida L.R. ; Lindquist, Eric ; Link, Timothy ; Liu, Junguo ; Loucks, Daniel Peter ; Luce, Charles ; Mahé, Gil ; Makarieva, Olga ; Malard, Julien ; Mashtayeva, Shamshagul ; Maskey, Shreedhar ; Mas-Pla, Josep ; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria ; Mazzoleni, Maurizio ; Mernild, Sebastian ; Misstear, Bruce Dudley ; Montanari, Alberto ; Müller-Thomy, Hannes ; Nabizadeh, Alireza ; Nardi, Fernando ; Neale, Christopher ; Nesterova, Nataliia ; Nurtaev, Bakhram ; Odongo, Vincent O. ; Panda, Subhabrata ; Pande, Saket ; Pang, Zhonghe ; Papacharalampous, Georgia ; Perrin, Charles ; Pfister, Laurent ; Pimentel, Rafael ; Polo, María J. ; Post, David ; Prieto Sierra, Cristina ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Renner, Maik ; Reynolds, José Eduardo ; Ridolfi, Elena ; Rigon, Riccardo ; Riva, Monica ; Robertson, David E. ; Rosso, Renzo ; Roy, Tirthankar ; Sá, João H.M. ; Salvadori, Gianfausto ; Sandells, Mel ; Schaefli, Bettina ; Schumann, Andreas ; Scolobig, Anna ; Seibert, Jan ; Servat, Eric ; Shafiei, Mojtaba ; Sharma, Ashish ; Sidibe, Moussa ; Sidle, Roy C. ; Skaugen, Thomas ; Smith, Hugh ; Spiessl, Sabine M. ; Stein, Lina ; Steinsland, Ingelin ; Strasser, Ulrich ; Su, Bob ; Szolgay, Jan ; Tarboton, David ; Tauro, Flavia ; Thirel, Guillaume ; Tian, Fuqiang ; Tong, Rui ; Tussupova, Kamshat ; Tyralis, Hristos ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Beek, Rens van; Ent, Ruud J. van der; Ploeg, Martine van der; Loon, Anne F. Van; Meerveld, Ilja van; Nooijen, Ronald van; Oel, Pieter R. van; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Freyberg, Jana von; Vorogushyn, Sergiy ; Wachniew, Przemyslaw ; Wade, Andrew J. ; Ward, Philip ; Westerberg, Ida K. ; White, Christopher ; Wood, Eric F. ; Woods, Ross ; Xu, Zongxue ; Yilmaz, Koray K. ; Zhang, Yongqiang - \ 2019
Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)10. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1141 - 1158.
hydrology - interdisciplinary - knowledge gaps - research agenda - science questions

This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.

Haiti second dry run June 2019 : Applying distributed ledger technology to connect Haitian mango, avocado and pineapple producers to foreign markets
Oostewechel, Rene ; Régis, Yves Laurent ; Brouwers, Jan - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research 1966) - ISBN 9789463950404 - 23
This report provides the technical results of the second dry run transporting mangoes and avocados from Haiti to the US. For both fruits, temperature has been registered from the moment of harvest till arrival at destinations. Also logistical data like planning preparing the test, time needed for each step, and quality of fruits has been analysed, following the procedures as presented in the Standard Operational Procedures for both fruits. The process was organised together with the two new partners Haiti Mango Consortium and Agriledger, both contracted by MCI for the next phase of exporting fruits to the US. After an introduction chapter, technical observations and remarks are provided for both mango and avocado in the next two chapters, with a concluding last chapter afterwards that provides overall analysis, lessons learned and recommendations. Based on the lessons learned the Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) will be updated. A major change will be that Collection Points will be introduced as transport from tree to truck cannot be controlled by project partners. SOPs will be updated over the coming months June-July 2019.
Determination of the equilibrium enthalpy of melting of two-phase semi-crystalline polymers by fast scanning calorimetry
Fosse, Clément ; Bourdet, Aurélie ; Ernault, Estève ; Esposito, Antonella ; Delpouve, Nicolas ; Delbreilh, Laurent ; Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam ; Knoop, Rutger J.I. ; Dargent, Eric - \ 2019
Thermochimica Acta 677 (2019). - ISSN 0040-6031 - p. 67 - 78.
Enthalpy of melting - Fast scanning calorimetry - PBF - PEF - Rigid amorphous fraction

The equilibrium enthalpy of melting ΔHm 0 [J·g−1] is an extrapolated thermodynamic quantity attributed to crystallizable macromolecules and widely used to characterize polymers in their semi-crystalline state, for it allows estimating the degree of crystallinity by direct comparison with the enthalpy of melting obtained from differential scanning calorimetry. ΔHm 0 is typically obtained by cross-comparing the results obtained by at least two techniques. This work proposes a simplified experimental protocol to determine ΔHm 0 by the use of Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC). This approach applies to any crystallizable polymer for which a specific microstructure can be obtained (i.e. a two-phase semi-crystalline microstructure with a negligible amount of rigid amorphous fraction) and that can also be quenched to its fully amorphous state. Such a two-phase microstructure can be obtained on nanoscale samples through an annealing process performed in situ on the FSC sensor at crystallization temperatures as close as possible to the melting temperature. The enthalpy of melting is then evaluated from the two-phase model for different crystallization times (i.e. different crystallinities) and the ΔHm 0 is obtained by extrapolating the data to the 100% crystalline state. This procedure was applied on samples whose ΔHm 0 values are already available in the literature, but also on more recent biobased polyesters whose thermal properties are still under investigations.

Methodological elements for optimising the spatial monitoring design to support regional benthic ecosystem assessments
Hoey, Gert Van; Wischnewski, Julia ; Craeymeersch, Johan ; Dannheim, Jennifer ; Enserink, Lisette ; Guerin, Laurent ; Marco-Rius, Francisco ; O’connor, Joey ; Reiss, Henning ; Sell, Anne F. ; Vanden Berghe, Marie ; Zettler, Michael L. ; Degraer, Steven ; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. - \ 2019
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191 (2019)7. - ISSN 0167-6369 - 13 p.
Benthic habitat condition assessments are a requirement under various environmental directives. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), for example, challenges member states in a European sea region to perform comparable assessments of good environmental status and improve coherence
of their monitoring programmes by 2020. Currently, North Sea countries operate independent monitoring programmes using nationally defined assessment
areas. Lack of an agreed OSPAR or EU scale monitoring method and programme has been identified as a priority science need. This paper proposes a method
for the development of a coherent and efficient spatial sampling design for benthic habitats on regional level and gives advice on optimal monitoring effort
to get more accurate assessments. We use ecologically relevant assessment areas (strata) across national borders and test spatial sample allocation methods.
A multi-model assessment of food security implications of climate change mitigation
Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Krey, Volker ; Riahi, Keywan ; Bertram, Christoph ; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon ; Bosetti, Valentina ; Callen, Jessica ; Després, Jacques ; Doelman, Jonathan ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Frank, Stefan ; Fricko, Oliver ; Havlik, Petr ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Koopman, Jason F.L. ; Meijl, Hans van; Ochi, Yuki ; Popp, Alexander ; Schmitz, Andreas ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Vuuren, Detlef van - \ 2019
Nature Sustainability 2 (2019)5. - ISSN 2398-9629 - p. 386 - 396.

Holding the global increase in temperature caused by climate change well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, the goal affirmed by the Paris Agreement, is a major societal challenge. Meanwhile, food security is a high-priority area in the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which could potentially be adversely affected by stringent climate mitigation. Here we show the potential negative trade-offs between food security and climate mitigation using a multi-model comparison exercise. We find that carelessly designed climate mitigation policies could increase the number of people at risk of hunger by 160 million in 2050. Avoiding these adverse side effects would entail a cost of about 0.18% of global gross domestic product in 2050. It should be noted that direct impacts of climate change on yields were not assessed and that the direct benefits from mitigation in terms of avoided yield losses could be substantial, further reducing the above cost. Although results vary across models and model implementations, the qualitative implications are robust and call for careful design of climate mitigation policies taking into account agriculture and land prices.

Genomic analysis on pygmy hog reveals extensive interbreeding during wild boar expansion
Liu, Langqing ; Bosse, Mirte ; Megens, Hendrik-Jan ; Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Lee, Young Lim ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Narayan, Goutam ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Madsen, Ole - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) drastically colonized mainland Eurasia and North Africa, most likely from East Asia during the Plio-Pleistocene (2–1Mya). In recent studies, based on genome-wide information, it was hypothesized that wild boar did not replace the species it encountered, but instead exchanged genetic materials with them through admixture. The highly endangered pygmy hog (Porcula salvania) is the only suid species in mainland Eurasia known to have outlived this expansion, and therefore provides a unique opportunity to test this hybridization hypothesis. Analyses of pygmy hog genomes indicate that despite large phylogenetic divergence (~2 My), wild boar and pygmy hog did indeed interbreed as the former expanded across Eurasia. In addition, we also assess the taxonomic placement of the donor of another introgression, pertaining to a now-extinct species with a deep phylogenetic placement in the Suidae tree. Altogether, our analyses indicate that the rapid spread of wild boar was facilitated by inter-specific/inter-generic admixtures.

Dietary enrichment of edible insects with omega 3 fatty acids
Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B. ; Laurent, Sophie ; Veenenbos, Margot E. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2019
Insect Science (2019). - ISSN 1672-9609
Acheta domesticus - Alphitobius diaperinus - diet - fatty acids - Hermetia illucens

Edible insects are advocated as sustainable and healthy food and feed. However, commercially produced insects are often low in n-3 fatty acids and have suboptimal n-6/n-3 ratios. A certain amount and proportion of these FAs is required to optimize human health. Flaxseed oil consists primarily (57%) out of alpha-linolenic acid. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of flaxseed oil provision on fatty acid composition and to determine the quantity needed to attain a beneficial n-6/n-3 ratio. Three species were used in the experiment: house crickets (Acheta domesticus [L.]), lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus [Pfanzer]) and black soldier flies (Hermetia illucens [L.]). These were provided with either a control diet or a diet enriched with 1%, 2%, or 4% flaxseed oil during their larval/nymphal stage. Fatty acid profiles of diets and insects were determined via GC-MS. The three species had distinct fatty acid profiles on all four diets, but responded similarly to flaxseed oil addition. For each percent added to the diet, the alpha-linolenic acid content of the insects increased by 2.3%–2.7%. Four percent addition increased the n-3 fatty acid content 10–20 fold in the three species and thereby strongly decreased n-6/n-3 ratios from 18–36 to 0.8–2.4. A ratio below 5 is considered optimal for human health and was achieved by 2% flaxseed oil inclusion for house crickets and lesser mealworms, and at 1% inclusion for black soldier flies. Adding a source of n-3 fatty acids to insect diets can thus improve the nutritional quality of insects.

Implications of various effort-sharing approaches for national carbon budgets and emission pathways
Berg, Nicole J. van den; Soest, Heleen L. van; Hof, Andries F. ; Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Chen, Wenying ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Höhne, Niklas ; Kõberle, Alexandre C. ; McCollum, David ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Shekhar, Swapnil ; Vishwanathan, Saritha Sudharmma ; Vrontisi, Zoi ; Blok, Kornelis - \ 2019
Climatic Change (2019). - ISSN 0165-0009

The bottom-up approach of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in the Paris Agreement has led countries to self-determine their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The planned ‘ratcheting-up’ process, which aims to ensure that the NDCs comply with the overall goal of limiting global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C or even 1.5 °C, will most likely include some evaluation of ‘fairness’ of these reduction targets. In the literature, fairness has been discussed around equity principles, for which many different effort-sharing approaches have been proposed. In this research, we analysed how country-level emission targets and carbon budgets can be derived based on such criteria. We apply novel methods directly based on the global carbon budget, and, for comparison, more commonly used methods using GHG mitigation pathways. For both, we studied the following approaches: equal cumulative per capita emissions, contraction and convergence, grandfathering, greenhouse development rights and ability to pay. As the results critically depend on parameter settings, we used the wide authorship from a range of countries included in this paper to determine default settings and sensitivity analyses. Results show that effort-sharing approaches that (i) calculate required reduction targets in carbon budgets (relative to baseline budgets) and/or (ii) take into account historical emissions when determining carbon budgets can lead to (large) negative remaining carbon budgets for developed countries. This is the case for the equal cumulative per capita approach and especially the greenhouse development rights approach. Furthermore, for developed countries, all effort-sharing approaches except grandfathering lead to more stringent budgets than cost-optimal budgets, indicating that cost-optimal approaches do not lead to outcomes that can be regarded as fair according to most effort-sharing approaches.

Beerkan multi-runs for characterizing water infiltration and spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties across scales
Lassabatere, Laurent ; Prima, Simone Di; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Salesa, David - \ 2019
Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)2. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 165 - 178.
beerkan - BEST methods - field scale - multi-runs - spatial variability - transect scale

A method is presented for characterizing the spatial variability of water infiltration and soil hydraulic properties at the transect and field scales. The method involves monitoring a set of 10 Beerkan runs distributed over a 1-m length of soil, and running BEST (Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameters) methods to derive hydraulic parameters. The Beerkan multi-runs (BMR) method provides a significant amount of data at the transect scale, allowing the determination of correlations between water infiltration variables and hydraulic parameters, and the detection of specific runs affected by preferential flow or water repellence. The realization of several BMRs at several transects on the same site allows comparison of the variation between locations (spatial variability at the field scale) and at the transect scale (spatial variability at the metre scale), using analysis of variance. From the results, we determined the spatial variability of water infiltration and hydraulic parameters as well as its characteristic scale (transect versus field).

Anhydrobiosis : Inside yeast cells
Rapoport, Alexander ; Golovina, Elena A. ; Gervais, Patrick ; Dupont, Sebastien ; Beney, Laurent - \ 2019
Biotechnology Advances 37 (2019)1. - ISSN 0734-9750 - p. 51 - 67.
Anhydrobiosis - Dehydration–rehydration - Desiccation - Intracellular changes - Intracellular protective reactions - Yeast

Under natural conditions yeast cells as well as other microorganisms are regularly subjected to the influence of severe drought, which leads to their serious dehydration. The dry seasons are then changed by rains and there is a restoration of normal water potential inside the cells. To survive such seasonal changes a lot of vegetative microbial cells, which belong to various genera and species, may be able to enter into a state of anhydrobiosis, in which their metabolism is temporarily and reversibly suspended or delayed. This evolutionarily developed adaptation to extreme conditions of the environment is widely used for practical goals – for conservation of microorganisms in collections, for maintenance and long storage of different important strain-producers and for other various biotechnological purposes. This current review presents the most important data obtained mainly in the studies of the structural and functional changes in yeast cells during dehydration. It describes the changes of the main organelles of eukaryotic cells and their role in cell survival in a dry state. The review provides information regarding the role of water in the structure and functions of biological macromolecules and membranes. Some important intracellular protective reactions of eukaryotic organisms, which were revealed in these studies and may have more general importance, are also discussed. The results of the studies of yeast anhydrobiosis summarized in the review show the possibilities of improving the conservation and long-term storage of various microorganisms and of increasing the quality of industrially produced dry microbial preparations.

Risk to human health related to the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid in food
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Bodin, Laurent ; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre ; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi ; Haug, Line Småstuen ; Johansson, Niklas ; Loveren, Henk van; Gergelova, Petra ; Mackay, Karen ; Levorato, Sara ; Manen, Mathijs van; Schwerdtle, Tanja - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)12. - ISSN 1831-4732
The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risks to human health related to the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in food. Regarding PFOS and PFOA occurrence, the final data set available for dietary exposure assessment contained a total of 20,019 analytical results (PFOS n = 10,191 and PFOA n = 9,828). There were large differences between upper and lower bound exposure due to analytical methods with insufficient sensitivity. The CONTAM Panel considered the lower bound estimates to be closer to true exposure levels. Important contributors to the lower bound mean chronic exposure were ‘Fish and other seafood’, ‘Meat and meat products’ and ‘Eggs and egg products’, for PFOS, and ‘Milk and dairy products’, ‘Drinking water’ and ‘Fish and other seafood’ for PFOA. PFOS and PFOA are readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, excreted in urine and faeces, and do not undergo metabolism. Estimated human half‐lives for PFOS and PFOA are about 5 years and 2–4 years, respectively. The derivation of a health‐based guidance value was based on human epidemiological studies. For PFOS, the increase in serum total cholesterol in adults, and the decrease in antibody response at vaccination in children were identified as the critical effects. For PFOA, the increase in serum total cholesterol was the critical effect. Also reduced birth weight (for both compounds) and increased prevalence of high serum levels of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (for PFOA) were considered. After benchmark modelling of serum levels of PFOS and PFOA, and estimating the corresponding daily intakes, the CONTAM Panel established a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 13 ng/kg body weight (bw) per week for PFOS and 6 ng/kg bw per week for PFOA. For both compounds, exposure of a considerable proportion of the population exceeds the proposed TWIs.
A Review of “World heritage sites and tourism: global and local relations” Edited by Laurent Bourdeau, Maria Gravari-Barbas and Mike Robinson, New York, Routledge, 2017, 206 pp., £110.00 (hardback), ISBN 9781409470618
Bakker, Martine - \ 2018
Tourism Geographies 20 (2018)3. - ISSN 1461-6688 - p. 577 - 579.
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