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Assignment of a dubious gene cluster to melanin biosynthesis in the tomato fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum
Griffiths, Scott A. ; Cox, Russell J. ; Overdijk, Elysa J.R. ; Mesarich, Carl H. ; Saccomanno, Benedetta ; Lazarus, Colin M. ; Wit, Pierre J.G.M. de; Collemare, Jérôme - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
Pigments and phytotoxins are crucial for the survival and spread of plant pathogenic fungi. The genome of the tomato biotrophic fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum contains a predicted gene cluster (CfPKS1, CfPRF1, CfRDT1 and CfTSF1) that is syntenic with the characterized elsinochrome toxin gene cluster in the citrus pathogen Elsinoë fawcettii. However, a previous phylogenetic analysis suggested that CfPks1 might instead be involved in pigment production. Here, we report the characterization of the CfPKS1 gene cluster to resolve this ambiguity. Activation of the regulator CfTSF1 specifically induced the expression of CfPKS1 and CfRDT1, but not of CfPRF1. These co-regulated genes that define the CfPKS1 gene cluster are orthologous to genes involved in 1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthesis in other fungi. Heterologous expression of CfPKS1 in Aspergillus oryzae yielded 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene, a typical precursor of DHN melanin. Δcfpks1 deletion mutants showed similar altered pigmentation to wild type treated with DHN melanin inhibitors. These mutants remained virulent on tomato, showing this gene cluster is not involved in pathogenicity. Altogether, our results showed that the CfPKS1 gene cluster is involved in the production of DHN melanin and suggests that elsinochrome production in E. fawcettii likely involves another gene cluster.
Global-change effects on early-stage decomposition processes in tidal wetlands-implications from a global survey using standardized litter
Mueller, Peter ; Schile-Beers, Lisa M. ; Mozdzer, Thomas J. ; Chmura, Gail L. ; Dinter, Thomas ; Kuzyakov, Yakov ; Groot, Alma V. de; Esselink, Peter ; Smit, Christian ; Alpaos, Andrea D'; Ibáñez, Carles ; Lazarus, Magdalena ; Neumeier, Urs ; Johnson, Beverly J. ; Baldwin, Andrew H. ; Yarwood, Stephanie A. ; Montemayor, Diana I. ; Yang, Zaichao ; Wu, Jihua ; Jensen, Kai ; Nolte, Stefanie - \ 2018
Biogeosciences 15 (2018)10. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 3189 - 3202.
Tidal wetlands, such as tidal marshes and mangroves, are hotspots for carbon sequestration. The preservation of organic matter (OM) is a critical process by which tidal wetlands exert influence over the global carbon cycle and at the same time gain elevation to keep pace with sea-level rise (SLR). The present study assessed the effects of temperature and relative sea level on the decomposition rate and stabilization of OM in tidal wetlands worldwide, utilizing commercially available standardized litter. While effects on decomposition rate per se were minor, we show strong negative effects of temperature and relative sea level on stabilization, as based on the fraction of labile, rapidly hydrolyzable OM that becomes stabilized during deployment. Across study sites, OM stabilization was 29% lower in low, more frequently flooded vs. high, less frequently flooded zones. Stabilization declined by ∼ 75% over the studied temperature gradient from 10.9 to 28.5°C. Additionally, data from the Plum Island long-term ecological research site in Massachusetts, USA, show a pronounced reduction in OM stabilization by > 70% in response to simulated coastal eutrophication, confirming the potentially high sensitivity of OM stabilization to global change. We therefore provide evidence that rising temperature, accelerated SLR, and coastal eutrophication may decrease the future capacity of tidal wetlands to sequester carbon by affecting the initial transformations of recent OM inputs to soil OM.
Restricted linking of emissions trading systems : options, benefits, and challenges
Schneider, Lambert ; Lazarus, Michael ; Lee, Carrie ; Asselt, Harro van - \ 2017
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 17 (2017)6. - ISSN 1567-9764 - p. 883 - 898.
Climate mitigation - Emissions trading - Greenhouse gas abatement - Linking
With over 17 emissions trading systems (ETSs) now in place across four continents, interest in linking ETSs is growing. Linking ETSs offers economic, political, and administrative benefits. It also faces major challenges. Linking can affect overall ambition, financial flows, and the location and nature of investments, reduces regulatory autonomy, and requires harmonization of ETS design elements. This article examines three options that could help overcome challenges by restricting the flow of units among jurisdictions through quotas, exchange rates, or discount rates. We use a simple model and three criteria—abatement outcome, economic implications, and feasibility—to assess these ‘restricted linking’ options. Quotas can enhance cost-effectiveness relative to no linking and allow policy-makers to retain control on the extent of unit flows. Exchange rates can create abatement and economic benefits or unintended adverse implications for cost-effectiveness and total abatement, depending on how rates are set. Due to information asymmetries between the regulated entities and policy-makers setting the exchange rate, as well as uncertainties about future developments, setting exchange rates in a manner that avoids such unintended consequences could prove difficult. Discount rates, in contrast, can ensure that both cost-effectiveness and total abatement are enhanced. Overall, restricted linking options do not achieve the benefits of full linking, but also avoid some major pitfalls, as well as offering levers that can be adjusted, should linking concerns prove to be more significant than anticipated.
Adverse Outcome Pathway and Risks of Anticoagulant Rodenticides to Predatory Wildlife
Rattner, B.A. ; Lazarus, R.S. ; Elliott, J.E. ; Shore, R.F. ; Brink, N.W. van den - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2014). - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 8433 - 8445.
eastern screech-owls - polecats mustela-putorius - rats rattus-norvegicus - kites milvus-milvus - new-zealand - nontarget wildlife - pest-control - blood-coagulation - brodifacoum bait - megascops-asio
Despite a long history of successful use, routine application of some anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) may be at a crossroad due to new regulatory guidelines intended to mitigate risk. An adverse outcome pathway for ARs was developed to identify information gaps and end points to assess the effectiveness of regulations. This framework describes chemical properties of ARs, established macromolecular interactions by inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase, cellular responses including altered clotting factor processing and coagulopathy, organ level effects such as hemorrhage, organism responses with linkages to reduced fitness and mortality, and potential consequences to predator populations. Risk assessments have led to restrictions affecting use of some second-generation ARs (SGARs) in North America. While the European regulatory community highlighted significant or unacceptable risk of ARs to nontarget wildlife, use of SGARs in most EU member states remains authorized due to public health concerns and the absence of safe alternatives. For purposes of conservation and restoration of island habitats, SGARs remain a mainstay for eradication of invasive species. There are significant data gaps related to exposure pathways, comparative species sensitivity, consequences of sublethal effects, potential hazards of greater AR residues in genetically resistant prey, effects of low-level exposure to multiple rodenticides, and quantitative data on the magnitude of nontarget wildlife mortality.
Long-term effects of immunotoxic cholinergic lesions in the septum on acquisition of the cone-field task and noncognitive measures in rats
Staay, F.J. van der; Bouger, P. ; Lehmann, O. ; Lazarus, C. ; Cosquer, B. ; Koenig, J. ; Stump, V. ; Cassel, J.C. - \ 2006
Hippocampus 16 (2006)12. - ISSN 1050-9631 - p. 1061 - 1079.
192 igg-saporin - spatial working-memory - middle cerebral-artery - serial reaction-time - morris water maze - basal forebrain - alzheimers-disease - diagonal band - discrimination task - medial septum
In rats, nonspecific mechanical or neurotoxic lesions of the septum impair spatial memory in, e.g., Morris water- and radial-maze tasks. Unfortunately, the lack of specificity of such lesions limits inferences about the role of the cholinergic hippocampal projections in spatial cognition. We therefore tested the effects of septal lesions produced by 192 IgG-saporin in rats, which is highly selective for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, on home cage activity, noncognitive tests (modified Irwin test, open field and forced swimming tests, and various sensorimotor tasks), and the cone-field spatial learning task. The immunotoxic lesion reduced acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the septum (-61%) and hippocampus (>-75%). Rats with lesions showed mild home-cage hyperactivity at 4 weeks postlesion, but no noncognitive deficits at 13 weeks postsurgery. In the cone-field task, rats with septal lesions made more working- and reference-memory errors than the controls, but acquisition curves were parallel in both groups. The speed of visiting cones was faster in the rats with lesions, indicative of disturbed attention or increased motivation. These data support the growing evidence that involvement of the septohippocampal cholinergic system in spatial learning and memory may have been overestimated in studies that used lesions with poor selectivity. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.