Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Supported Cu Nanoparticles as Selective and Stable Catalysts for the Gas Phase Hydrogenation of 1,3-Butadiene in Alkene-Rich Feeds
    Totarella, Giorgio ; Beerthuis, Rolf ; Masoud, Nazila ; Louis, Catherine ; Delannoy, Laurent ; Jongh, Petra E. De - \ 2020
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part C: Nanomaterials and Interfaces (2020). - ISSN 1932-7447 - 10 p.
    Supported copper nanoparticles are a promising alternative to supported noble metal catalysts, in particular for the selective gas phase hydrogenation of polyunsaturated molecules. In this article, the catalytic performance of copper nanoparticles (3 and 7 nm) supported on either silica gel or graphitic carbon is discussed in the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene in the presence of a 100-fold excess of propene. We demonstrate that the routinely used temperature ramp-up method is not suitable in this case to reliably measure catalyst activity, and we present an alternative measurement method. The catalysts exhibited selectivity to butenes as high as 99% at nearly complete 1,3-butadiene conversion (95%). Kinetic analysis showed that the high selectivity can be explained by considering H2 activation as the rate-limiting step and the occurrence of a strong adsorption of 1,3-butadiene with respect to mono-olefins on the Cu surface. The 7 nm Cu nanoparticles on SiO2 were found to be a very stable catalyst, with almost full retention of its initial activity over 60 h of time on stream at 140 °C. This remarkable long-term stability and high selectivity toward alkenes indicate that Cu nanoparticles are a promising alternative to replace precious-metal-based catalysts in selective hydrogenation
    Update of the risk assessment of nickel in food and drinking water
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Margherita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Wallace, Heather ; Guérin, Thierry ; Massanyi, Peter ; Loveren, Henk Van; Baert, Katleen ; Gergelova, Petra ; Nielsen, Elsa - \ 2020
    EFSA Journal 18 (2020)11. - ISSN 1831-4732
    dietary exposure - food - margin of exposure (MOE) - Nickel - sensitisation - tolerable daily intake (TDI) - toxicity

    The European Commission asked EFSA to update its previous Opinion on nickel in food and drinking water, taking into account new occurrence data, the updated benchmark dose (BMD) Guidance and newly available scientific information. More than 47,000 analytical results on the occurrence of nickel were used for calculating chronic and acute dietary exposure. An increased incidence of post-implantation loss in rats was identified as the critical effect for the risk characterisation of chronic oral exposure and a BMDL10 of 1.3 mg Ni/kg body weight (bw) per day was selected as the reference point for the establishment of a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 13 μg/kg bw. Eczematous flare-up reactions in the skin elicited in nickel-sensitised humans, a condition known as systemic contact dermatitis, was identified as the critical effect for the risk characterisation of acute oral exposure. A BMDL could not be derived, and therefore, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level of 4.3 μg Ni/kg bw was selected as the reference point. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was applied and an MOE of 30 or higher was considered as being indicative of a low health concern. The mean lower bound (LB)/upper bound (UB) chronic dietary exposure was below or at the level of the TDI. The 95th percentile LB/UB chronic dietary exposure was below the TDI in adolescents and in all adult age groups, but generally exceeded the TDI in toddlers and in other children, as well as in infants in some surveys. This may raise a health concern in these young age groups. The MOE values for the mean UB acute dietary exposure and for the 95th percentile UB raises a health concern for nickel-sensitised individuals. The MOE values for an acute scenario regarding consumption of a glass of water on an empty stomach do not raise a health concern.

    Risk assessment of nitrate and nitrite in feed
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Margherita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Wallace, Heather ; Bampidis, Vasileios ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Frutos, Maria Jose ; Furst, Peter ; Parker, Anthony ; Binaglia, Marco ; Christodoulidou, Anna ; Gergelova, Petra ; Guajardo, Irene Munoz ; Wenger, Carina ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2020
    EFSA Journal 18 (2020)11. - ISSN 1831-4732
    animals - exposure - feed - methaemoglobin - Nitrate - Nitrite - occurrence

    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to animal health related to nitrite and nitrate in feed. For nitrate ion, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) identified a BMDL10 of 64 mg nitrate/kg body weight (bw) per day for adult cattle, based on methaemoglobin (MetHb) levels in animal's blood that would not induce clinical signs of hypoxia. The BMDL10 is applicable to all bovines, except for pregnant cows in which reproductive effects were not clearly associated with MetHb formation. Since the data available suggested that ovines and caprines are not more sensitive than bovines, the BMDL10 could also be applied to these species. Highest mean exposure estimates of 53 and 60 mg nitrate/kg bw per day in grass silage-based diets for beef cattle and fattening goats, respectively, may raise a health concern for ruminants when compared with the BMDL10 of 64 mg nitrate/kg bw per day. The concern may be higher because other forages might contain higher levels of nitrate. Highest mean exposure estimates of 2.0 mg nitrate/kg bw per day in pigs’ feeds indicate a low risk for adverse health effects, when compared with an identified no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 410 mg nitrate/kg bw per day, although the levels of exposure might be underestimated due to the absence of data on certain key ingredients in the diets of this species. Due to the limitations of the data available, the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the health risk in species other than ruminants and pigs from nitrate and in all livestock and companion animals from nitrite. Based on a limited data set, both the transfer of nitrate and nitrite from feed to food products of animal origin and the nitrate- and nitrite-mediated formation of N-nitrosamines and their transfer into these products are likely to be negligible.

    Risk to human health related to the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in food
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Margherita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Wallace, Heather ; Barregård, Lars ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cravedi, Jean Pierre ; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi ; Haug, Line Småstuen ; Johansson, Niklas ; Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain Claude ; Loveren, Henk Van; Vollmer, Günter ; Mackay, Karen ; Riolo, Francesca ; Schwerdtle, Tanja - \ 2020
    EFSA Journal 18 (2020)9. - ISSN 1831-4732
    exposure - food - immune system - mixtures - PBPK - PFAS - risk assessment

    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risks to human health related to the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food. Based on several similar effects in animals, toxicokinetics and observed concentrations in human blood, the CONTAM Panel decided to perform the assessment for the sum of four PFASs: PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOS. These made up half of the lower bound (LB) exposure to those PFASs with available occurrence data, the remaining contribution being primarily from PFASs with short half-lives. Equal potencies were assumed for the four PFASs included in the assessment. The mean LB exposure in adolescents and adult age groups ranged from 3 to 22, the 95th percentile from 9 to 70 ng/kg body weight (bw) per week. Toddlers and ‘other children’ showed a twofold higher exposure. Upper bound exposure was 4- to 49-fold higher than LB levels, but the latter were considered more reliable. ‘Fish meat’, ‘Fruit and fruit products’ and ‘Eggs and egg products’ contributed most to the exposure. Based on available studies in animals and humans, effects on the immune system were considered the most critical for the risk assessment. From a human study, a lowest BMDL10 of 17.5 ng/mL for the sum of the four PFASs in serum was identified for 1-year-old children. Using PBPK modelling, this serum level of 17.5 ng/mL in children was estimated to correspond to long-term maternal exposure of 0.63 ng/kg bw per day. Since accumulation over time is important, a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 4.4 ng/kg bw per week was established. This TWI also protects against other potential adverse effects observed in humans. Based on the estimated LB exposure, but also reported serum levels, the CONTAM Panel concluded that parts of the European population exceed this TWI, which is of concern.

    Risk assessment of glycoalkaloids in feed and food, in particular in potatoes and potato-derived products
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Margherita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Wallace, Heather ; Brimer, Leon ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dusemund, Birgit ; Mulder, Patrick ; Vollmer, Günter ; Binaglia, Marco ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Riolo, Francesca ; Roldán-Torres, Ruth ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina - \ 2020
    EFSA Journal 18 (2020)8. - ISSN 1831-4732
    chaconine - feed - food - glycoalkaloids (GAs) - margin of exposure (MOE) - potato - solanine

    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of glycoalkaloids (GAs) in feed and food. This risk assessment covers edible parts of potato plants and other food plants containing GAs, in particular, tomato and aubergine. In humans, acute toxic effects of potato GAs (α-solanine and α-chaconine) include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. For these effects, the CONTAM Panel identified a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of 1 mg total potato GAs/kg body weight (bw) per day as a reference point for the risk characterisation following acute exposure. In humans, no evidence of health problems associated with repeated or long-term intake of GAs via potatoes has been identified. No reference point for chronic exposure could be identified from the experimental animal studies. Occurrence data were available only for α-solanine and α-chaconine, mostly for potatoes. The acute dietary exposure to potato GAs was estimated using a probabilistic approach and applying processing factors for food. Due to the limited data available, a margin of exposure (MOE) approach was applied. The MOEs for the younger age groups indicate a health concern for the food consumption surveys with the highest mean exposure, as well as for the P95 exposure in all surveys. For adult age groups, the MOEs indicate a health concern only for the food consumption surveys with the highest P95 exposures. For tomato and aubergine GAs, the risk to human health could not be characterised due to the lack of occurrence data and the limited toxicity data. For horses, farm and companion animals, no risk characterisation for potato GAs could be performed due to insufficient data on occurrence in feed and on potential adverse effects of GAs in these species.

    Risk assessment of aflatoxins in food
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Margherita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Nielsen, Elsa ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Marko, Doris ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Piersma, Aldert ; Routledge, Michael ; Schlatter, Josef ; Baert, Katleen ; Gergelova, Petra ; Wallace, Heather - \ 2020
    EFSA Journal 18 (2020)3. - ISSN 1831-4732
    aflatoxin - cancer - exposure - food - liver - margin of exposure (MOE) - occurrence

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of aflatoxins in food. The risk assessment was confined to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1. More than 200,000 analytical results on the occurrence of aflatoxins were used in the evaluation. Grains and grain-based products made the largest contribution to the mean chronic dietary exposure to AFB1 in all age classes, while ‘liquid milk’ and ‘fermented milk products’ were the main contributors to the AFM1 mean exposure. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and AFB1 can cause hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in humans. The CONTAM Panel selected a benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) for a benchmark response of 10% of 0.4 μg/kg body weight (bw) per day for the incidence of HCC in male rats following AFB1 exposure to be used in a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. The calculation of a BMDL from the human data was not appropriate; instead, the cancer potencies estimated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2016 were used. For AFM1, a potency factor of 0.1 relative to AFB1 was used. For AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2, the in vivo data are not sufficient to derive potency factors and equal potency to AFB1 was assumed as in previous assessments. MOE values for AFB1 exposure ranged from 5,000 to 29 and for AFM1 from 100,000 to 508. The calculated MOEs are below 10,000 for AFB1 and also for AFM1 where some surveys, particularly for the younger age groups, have an MOE below 10,000. This raises a health concern. The estimated cancer risks in humans following exposure to AFB1 and AFM1 are in-line with the conclusion drawn from the MOEs. The conclusions also apply to the combined exposure to all five aflatoxins.

    Risk assessment of chlorinated paraffins in feed and food
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Bignami, Marguerita ; Bodin, Laurent ; Chipman, James Kevin ; Mazo, Jesús del; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Leblanc, Jean Charles ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Ntzani, Evangelia ; Petersen, Annette ; Sand, Salomon ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Wallace, Heather ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Leonards, Pim ; Rose, Martin ; Binaglia, Marco ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Nielsen, Elsa - \ 2020
    EFSA Journal 18 (2020)3. - ISSN 1831-4732
    chlorinated paraffins - feed - food - LCCP - MCCP - risk assessment - SCCP

    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of chlorinated paraffins in feed and food. The data for experimental animals were reviewed and the CONTAM Panel identified the liver, kidney and thyroid as the target organs for the SCCP and MCCP mixtures tested in repeated dose toxicity studies. Decreased pup survival and subcutaneous haematoma/haemorrhage were also identified as critical effects for an MCCP mixture. For the LCCP mixtures tested, the liver was identified as the target organ. The Panel selected as reference points a BMDL10 of 2.3 mg/kg bw per day for increased incidence of nephritis in male rats, and of 36 mg/kg bw per day for increased relative kidney weights in male and female rats for SCCPs and MCCPs, respectively. For LCCPs, a reference point relevant for humans could not be identified. Due to the limitations in the toxicokinetic and toxicological database, the Panel concluded that derivation of a health-based guidance value was not appropriate. Only limited data on the occurrence of SCCPs and MCCPs in some fish species were submitted to EFSA. No data were submitted for LCCPs. Thus, a robust exposure assessment and consequently a complete risk characterisation could not be performed. A preliminary risk characterisation based only on the consumption of fish was performed, and the calculated margins of exposure suggested no health concern for this limited scenario. The Panel noted that dietary exposure will be higher due to the contribution of CPs from other foods. The Panel was not able to identify reference points for farm animals, horses and companion animals. No occurrence data for feed were submitted to EFSA. Therefore, no risk characterisation could be performed for any of these animal species.

    Global Carbon Budget 2020
    Friedlingstein, Pierre ; O'Sullivan, Michael ; Jones, Matthew W. ; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Hauck, Judith ; Olsen, Are ; Peters, Glen P. ; Peters, Wouter ; Pongratz, Julia ; Sitch, Stephen ; Quéré, Corinne Le; Canadell, Josep G. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Alin, Simone ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Arneth, Almut ; Arora, Vivek ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Becker, Meike ; Benoit-Cattin, Alice ; Bittig, Henry C. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bultan, Selma ; Chandra, Naveen ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Evans, Wiley ; Florentie, Liesbeth ; Forster, Piers M. ; Gasser, Thomas ; Gehlen, Marion ; Gilfillan, Dennis ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Gregor, Luke ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Harris, Ian ; Hartung, Kerstin ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul K. ; Joetzjer, Emilie ; Kadono, Koji ; Kato, Etsushi ; Kitidis, Vassilis ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Liu, Zhu ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Marland, Gregg ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Niwa, Yosuke ; O'Brien, Kevin ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Palmer, Paul I. ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Resplandy, Laure ; Robertson, Eddy ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Schwinger, Jörg ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Smith, Adam J.P. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Tanhua, Toste ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Werf, Guido Van Der; Vuichard, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watson, Andrew J. ; Willis, David ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Yuan, Wenping ; Yue, Xu ; Zaehle, Sönke - \ 2020
    Earth System Science Data 12 (2020)4. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 3269 - 3340.

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate the "global carbon budget" is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1s. For the last decade available (2010 2019), EFOS was 9.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.6 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1. For the same decade, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.02 GtC yr-1 (2.4 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.4 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of -0.1 GtC yr-1 indicating a near balance between estimated sources and sinks over the last decade. For the year 2019 alone, the growth in EFOS was only about 0.1 % with fossil emissions increasing to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.8 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, for total anthropogenic CO2 emissions of 11.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1 (42.2 ± 3.3 GtCO2). Also for 2019, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1 (2.5 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.1 ± 1.2 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 409.85 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2019. Preliminary data for 2020, accounting for the COVID-19-induced changes in emissions, suggest a decrease in EFOS relative to 2019 of about -7 % (median estimate) based on individual estimates from four studies of -6 %, -7 %, -7 % (-3 % to -11 %), and -13 %. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959 2019, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from diverse approaches and observations shows (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions over the last decade, (2) a persistent low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent discrepancy between the different methods for the ocean sink outside the tropics, particularly in the Southern Ocean. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Friedlingstein et al., 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at https://doi.org/10.18160/gcp-2020 (Friedlingstein et al., 2020).

    Addendum : Genomic analysis on pygmy hog reveals extensive interbreeding during wild boar expansion
    Liu, Langqing ; Bosse, Mirte ; Megens, Hendrik Jan ; Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Lee, Young Lim ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Narayan, Goutam ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Madsen, Ole - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
    Manipulating plant community composition to steer efficient N-cycling in intensively managed grasslands
    Abalos, Diego ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Philippot, Laurent ; Oram, Natalie J. ; Oudová, Barbora ; Pantelis, Ioannis ; Clark, Callum ; Fiorini, Andrea ; Bru, David ; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0021-8901
    functional traits - grass legume mixtures - NO emissions - nitrogen cycling - nitrogen losses - plant and soil interactions - plant mixtures - plant species identity

    Minimizing nitrogen (N) losses and increasing plant N uptake in agroecosystems is a major global challenge. Ecological concepts from (semi)natural grasslands suggest that manipulating plant community composition using plant species with different traits may represent a promising opportunity to face this challenge. Here, we translate these trait-based concepts to agricultural systems in a field experiment, aiming to reveal the main determinants of how plant community composition regulates N-cycling in intensively managed grasslands. We focused on key N pools (plant N from soil and from biological N-fixation, soil mineral N and N2O emissions) as well as on biological drivers of N-cycling in soil (abundance of N-cycling microbial communities, earthworm populations and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), using three common grass and one legume species in monoculture, two- and four-species mixtures. We hypothesized that: (a) plant species mixtures increase plant N uptake, reduce soil mineral N concentrations and N2O emissions and promote the abundance of biological N-cyclers; (b) legume presence stimulates N pools, fluxes and biological N-cycling activity, (c) but in combination with a grass with acquisitive traits, more N is retained in the plant community, while N2O emissions are reduced. We found that mixtures increased plant N and lowered the soil mineral N pool compared to monocultures. However, plant species identity played an overarching role: Legume presence increased N2O emissions, plant N pools, soil mineral N and the abundance of N-cycling microbes and earthworms. Combining the legume with a grass with low leaf dry matter content and high root length density (and with high root biomass) reduced the higher soil mineral N and N2O emissions induced by the legume, while harnessing positive effects on plant N pools and biological N-fixation. Synthesis and applications. Our results show the potential of plant community composition to steer N-cycling in fertilized agroecosystems, paving the way for a more biologically based agriculture. Legumes will play a crucial role, but selecting an optimum companion species is key for the sustainability of the agroecosystem.

    Working Group on Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE)
    Brunel, T.P.A. ; Campbell, A. ; Campbell, Neil ; Carrera, Pablo ; Catarino, R. ; Chetyrkin, A. ; Costas, Gersom ; Dubroca, Laurent ; Duncan, Roxanne ; Eliasen, Sólva ; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves ; Hojnes, Age ; Holleland, Sondre ; Beukhof, E.D. - \ 2020
    Copenhagen : ICES (ICES Scientific Reports 82) - 1093 p.
    Technical note : A time-integrated sediment trap to sample diatoms for hydrological tracing
    Foets, Jasper ; Wetzel, Carlos E. ; Martínez-Carreras, Núria ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Iffly, Jean Francois ; Pfister, Laurent - \ 2020
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 24 (2020)10. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 4709 - 4725.

    Diatoms, microscopic single-celled algae, are present in almost all habitats containing water (e.g. streams, lakes, soil and rocks). In the terrestrial environment, their diversified species distributions are mainly controlled by physiographical factors and anthropic disturbances which makes them useful tracers in catchment hydrology. In their use as a tracer, diatoms are generally sampled in streams by means of an automated sampling method; as a result, many samples must be collected to cover a whole storm run-off event. As diatom analysis is labour-intensive, a trade-off has to be made between the number of sites and the number of samples per site. In an attempt to reduce this sampling effort, we explored the potential for the Phillips sampler, a time-integrated mass-flux sampler, to provide a representative sample of the diatom assemblage of a whole storm run-off event. We addressed this by comparing the diatom community composition of the Phillips sampler to the composite community collected by automatic samplers for three events. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed that, based on the species composition, (1) all three events could be separated from each other, (2) the Phillips sampler was able to sample representative communities for two events and (3) significantly different communities were only collected for the third event. These observations were generally confirmed by analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), and the comparison of species relative abundances and community-derived indices. However, sediment data from the third event, which was sampled with automatic samplers, showed a large amount of noise; therefore, we could not verify if the Phillips sampler sampled representative communities or not. Nevertheless, we believe that this sampler could not only be applied in hydrological tracing using terrestrial diatoms, but it might also be a useful tool in water quality assessment.

    Erratum: Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe
    Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Haile, James ; Lin, Audrey T. ; Scheu, Amelie ; Geörg, Christina ; Benecke, Norbert ; Alexander, Michelle ; Linderholm, Anna ; Mullin, Victoria E. ; Daly, Kevin G. ; Battista, Vincent M. ; Price, Max ; Gron, Kurt J. ; Alexandri, Panoraia ; Arbogast, Rose Marie ; Arbuckle, Benjamin ; Bǎlǎşescu, Adrian ; Barnettl, Ross ; Bartosiewicz, Laszlo ; Baryshnikov, Gennady ; Bonsall, Clive ; Borić, Dušan ; Boroneanţ, Adina ; Bulatović, Jelena ; Çakirlar, Canan ; Carretero, Jose Miguel ; Chapman, John ; Church, Mike ; Crooijmans, Richard ; Cupere, Bea De; Detry, Cleia ; Dimitrijevic, Vesna ; Dumitraşcu, Valentin ; Plessis, Louis Du; Edwards, Ceiridwen J. ; Erek, Cevdet Merih ; Erim-Özdoǧan, Asli ; Ervynck, Anton ; Fulgione, Domenico ; Gligor, Mihai ; Götherström, Anders ; Gourichon, Lionel ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; Helmer, Daniel ; Hongo, Hitomi ; Horwitz, Liora K. ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Lebrasseur, Ophelie ; Lesur, Joséphine ; Malone, Caroline ; Manaseryan, Ninna ; Marciniak, Arkadiusz ; Martlew, Holley ; Mashkour, Marjan ; Matthews, Roger ; Matuzeviciute, Giedre Motuzaite ; Maziar, Sepideh ; Meijaard, Erik ; McGovern, Tom ; Megens, Hendrik-Jan ; Miller, Rebecca ; Mohaseb, Azadeh Fatemeh ; Orschiedt, Jorg ; Orton, David ; Papathanasiou, Anastasia ; Pearson, Mike Parker ; Pinhasi, Ron ; Radmanović, Darko ; Ricaut, Francois Xavier ; Richards, Mike ; Sabin, Richard ; Sarti, Lucia ; Schier, Wolfram ; Sheikhi, Shiva ; Stephan, Elisabeth ; Stewart, John R. ; Stoddart, Simon ; Tagliacozzo, Antonio ; Tasić, Nenad ; Trantalidou, Katerina ; Tresset, Anne ; Valdiosera, Cristina ; Hurk, Youri Van Den; Poucke, Sophie Van; Vigne, Jean Denis ; Yanevich, Alexander ; Zeeb-Lanz, Andrea ; Triantafyllidis, Alexandros ; Gilbert, Thomas P. ; Schibler, Jorg ; Rowley-Conwy, Peter ; Zeder, Melinda ; Peters, Joris ; Cucchi, Thomas ; Dobney, Keith ; Burger, Joachim ; Evin, Allowen ; Girdland-Flink, Linus ; Larson, Greger ; Bradley, Daniel G. - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)25. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 14610 - 14611.

    The authors note that the affiliation for Alexandros Triantafyllidis and Panoraia Alexandri should be listed as Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece; and that the affiliation for Rose-Marie Arbogast should be listed as CNRS UMR 7044, Maison interuniversitaire des sciences de l'Homme, F-67083 Strasbourg Cedex, France. The corrected author and affiliation lines appear below. The online version has been corrected.

    Fermented infant formula (with Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus O65) with prebiotic oligosaccharides is safe and modulates the gut microbiota towards a microbiota closer to that of breastfed infants
    Béghin, Laurent ; Tims, Sebastian ; Roelofs, Mieke ; Rougé, Carole ; Oozeer, Raish ; Rakza, Thameur ; Chirico, Gaetano ; Roeselers, Guus ; Knol, Jan ; Rozé, Jean Christophe ; Turck, Dominique - \ 2020
    Clinical Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0261-5614
    Early-life microbiota - Fermented formula - Healthy term infants - Postbiotics - Prebiotics - Secretory IgA

    Background & aims: Microbiome-modulators can help positively steer early-life microbiota development but their effects on microbiome functionality and associated safety and tolerance need to be demonstrated. We investigated the microbiome impact of a new combination of bioactive compounds, produced by the food-grade microorganisms Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus ST065 during a fermentation process, and prebiotics in an infant formula. Tolerance and safety were also assessed. Methods: An exploratory prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, multi-centre study was designed to investigate the effect of bioactive compounds and prebiotics (short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS)/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) 9:1). Experimental formulas containing these bioactive compounds and prebiotics (FERM/scGOS/lcFOS), prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS), or bioactive compounds (FERM), were compared to a standard cow's milk-based control formula (Control). Exclusively breastfed infants were included as a reference arm since exclusive breastfeeding is considered as the optimal feeding for infants. The study lasted six months and included visits to health care professionals at baseline, two, four and six months of age. Stool SIgA concentration was the primary study outcome parameter. Results: There were 280 infants randomized over the experimental arms and 70 infants entered the breastfed-reference arm. Demographics were balanced, growth and tolerance parameters were according to expectation and adverse events were limited. At four months of age the median SIgA concentration in the FERM/scGOS/lcFOS group was significantly higher compared to the Control group (p = 0.03) and was more similar to the concentrations found in the breastfed-reference group. Bifidobacterium increased over time in all groups. The FERM/scGOS/lcFOS combination resulted in a microbiota composition and metabolic activity closer to the breastfed infants’ microbiome. Conclusion: The FERM/scGOS/lcFOS combination showed a significant positive effect on SIgA levels. All formulas tested were associated with normal growth and were well-tolerated. Additionally, at four months of age the FERM/scGOS/lcFOS formula brought the microbiome composition and metabolic activity closer towards that of breastfed infants. Clinical trial registry: Registration number NTR2726 (Netherlands Trial Register; www.trialregister.nl/).

    Temporal and spatial variability of terrestrial diatoms at the catchment scale: Controls on productivity and comparison with other soil algae
    Foets, Jasper ; Wetzel, Carlos E. ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Pfister, Laurent - \ 2020
    PeerJ 2020 (2020)6. - ISSN 2167-8359
    Bacillariophyta - Chlorophyll - Chlorophyta - Cyanobacteria - Fucoxanthin - Primary production

    Terrestrial diatoms are an integral component of the soil microbial community. However, their productivity and how it compares to other algal groups remains poorly known. This lack of knowledge hampers their potential use as environmental markers in various applications. As a way forward, we investigated the seasonal and spatial patterns of diatom assemblages and the role of environmental factors on the soil diatom productivity. We collected soil algal samples in 16 sites across the Attert River basin (Luxembourg) every 4 weeks for a period of 12 months. The algal abundances were then derived from pigment analysis using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Our results indicate that diatom productivity is mainly controlled by factors related to soil moisture availability leading to seasonal patterns, whereas the concentration of green algae remained stable over the course of the study period. Generally, anthropic disturbed habitats contained less living diatom cells than undisturbed habitats. Also, we learned that diatoms can be the dominant algal group at periods of the year with high soil moisture.

    Author Correction: Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
    MacNeil, M.A. ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, C.S. ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, M.S. ; Ali, Khadeeja ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; Barcia, Laura García ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcy ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, J.J. ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabaugh, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Sjamsul Quamar, L.M. ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
    Nature 585 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. E11 - E11.

    An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Configuration of active site segments in lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases steers oxidative xyloglucan degradation
    Sun, Peicheng ; Laurent, Christophe V.F.P. ; Scheiblbrandner, Stefan ; Frommhagen, Matthias ; Kouzounis, Dimitrios ; Sanders, Mark G. ; Berkel, Willem J.H. van; Ludwig, Roland ; Kabel, Mirjam A. - \ 2020
    Biotechnology for Biofuels 13 (2020)1. - ISSN 1754-6834 - 19 p.
    AA9 LPMO - Active site segments - Biomass - Biorefinery - Hemicellulose - Lignocellulose - Neurospora crassa - Phylogenetic tree - Plant cell wall - Xyloglucan

    Background: Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are powerful enzymes that oxidatively cleave plant cell wall polysaccharides. LPMOs classified as fungal Auxiliary Activities family 9 (AA9) have been mainly studied for their activity towards cellulose; however, various members of this AA9 family have been also shown to oxidatively cleave hemicelluloses, in particularly xyloglucan (XG). So far, it has not been studied in detail how various AA9 LPMOs act in XG degradation, and in particular, how the mode-of-action relates to the structural configuration of these LPMOs. Results: Two Neurospora crassa (Nc) LPMOs were found to represent different mode-of-action towards XG. Interestingly, the configuration of active site segments of these LPMOs differed as well, with a shorter Segment 1 (Seg1) and a longer Segment 2 (+Seg2) present in NcLPMO9C and the opposite for NcLPMO9M (+Seg1Seg2). We confirmed that NcLPMO9C cleaved the non-reducing end of unbranched glucosyl residues within XG via the oxidation of the C4-carbon. In contrast, we found that the oxidative cleavage of the XG backbone by NcLPMO9M occurred next to both unbranched and substituted glucosyl residues. The latter are decorated with xylosyl, xylosyl-galactosyl and xylosyl-galactosyl-fucosyl units. The relationship between active site segments and the mode-of-action of these NcLPMOs was rationalized by a structure-based phylogenetic analysis of fungal AA9 LPMOs. LPMOs with a Seg1+Seg2 configuration clustered together and appear to have a similar XG substitution-intolerant cleavage pattern. LPMOs with the +Seg1Seg2 configuration also clustered together and are reported to display a XG substitution-tolerant cleavage pattern. A third cluster contained LPMOs with a Seg1Seg2 configuration and no oxidative XG activity. Conclusions: The detailed characterization of XG degradation products released by LPMOs reveal a correlation between the configuration of active site segments and mode-of-action of LPMOs. In particular, oxidative XG-active LPMOs, which are tolerant and intolerant to XG substitutions are structurally and phylogenetically distinguished from XG-inactive LPMOs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the structure-function relationship of AA9 LPMOs.

    Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
    MacNeil, Aaron ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, Samantha ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, Shiham ; Khadeeja, Ali ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; García Barcia, Laura ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcey ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, Jed ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabough, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, Mabel ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Quamar, Sjamsul ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
    Nature 583 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 801 - 806.

    Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats3. Here we address this knowledge gap using data from more than 15,000 standardized baited remote underwater video stations that were deployed on 371 reefs in 58 nations to estimate the conservation status of reef sharks globally. Our results reveal the profound impact that fishing has had on reef shark populations: we observed no sharks on almost 20% of the surveyed reefs. Reef sharks were almost completely absent from reefs in several nations, and shark depletion was strongly related to socio-economic conditions such as the size and proximity of the nearest market, poor governance and the density of the human population. However, opportunities for the conservation of reef sharks remain: shark sanctuaries, closed areas, catch limits and an absence of gillnets and longlines were associated with a substantially higher relative abundance of reef sharks. These results reveal several policy pathways for the restoration and management of reef shark populations, from direct top-down management of fishing to indirect improvement of governance conditions. Reef shark populations will only have a high chance of recovery by engaging key socio-economic aspects of tropical fisheries.

    A generic framework to assess the representation and protection of benthic ecosystems in European marine protected areas
    Greathead, Clare ; Magni, Paolo ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Buhl‐Mortensen, Lene ; Janas, Urszula ; Blomqvist, Mats ; Craeymeersch, Johan A. ; Dannheim, Jennifer ; Darr, Alexander ; Degraer, Steven ; Desroy, Nicolas ; Donnay, Annick ; Griffiths, Yessica ; Guala, Ivan ; Guerin, Laurent ; Hinchen, Hayley ; Labrune, Celine ; Reiss, Henning ; Hoey, Gert Van; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. - \ 2020
    Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems 30 (2020)7. - ISSN 1052-7613 - p. 1253 - 1275.
    There is concern across the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) region that a consideration of vulnerable components and the wider support mechanisms underpinning benthic marine ecosystems may be lacking from the process of marine protected area (MPA) designation, management and monitoring. In this study, MPAs across six European ecoregions were assessed from a benthic ecology perspective. The study included 102 MPAs, designated by 10 countries, and focused on three aspects regarding the role of the benthos in: (i) the designation of MPAs; (ii) the management measures used in MPAs; and (iii) the monitoring and assessment of MPAs. Qualitative entries to a questionnaire based on an existing framework (EU project ‘Monitoring Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas’, (MESMA) were collected by 19 benthic experts of the ICES Benthic Ecology Working Group. A pedigree matrix was used to apply a numerical scale (score) to these entries. The results showed clear differences in scores between ecoregions and between criteria. The designation‐phase criteria generally achieved higher scores than the implementation‐phase criteria. Poor designation‐phase scores were generally reiterated in the implementation‐phase scores, such as scores for assessment and monitoring. Over 70% of the MPA case studies were found to consider the benthos to some extent during selection and designation; however, this was not followed up with appropriate management measures and good practice during the implementation phase.
    Poor spatial and temporal coverage of monitoring and ineffective indicators is unlikely to pick up changes caused by management measures in the MPA. There is concern that without adequate monitoring and adaptive management frameworks, the MPAs will be compromised. Also, there could be an increased likelihood that, with regard to the benthos, they will fail to meet their conservation objectives. This assessment was successful in highlighting issues related to the representation and protection of the benthos in MPAs and where changes need to be made, such as expanding the characterization and monitoring of benthic species or habitats of interest. These issues could be attributable to an ongoing process and/or an indication that some MPAs only have ‘paper protection’.
    Taking stock of national climate policies to evaluate implementation of the Paris Agreement
    Roelfsema, Mark ; Soest, Heleen L. van; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Bertram, Christoph ; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas ; Iacobuta, Gabriela ; Krey, Volker ; Kriegler, Elmar ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Riahi, Keywan ; Ueckerdt, Falko ; Després, Jacques ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Frank, Stefan ; Fricko, Oliver ; Gidden, Matthew ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Huppmann, Daniel ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Fragkiadakis, Kostas ; Gi, Keii ; Keramidas, Kimon ; Köberle, Alexandre C. ; Aleluia Reis, Lara ; Rochedo, Pedro ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Oshiro, Ken ; Vrontisi, Zoi ; Chen, Wenying ; Iyer, Gokul C. ; Edmonds, Jae ; Kannavou, Maria ; Jiang, Kejun ; Mathur, Ritu ; Safonov, George ; Vishwanathan, Saritha Sudharmma - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Many countries have implemented national climate policies to accomplish pledged Nationally Determined Contributions and to contribute to the temperature objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change. In 2023, the global stocktake will assess the combined effort of countries. Here, based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, we show that implementation of current policies leaves a median emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq by 2030 with the optimal pathways to implement the well below 2 °C and 1.5 °C Paris goals. If Nationally Determined Contributions would be fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by a third. Interestingly, the countries evaluated were found to not achieve their pledged contributions with implemented policies (implementation gap), or to have an ambition gap with optimal pathways towards well below 2 °C. This shows that all countries would need to accelerate the implementation of policies for renewable technologies, while efficiency improvements are especially important in emerging countries and fossil-fuel-dependent countries.

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