Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effects of Dutch livestock production on human health and the environment
    Post, Pim M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Baumann, Bert ; Fischer, Paul ; Rutledge-Jonker, Susanna ; Hilderink, Henk ; Hollander, Anne ; Hoogsteen, Martine J.J. ; Liebman, Alex ; Mangen, Marie-Josée J. ; Manuel, Henk Jan ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Poll, Ric van; Posthuma, Leo ; Pul, Addo van; Rutgers, Michiel ; Schmitt, Heike ; Steenbergen, Jim van; Sterk, Hendrika A.M. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Vries, Wilco de; Wallace, Robert G. ; Wichink Kruit, Roy ; Lebret, Erik ; Boer, Imke J.M. de - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 737 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Animal production - Climate impact - Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) - Environmental impact - Livestock farming

    Observed multiple adverse effects of livestock production have led to increasing calls for more sustainable livestock production. Quantitative analysis of adverse effects, which can guide public debate and policy development in this area, is limited and generally scattered across environmental, human health, and other science domains. The aim of this study was to bring together and, where possible, quantify and aggregate the effects of national-scale livestock production on 17 impact categories, ranging from impacts of particulate matter, emerging infectious diseases and odor annoyance to airborne nitrogen deposition on terrestrial nature areas and greenhouse gas emissions. Effects were estimated and scaled to total Dutch livestock production, with system boundaries including feed production, manure management and transport, but excluding slaughtering, retail and consumption. Effects were expressed using eight indicators that directly express Impact in the sense of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework, while the remaining 14 express Pressures or States. Results show that livestock production may contribute both positively and negatively to human health with a human disease burden (expressed in disability-adjusted life years) of up to 4% for three different health effects: those related to particulate matter, zoonoses, and occupational accidents. The contribution to environmental impact ranges from 2% for consumptive water use in the Netherlands to 95% for phosphorus transfer to soils, and extends beyond Dutch borders. While some aggregation across impact categories was possible, notably for burden of disease estimates, further aggregation of disparate indicators would require normative value judgement. Despite difficulty of aggregation, the assessment shows that impacts receive a different contribution of different animal sectors. While some of our results are country-specific, the overall approach is generic and can be adapted and tuned according to specific contexts and information needs in other regions, to allow informed decision making across a broad range of impact categories.

    Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment
    Drakvik, Elina ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Aoki, Yasunobu ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Bahadori, Tina ; Barouki, Robert ; Brack, Werner ; Cronin, Mark T.D. ; Demeneix, Barbara ; Hougaard Bennekou, Susanne ; Klaveren, Jacob van; Kneuer, Carsten ; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike ; Lebret, Erik ; Posthuma, Leo ; Reiber, Lena ; Rider, Cynthia ; Rüegg, Joëlle ; Testa, Giuseppe ; Burg, Bart van der; Voet, Hilko van der; Warhurst, Michael ; Water, Bob van de; Yamazaki, Kunihiko ; Öberg, Mattias ; Bergman, Åke - \ 2020
    Environment International 134 (2020). - ISSN 0160-4120
    Chemical mixtures - Combined exposure - Environmental chemicals - Mixture risk assessment - Risk management

    The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, “Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment” was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EU-funded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages: • We are at a turning point: multiple exposures and their combined effects require better management to protect public health and the environment from hazardous chemical mixtures. • Regulatory initiatives should be launched to investigate the opportunities for all relevant regulatory frameworks to include prospective mixture risk assessment and consider combined exposures to (real-life) chemical mixtures to humans and wildlife, across sectors. • Precautionary approaches and intermediate measures (e.g. Mixture Assessment Factor) can already be applied, although, definitive mixture risk assessments cannot be routinely conducted due to significant knowledge and data gaps. • A European strategy needs to be set, through stakeholder engagement, for the governance of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and mixtures. The strategy would include research aimed at scientific advancement in mechanistic understanding and modelling techniques, as well as research to address regulatory and policy needs. Without such a clear strategy, specific objectives and common priorities, research, and policies to address mixtures will likely remain scattered and insufficient.

    Risk of pneumonia among residents living near goat and poultry farms during 2014-2016
    Post, Pim M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Huss, Anke ; Petie, Ronald ; Boender, Gert Jan ; Baliatsas, Christos ; Lebret, Erik ; Heederik, Dick ; Hagenaars, Thomas J. ; IJzermans, Joris C. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. - \ 2019
    PLoS ONE 14 (2019)10. - ISSN 1932-6203

    In the Netherlands, an association was found between the prevalence of pneumonia and living near goat and poultry farms in 2007-2013. This association then led to regulatory decisions to restrict the building of new goat farms and to reduce emissions of poultry farms. Confirmation of these results, however, is required because the period of previous analyses overlapped a Q-fever epidemic in 2007-2010. To confirm the association, we performed a population-based study during 2014-2016 based on general practitioner (GP) data. Electronic medical records of 90,183 persons were used to analyze the association between pneumonia and the population living in the proximity (within 500-2000 m distance) of goat and poultry farms. Data were analyzed with three types of logistic regression (with and without GP practice as a random intercept and with stratified analyses per GP practice) and a kernel model to discern the influence of different statistical methods on the outcomes. In all regression analyses involving adults, a statistically significant association between pneumonia and residence within 500 meters of goat farms was found (odds ratio [OR] range over all analyses types: 1.33-1.60), with a decreasing OR for increasing distances. In kernel analyses (including all ages), a population-attributable risk between 6.0 and 7.8% was found for a distance of 2000 meters in 2014-2016. The associations were consistent across all years and robust for mutual adjustment for proximity to other animals and for several other sensitivity analyses. However, associations with proximity to poultry farms are not supported by the present study. As the causes of the elevated pneumonia incidence in persons living close to goat farms remain unknown, further research into potential mechanisms is required for adequate prevention.

    Impacts of Dutch livestock production on human health
    Post, P. ; Hogerwerf, L. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Lebret, E. - \ 2019
    In: Animal Farming for a healthy world. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863396 - p. 194 - 194.
    Integrated risk assessment of changing animal production systems in the Netherlands
    Post, P.J. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Posthuma, Leo ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Lebret, E. - \ 2017
    Considerable momentum is building to change existing practices in the Dutch livestock sector. With approximately 14 goats, 123 cows, 374 pigs, 3196 chickens, and 501 humans per km2, animal production, residential areas and natural areas compete for space. Evidence of substantial impacts on human health and ecosystem integrity are mounting, suggesting non-sustainable developments. Programs to foster sustainability run for some years but recently the Dutch government was advised to increase the pace. The evidence of impacts are, however, scattered over different domains, and the existence of (policy) ‘silos’ prevent an integrated solution to current impacts. This study aims to provide a first attempt to describe the current impacts of the Dutch livestock sector, including infectious diseases spread and emerging zoonosis risks, carbon and nitrogen emissions, particulate matter and endotoxin emissions, antimicrobial resistance and odors. We consider this first overview as a baseline for comparison with future scenarios for changing animal production systems.
    Invited Review : Measurable biomarkers linked to meat quality from different pig production systems
    Pas, Marinus F.W. Te; Lebret, Bénédicte ; Oksbjerg, Niels - \ 2017
    Archiv fuer Tierzucht 60 (2017)3. - ISSN 0003-9438 - p. 271 - 283.

    Biological processes underlie all livestock traits, including post-mortem meat quality traits. Biomarkers are molecular components of the biological processes showing differential expression associated with the phenotype of the trait. The phenotypes of the meat quality traits are determined by the animal's genotype interacting with the environment affecting the expression of the genome. The omics technologies enable measuring the expression of the genome at all levels: Transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Associations between the phenotype of the traits and expressions measured with the omics techniques are a first step in developing biomarkers. Biomarkers enable the monitoring, diagnosis, and prediction of changes in meat quality related to external (environmental, e.g. feed and animal management conditions) stimuli and interactions with the genotype. In this paper we review the development of biomarkers for meat quality of pigs in diverse pig breeds, environments, and pork production chains.

    Data from: Experimental illumination of a forest: no effects of lights of different colours on the onset of the dawn chorus in songbirds
    Silva, Arnaud Da; Jong, Maaike de; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Visser, M.E. ; Kempenaers, Bart ; Spoelstra, K. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University & Research
    experimental night lighting - dawn singing - songbirds - LED - light colour
    The data was collected in the field from 15 April to 15 May (from 27 April to 15 May for the Voorstonden location). The first column shows the 7 sites (from 1 to 7) used in the models as random effects. Site 1 corresponds to a location called ‘Lebret’s Hoeve’, site 2 to ‘Voorstonden’, site 3 to ‘Radio Kootwijk’, and site 7 to ‘Hijkerveld’. Sites 4 and 5 are adjacent spatially and correspond to a location called ‘ASK Doornspijk’. Finally, site 6 consists of two sites merged together because they overlap in a location called ‘Klaterweg’. The onsets (column 7) have therefore been obtained from the mean onsets in the two former sites for each light treatment on each day. The second column shows the 3 levels of 'Treatment', which represents the transects where the data has been collected (green, red, or white light transect). The third column shows the 'Formal date', i.e., the date at which the bird was singing (in calendar days). The fourth column shows the (relative) ‘date', which is the date relative to 15 April (0 = 15 April), and which has been used in the models as a random slope. The fifth column shows the 'onset relative to control'. This variable is calculated for each species, at each site and on each day, as the difference (in min) in the onset of dawn song between each light treatment (red/green/white) and the dark control. The sixth and last column shows the 'species' for which the onset is shown (14 levels, vernacular names shown).
    Een gezond binnenmilieu in de toekomst
    Passchier, W.F. ; Woudenberg, F. ; Berg, M. van den; Erisman, J.W. ; Hazel, P.J. van den; Lebret, E. ; Leemans, R. ; Sluijs, J.P. van der; Vliet, P.W. van - \ 2013
    Den Haag : Gezondheidsraad (Publikatie / Gezondheidsraad 2013/17) - ISBN 9789055499526 - 44 p.
    De invloed van stikstof op de gezondheid
    Passchier, W.F. ; Berg, M. van den; Erisman, J.W. ; Hazel, P.J. van den; Lebret, E. ; Leemans, R. ; Sluijs, J.P. van der; Vliet, P.W. van - \ 2012
    Den Haag : Gezondheidsraad (Horizon Scanning Report 2012-28) - ISBN 9789055499212 - 44
    volksgezondheid - stikstof - intensieve landbouw - landbouw en milieu - milieu - public health - nitrogen - intensive farming - agriculture and environment - environment
    Stikstof is noodzakelijk voor alle vormen van leven. Het is bijvoorbeeld een belangrijke bouwsteen van eiwitten. Planten, dieren en mensen nemen het op als reactief stikstof. Dat moet uit stikstof in de buitenlucht worden gevormd. In de natuur wordt reactief stikstof slechts op beperkte schaal gevormd, hoofdzakelijk door micro-organismen. De kunstmatige vorming van reactief stikstof werd een eeuw geleden mogelijk gemaakt door de uitvinding van een proces voor de synthese van ammoniak. Deze uitvinding legde de basis voor de fabricage van kunstmest. Daarmee werd een enorme toename van de voedselproductie per hectare grond mogelijk. Naast ammoniak vallen onder reactief stikstof nog vele stikstof bevattende verbindingen, waaronder ammonium- en nitraatzouten. Rijke werelddelen en landen, waaronder Europa, en zeker Nederland, hebben te maken met een teveel aan reactief stikstof in het milieu. Dit leidt tot aantasting van dit milieu en van de volksgezondheid. De overmaat aan reactief stikstof heeft twee belangrijke oorzaken: de landbouw en veehouderij, en de verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen. De Gezondheidsraad heeft zich over de mogelijke effecten van reactief stikstof op de Nederlandse volksgezondheid gebogen. Een commissie van de raad, de Commissie Signalering Gezondheid en milieu, heeft beoordeeld in hoeverre de volksgezondheid gebaat is bij het terugdringen van de hoeveelheid reactief stikstof in ons land.
    Predicting meat quality with biomarkers - In the course of the EU QPorkChains project, biomarkers have been tested as a tool for monitoring meat traits
    Pas, M.F.W. te; Lebret, B. ; Damon, M. ; Thomsen, B. ; Pierzchala, M. ; Korwin-Kossakowska, K. ; Li, L. ; Kristensen, L. ; Young, J.F. ; Pedersen, B. ; Oksbjerg, N. - \ 2012
    Fleischwirtschaft International 27 (2012)4. - ISSN 0179-2415 - p. 18 - 22.
    Nanomaterials in waste
    Passchier, W. ; Berg, M. van den; Erisman, J.W. ; Hazel, P.J. van den; Lebret, E. ; Leemans, R. ; Sluijs, J.P. van der; Sips, A.J.A.M. ; Timmermans, D.R.M. ; Vliet, P.W. van - \ 2011
    Den Haag : Health Council of the Netherlands (Horizon Scanning Report 2011/14 )
    Influence of rearing conditions on performance, behavioral, and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling, carcass traits, and meat quality
    Lebret, B. ; Meunier-Salaün, M.C. ; Foury, A. ; Mormède, P. ; Dransfield, E. ; Dourmad, J.Y. - \ 2006
    Journal of Animal Science 84 (2006)9. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2436 - 2447.
    growth-performance - physical-characteristics - liquid-chromatography - housing conditions - adipose-tissue - slaughter pigs - muscle traits - pork quality - floor space - stress
    A total of 120 crossbred [synthetic line x (Large White x Landrace)] pigs (castrated males and females) were used to evaluate the influence of rearing conditions for growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass, stress reactions at slaughter, and meat eating quality. At approximately 35 kg of live weight (LW), littermates were allocated to either a conventional (fully slatted floor, 0.65 m2/pig, considered as control, CON) or an alternative (sawdust bedding with free access to an outdoor area, 2.4 m2/pig, OUT) system, until slaughter at approximately 110 kg of LW. Pigs had free access to standard growing and finishing diets. The trials were conducted in spring, summer, and winter, with each season involving 2 pens of 10 pigs in each system. Compared with the CON, the OUT pigs exhibited a greater growth rate (+10%, P <0.001) due to their greater feed intake (+0.23 kg/d, P <0.01), resulting in a greater body weight at slaughter (+7 kg, P <0.001). The OUT pigs had thicker backfat (+2.4 mm, P <0.01) and lower lean meat content (¿ 2.0% points, P <0.001) than the CON pigs. The OUT system did not (P > 0.10) influence the behavioral activities of pigs during lairage at the slaughterhouse, or the urinary levels of catecholamines and cortisol, and plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, lactate, creatine kinase, and FFA immediately after slaughter. The OUT pigs had similar (P > 0.10) pH values 30 min postmortem (pH1) in the LM, biceps femoris (BF), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, similar ultimate pH (pHu) in LM, but lower pHu in SM (¿ 0.07 unit, P <0.001) and in BF (¿ 0.03 unit, P = 0.029). Despite nonsignificant effects of production system on stress reactions at slaughter, assessed by urine and plasma indicators and muscle metabolism at 30 min postmortem, meat from OUT pigs had more LM drip loss after 2 (+1.0%, P = 0.003) and 4 (+1.1%, P = 0.010) d than did meat from the CON pigs. The OUT system slightly increased meat yellowness (b* value) in the LM (+0.7 unit, P = 0.001), BF (+0.5 unit, P = 0.014), and SM (+0.5, unit P = 0.041), whereas redness (a*) and lightness (L*) of the 3 muscles were unaffected (P > 0.07). Intramuscular fat content was greater in the LM (+17%, P = 0.001), BF (+14%, P = 0.004), and SM (+17%, P = 0.003) of the OUT pigs. Outdoor rearing during summer and winter improved meat juiciness, whereas odor, flavor, and tenderness were unaffected (P > 0.10). Influence of rearing conditions on all the other traits studied did not depend on the season.
    Field Comparison of two NO2 passive samplers to assess spatial variation
    Reeuwijk, H. van; Fisher, P.H. ; Harssema, H. ; Briggs, D.J. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1998
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 50 (1998). - ISSN 0167-6369 - p. 37 - 51.
    Respiratoire symptomen bij kinderen in relatie tot luchtverontreiniging door verkeer.
    Marra, M. ; Fischer, P.H. ; Lebret, E. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Wijnen, J.H. van - \ 1997
    Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde 75 (1997)middenkatern. - ISSN 0040-7607 - p. 42 - 43.
    Chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults living along streets with high traffic density.
    Oosterlee, A. ; Drijver, M. ; Lebret, E. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1996
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine 53 (1996). - ISSN 1351-0711 - p. 241 - 247.
    Research project on the relationship between air quality and health in six central and eastern european countries.
    Lebret, E. ; Houthuijs, D. ; Fletcher, T. ; Elliott, P. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1995
    Epidemiology 6 (1995). - ISSN 1044-3983 - p. S18 - S18.
    Performance of NO2 passive samplers in ambient air in dense networks.
    Reeuwijk, H. van; Lebret, E. ; Fischer, P.H. ; Smallbone, K. ; Celko, M. ; Harssema, H. - \ 1995
    Epidemiology 6 (1995)4 suppl.. - ISSN 1044-3983 - p. S60 - S60.
    Ambient SO2 measured by passive samplers in Poland and the Czech Republic.
    Reeuwijk, H. van; Harssema, H. ; Gorynkski, P. ; Szaniecki, J. ; Celko, M. ; Fischer, P.H. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1995
    Epidemiology 6 (1995)4 suppl.. - ISSN 1044-3983 - p. S60 - S60.
    Deeltjesvormige luchtverontreiniging.
    Clarenburg, L.A. ; Blom, A.P.M. ; Bogaard, C.J.M. van den; Brunekreef, B. ; Ham, J. van; Kolk, J.J. ; Lebret, E. ; Pieters, J.J.L. ; Quanjer, P. ; Rombout, P.J.A. - \ 1995
    Unknown Publisher - 38 p.
    Small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH) in the Netherlands.
    Fischer, P.H. ; Lebret, E. ; Reeuwijk, H. van; Ameling, C.B. ; Doornbos, G. ; Veen, A.A. van der; Wijnen, J.H. van; Harssema, H. - \ 1995
    Epidemiology 6 (1995)4 suppl.. - ISSN 1044-3983 - p. S60 - S60.
    Acute effects of ambient ozone on pulmonary function of children in The Netherlands.
    Hoek, G. ; Fischer, P. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Hofschreuder, P. ; Mennen, M. - \ 1993
    American review of respiratory disease 147 (1993). - ISSN 0003-0805 - p. 111 - 117.
    Dagelijkse luchtwegklachten bij basisschoolkinderen in relatie tot kenmerken van de binnenluchtkwaliteit.
    Zee, S. van der; Fischer, P. ; Hoek, G. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1992
    Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg 70 (1992). - ISSN 0920-0517 - p. S22 - S22.
    The association between home dampness, environmental tobacco smoke and presence of unvented water heaters with acute respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren.
    Fischer, P. ; Zee, S. van der; Hoek, G. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1992
    American review of respiratory disease 145 (1992). - ISSN 0003-0805 - p. A532 - A532.
    Time series analyses of the relationship between ambient air pollution episodes and prevalence of children's acute respiratory symptoms in The Netherlands.
    Hoek, G. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1991
    In: Abstract WHO, IAE, Basel - p. 043 - 043.
    Effect van ozon in de buitenlucht op acute luchtwegklachten bij basisschoolkinderen .
    Terstegge, C.W.A. ; Hoek, G. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1991
    Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg 4 (1991)Middenkatern. - ISSN 0920-0517 - p. 27 - 28.
    Effects of ozone on lung function of children living in The Netherlands.
    Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Hoek, G. ; Kessel, A. van - \ 1990
    In: Abstract 2nd Ann. Meeting Int. Soc. Environ. Epidemiology, Univ. California, Berkeley (1990)
    Effecten van smog-episodes op de luchtwegen van basisschoolkinderen.
    Lebret, E. ; Hoek, G. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Kessel, A. van - \ 1990
    Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg 5 (1990)29. - ISSN 0920-0517
    Environmental tobacco smoke in dutch homes.
    Lebret, E. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1990
    In: Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Indoor air quality and climate, Toronto. Vol. 2 - p. 263 - 268.
    Home ventilation under normal living conditions.
    Lebret, E. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1990
    In: Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Indoor air quality and climate, Toronto. Vol. 4 - p. 413 - 418.
    A study on the effects of air pollution episodes on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in school children and adults.
    Lebret, E. ; Hoek, G. ; Aardema, J.B. - \ 1989
    In: Proc. 8th World Clean air Congr., The Hague. Man and his ecosystem, Vol. 1, L.J. Brasser & W.C. Mulder (eds.). Elsevier Science Publ., Amsterdam - p. 19 - 24.
    Quantifying future trends of indoor air quality as a basis for governmental policy plans.
    Wiel, H.J. van de; Lebret, E. ; Lingen, W.K. van der; Eerens, H.C. ; Vaas, L.H. ; Leupen, M.J. - \ 1989
    In: Proc. 8th World Clean air Congr., The Hague. Man and his ecosystem, Vol. 1, L.J. Brasser & W.C. Mulder (eds.). Elsevier Science Publ., Amsterdam - p. 193 - 198.
    Real-time concentration measurements of CO and NO2 in twelve homes.
    Lebret, E. ; Noy, D. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1987
    In: Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Indoor air quality and climate. Inst. Water, soil and air hygiene, Berlin. Vol. 1 - p. 435 - 440.
    Verstoring van de blootstelling-respons relatie door random fouten in blootstellingsmaten voor luchtverontreiniging.
    Lebret, E. - \ 1987
    Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg 65 (1987). - ISSN 0920-0517 - p. 201 - 201.
    Harvard's indoor air quality respiratory health study.
    Spengler, J.D. ; Ware, J. ; Speizer, F. ; Ferris, B.G. ; Dockery, D. ; Lebret, E. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1987
    In: Indoor Air '87: Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Indoor air quality and climate, Berlin (W) Vol.2 - p. 218 - 223.
    Errors in exposure variables and their role in obscuring exposure-respons relations: the case of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particles.
    Lebret, E. - \ 1987
    In: Indoor Air '87: Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Indoor air quality and climate, Berlin (W) Vol.1 - p. 288 - 292.
    Blootstelling aan tabaksrook.
    Lebret, E. - \ 1987
    In: Passief roken: ongezond? Proc. Symposium, Bunnik - p. 7 - 18.
    Volatile organic components in Dutch homes.
    Lebret, E. ; Wiel, H.J. van de; Bos, H.P. ; Noij, D. ; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1986
    Environment International 12 (1986). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 323 - 332.
    Variation of indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations over one year period.
    Brunekreef, B. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Hoek, F. ; Lebret, E. ; Noij, D. - \ 1986
    Environment International 12 (1986). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 279 - 282.
    The use of Palmes diffusion tubes for measuring NO2 in homes.
    Boleij, J.S.M. ; Lebret, E. ; Hoek, F. ; Noij, D. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1986
    Atmospheric Environment 20 (1986). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 597 - 600.
    Estimating human exposure to nitrogen dioxide: results from a personal monitoring study among housewives.
    Noij, D. ; Willers, H. ; Winkes, A. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1986
    Environment International 12 (1986). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 407 - 411.
    Air pollution in Dutch homes : an exploratory study in environmental epidemiology
    Lebret, E. - \ 1985
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; K. Biersteker. - Wageningen : Lebret - 142
    lucht - hygiëne - luchtverontreiniging - microklimaat - gebouwen - klimaatregeling - ventilatie - koelen - verwarming - onderzoek - nederland - binnenklimaat - air - hygiene - air pollution - microclimate - buildings - air conditioning - ventilation - cooling - heating - research - netherlands - indoor climate

    The subject of air pollution in homes is of interest for people from various backgrounds. Medical doctors, environmentalists, building engineers, public health officers, gas industry and consumer organisations all have to deal with indoor air quality problems in one way or the other. It is therefore necessary to introduce briefly several issues of indoor air pollution, which may be commom knowledge for some readers but not for others.

    The report is devided in two parts; one which describes the study and one which contains the results. The figures and tables are separated from the text.

    In part 1, the subject of air pollution in homes and the background of the study are introduced in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of indoor air pollution research methodology and sketches the current state of knowledge. In chapter 3, the study design is presented; this chaper is arranged according to the three main measurement programs which form the body of the study. The statistical techniques, which were used for the data analysis in part 2, are briefly introduced in the final part of chapter 3.

    Part 2 presents the results of the study. First, a description is given of some general characteristics of the homes which were studied. In chapters 3 to 6, the measurement results for the pollutants under study are treated separately. In these chapters, the associations between indoor pollutant levels and characteristics of the homes are described and each chapter ends with a summary and discussion. In the final chapter, a general discussion on air pollution in Dutch homes is given from the perspective of public health.

    Luchtverontreiniging in woningen
    Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Noy, D. ; Wiel, H. van der; Biersteker, K. - \ 1985
    Unknown Publisher
    Luchtverontreiniging in woningen: verslag van een onderzoek naar een aantal luchtverontreinigingsparameters in Nederlandse woningen
    Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Noy, D. ; Wiel, H. van de; Biersteker, K. - \ 1985
    Unknown Publisher
    Indoor air pollution and its effect on pulmonary function of adult non-smoking women: 1. Exposure estimates for nitrogendioxide and passive smoking
    Remijn, B. ; Fischer, P. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Noy, D. - \ 1985
    International Journal of Epidemiology 14 (1985). - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 215 - 220.
    Volatile hydrocarbons in Dutch homes. Indoor air, chemical characterization and personal exposure
    Lebret, E. ; Wiel, H.J. van der; Bos, H.P. ; Noy, D. ; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1984
    Swedish Council Building Research Stockholm 4 (1984). - p. 169 - 174.
    Volatile hydrocarbons in Dutch homes
    Lebret, E. ; Wiel, H.J. van der; Bos, H.P. ; Noy, D. ; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1984
    In: Indoor air, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Vol. 4. B. Berglund, T. Lindvall en J. Sundell (eds.), Stockholm - p. 169 - 174.
    The relationship between indoor nitrogen dioxide concentration levels and personal exposure: a pilot study
    Hoek, G. ; Meijer, R. ; Scholten, A. ; Noy, D. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1984
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 55 (1984). - ISSN 0340-0131 - p. 73 - 78.
    Luchtverontreiniging in woningen
    Lebret, E. - \ 1984
    Bouw 24 (1984). - p. 21 - 21.
    Integrated NO2 exposure estimates. Indoor air, chemical characterisation and personal exposure
    Noy, D. ; Lebret, E. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1984
    Swedish Council Building Research Stockholm 4 (1984). - p. 37 - 42.
    Integrated NO2 exposure estimates
    Noy, D. ; Lebret, E. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1984
    In: Indoor air, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Vol. 4. B. Berglund, T. Lindvall en J. Sundell (eds.), Stockholm - p. 37 - 42.
    Stikstofdioxide in Nederlandse woningen
    Noy, D. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1983
    's-Gravenhage : Staatsdrukkerij - ISBN 9789034601643 - 16
    lucht - luchtverontreiniging - verwarming - hygiëne - nederland - stikstofdioxide - ventilatie - binnenklimaat - air - air pollution - heating - hygiene - netherlands - nitrogen dioxide - ventilation - indoor climate
    Indoor air pollution in the Netherlands
    Lebret, E. ; Wiel, H.J. van der; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Noy, D. ; Oranje, E.D. ; Biersteker, K. - \ 1983
    In: Proceedings VIth International Conference on Clean Air 2 - p. 271 - 278.
    Detecting indoor CO exposure by measuring CO in exhaled breath
    Verhoeff, A.P. ; Velde, H.C.M. van der; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Lebret, E. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1983
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 53 (1983). - ISSN 0340-0131 - p. 167 - 173.
    Luchtverontreiniging in woningen
    Boleij, J.S.M. ; Lebret, E. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1982
    Klimaatbeheersing 11 (1982). - p. 126 - 129.
    Stikstofdioxyde en afvoerloze gastoestellen in de woning
    Brunekreef, B. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Smit, H.A. ; Fischer, P. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1982
    GAS 102 (1982). - p. 411 - 414.
    Air pollution by nitrogen oxides : Proc. NOx Symp. Maastricht. Studies in Environmental Sci.
    Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Biersteker, K. - \ 1982
    In: Air pollution by nitrogen oxides / Schneider , T., Grant , L., Elsevier (Studies in Environmental Scinces ) - p. 225 - 233.
    Indoor carbon monoxide pollution in the Netherlands
    Brunekreef, B. ; Smit, H.A. ; Biersteker, K. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1982
    Environment International 8 (1982). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 193 - 196.
    Innenluftverunreinigungen durch Kohlenmonoxid und Stickstoffoxide. Indoor Air Pollution by Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides
    Boleij, J.S.M. ; Lebret, E. ; Smit, J. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Biersteker, K. - \ 1982
    In: Luftqualitat in Innenraumen - p. 199 - 208.
    Indoor NO pollution
    Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Biersteker, K. - \ 1982
    In: Air Pollution by nitrogen oxides / Schneider, T., Grant, L., Amsterdam : Elsevier - p. 225 - 233.
    Epidemiologie van loodopname door jonge kinderen in de omgeving van een industriele bron te Arnhem
    Brunekreef, B. ; Wibowo, A.E. ; Lebret, E. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Biersteker, K. - \ 1981
    Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde 59 (1981). - ISSN 0040-7607 - p. 35 - 42.
    The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children
    Wibowo, A.A.E. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Lebret, E. ; Pieters, H. - \ 1980
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 46 (1980)3. - ISSN 0340-0131 - p. 275 - 280.
    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air concentrations, outdoor and indoor lead depositions, and subjective assessment of indoor dustiness. Lead in blood ranged from 51-353 μg/1 and lead in hair from 0.8-114 μg/g. It can be concluded that within the range of environmental exposure studied and for the age group concerned, measurement of lead in blood and of the zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels appear to be better biological parameters to assess both total enviromental exposure and health risk than measurement of lead in hair level alone.
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