Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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WGS of pygmy hog and Babyrousa babyrussa
Liu, Langqing ; Bosse, Mirte ; Megens, Hendrik-Jan ; Frantz, Laurent A.F. ; Lee, Young Lim ; Irving-Pease, Evan K. ; Narayan, Goutam ; Groenen, Martien ; Madsen, Ole - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
PRJEB30129 - ERP112560 - Babyrousa babyrussa - Porcula salvania
An alternative bioassay for Synchytrium endobioticum demonstrates the expression of potato wart resistance in aboveground plant parts
Vossenberg, Bart van de; Gent-Pelzer, Marga van; Boerma, M. ; Gouw, Lucas P. van der; Lee, Theo van der; Vossen, Jack - \ 2019
Wageningen University and Research
PRJEB30662 - ERP113139 - Synchytrium endobioticum
The obligate biotrophic chytrid species Synchytrium endobioticum is the causal agent of potato wart disease. Currently 39 pathotypes have been described based on their interaction with a differential set of potato varieties. Wart resistance and pathotyping is performed using bioassays in which etiolated tuber sprouts are inoculated. Here we describe an alternative method in which aboveground plant parts are inoculated. Susceptible plants produced typical wart symptoms in developing, but not in fully expanded, aboveground organs. Colonization of the host by S endobioticum was verified by screening for resting spores by microscopy and by molecular techniques using TaqMan PCR and RNAseq analysis. When applied to resistant plants, none of these symptoms were detectable. Recognition of S. endobioticum pathotypes by differentially resistant potato varieties was identical in aboveground plant parts and the tuber-based bioassays. This suggests that S. endobioticum resistance genes are expressed both in etiolated “belowground” sprouts and green aboveground organs. RNAseq analysis demonstrated that the symptomatic aboveground materials contain less contaminants compared to resting spores extracted from tuber-based assays. This reduced microbial contamination in the aboveground bioassay could be an important advantage to study this obligate biotrophic plant-pathogen interaction. As wart resistance is active in both below and above ground organs, the aboveground bioassay can potentially speed up screening for S. endobioticum resistance in potato breeding programs as it omits the requirement for tuber formation. In addition, possibilities arise to express S. endobioticum effectors in potato leaves through agroinfiltration, thereby providing additional phenotyping tools for research and breeding.
The Synchytrium endobioticum AvrSen1 triggers a Hypersensitive Response in Sen1 potatoes while natural variants evade detection
Vossenberg, Bart van de; Prodhomme, Charlotte ; Arkel, G. van; Gent-Pelzer, M.P.E. van; Bergervoet-van Deelen, J.E.M. ; Brankovics, Balázs ; Przetakiewicz, J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Vossen, J.H. - \ 2019
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 32 (2019)11. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 1536 - 1546.
avirulence factors - cell death - chytridiomycota - effector - fungus-plant interactions - Genomics - hypersensitive response - metabolomics - plant-pathogen interactions - population genetics - proteomics - resistance genes
Synchytrium endobioticum is an obligate biotrophic fungus of the phylum Chytridiomycota. It causes potato wart disease, has a world-wide quarantine status and is included on the HHS and USDA Select Agent list. S. endobioticum isolates are grouped in pathotypes based on their ability to evade host-resistance in a set of differential potato varieties. So far, thirty-nine pathotypes are reported. A single dominant gene (Sen1) governs pathotype 1 resistance and we anticipated that the underlying molecular model would involve a pathogen effector (AvrSen1) that is recognized by the host. The S. endobioticum specific secretome of fourteen isolates representing six different pathotypes was screened for effectors specifically present in pathotype 1(D1) isolates but absent in others. We identified a single AvrSen1 candidate. Expression of this candidate in potato Sen1 plants showed a specific hypersensitive response, which co-segregated with the Sen1 resistance in potato populations. No HR was obtained with truncated genes found in pathotypes that evaded recognition by Sen1. These findings established that our candidate gene was indeed Avrsen1. The S. endobioticum AvrSen1 is a single copy gene and encodes a 376 amino acid protein without predicted function or functional domains, and is the first effector gene identified in Chytridiomycota, an extremely diverse yet underrepresented basal lineage of fungi.
Creation of a new genus in the family Secoviridae substantiated by sequence variation of newly identified strawberry latent ringspot
Dullemans, A.M. ; Botermans, M. ; Kock, M.J.D. de; Krom, C.E. de; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Roenhorst, J.W. ; Stulemeijer, I.J.E. ; Verbeek, M. ; Westenberg, M. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2019
Archives of Virology (2019). - ISSN 0304-8608 - 11 p.
To obtain insight into the sequence diversity of strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV), isolates from collections and diagnostic samples were sequenced by high-throughput sequencing. For five SLRSV isolates, the complete genome sequences were determined, and for 18 other isolates nearly complete genome sequences were determined. The sequence data were analysed in relation to sequences of SLRSV and related virus isolates available in the NCBI GenBank database. The genome sequences were annotated, and sequences of the protease-polymerase (Pro-Pol) region and coat proteins (CPs) (large and small CP together) were used for phylogenetic analysis. The amino acid sequences of the Pro-Pol region were very similar, whereas the nucleotide sequences of this region were more variable. The amino acid sequences of the CPs were less similar, which was corroborated by the results of a serological comparison performed using antisera raised against different isolates of SLRSV. Based on these results, we propose that SLRSV and related unassigned viruses be assigned to a new genus within the family Secoviridae, named “Stralarivirus”. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, this genus should include at least three viruses, i.e., SLRSV-A, SLRSV-B and lychnis mottle virus. The newly generated sequence data provide a basis for designing molecular tests to screen for SLRSV.
The fertilization effect of global dimming on crop yields is not attributed to an improved light interception
Shao, Liping ; Li, Gang ; Zhao, Qiannan ; Li, Yabing ; Sun, Yutong ; Wang, Weinan ; Cai, Chuang ; Chen, Weiping ; Liu, Ronghua ; Luo, Weihong ; Yin, Xinyou ; Lee, Xuhui - \ 2019
Global Change Biology (2019). - ISSN 1354-1013
acclimation - diffuse radiation - fertilization effect - global dimming - radiation use efficiency - rice - wheat - yield

Global dimming, a decadal decrease in incident global radiation, is often accompanied with an increase in the diffuse radiation fraction, and, therefore, the impact of global dimming on crop production is hard to predict. A popular approach to quantify this impact is the statistical analysis of historical climate and crop data, or use of dynamic crop simulation modelling approach. Here, we show that statistical analysis of historical data did not provide plausible values for the effect of diffuse radiation versus direct radiation on rice or wheat yield. In contrast, our field experimental study of 3 years demonstrated a fertilization effect of increased diffuse radiation fraction, which partly offset yield losses caused by decreased global radiation, in both crops. The fertilization effect was not attributed to any improved canopy light interception but mainly to the increased radiation use efficiency (RUE). The increased RUE was explained not only by the saturating shape of photosynthetic light response curves but also by plant acclimation to dimming that gradually increased leaf nitrogen concentration. Crop harvest index slightly decreased under dimming, thereby discounting the fertilization effect on crop yields. These results challenge existing modelling paradigms, which assume that the fertilization effect on crop yields is mainly attributed to an improved light interception. Further studies on the physiological mechanism of plant acclimation are required to better quantify the global dimming impact on agroecosystem productivity under future climate change.

NODULE INCEPTION Recruits the Lateral Root Developmental Program for Symbiotic Nodule Organogenesis in Medicago truncatula
Schiessl, Katharina ; Lilley, Jodi L.S. ; Lee, Tak ; Tamvakis, Ioannis ; Kohlen, Wouter ; Bailey, Paul C. ; Thomas, Aaron ; Luptak, Jakub ; Ramakrishnan, Karunakaran ; Carpenter, Matthew D. ; Mysore, Kirankumar S. ; Wen, Jiangqi ; Ahnert, Sebastian ; Grieneisen, Veronica A. ; Oldroyd, Giles E.D. - \ 2019
Current Biology 29 (2019)21. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3657 - 3668.e5.
auxin - CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR - endosymbiosis - LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN - lateral root/nodule organogenesis - Medicago truncatula - nitrogen - NODULE INCEPTION - rhizobia - YUCCA

To overcome nitrogen deficiencies in the soil, legumes enter symbioses with rhizobial bacteria that convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium. Rhizobia are accommodated as endosymbionts within lateral root organs called nodules that initiate from the inner layers of Medicago truncatula roots in response to rhizobial perception. In contrast, lateral roots emerge from predefined founder cells as an adaptive response to environmental stimuli, including water and nutrient availability. CYTOKININ RESPONSE 1 (CRE1)-mediated signaling in the pericycle and in the cortex is necessary and sufficient for nodulation, whereas cytokinin is antagonistic to lateral root development, with cre1 showing increased lateral root emergence and decreased nodulation. To better understand the relatedness between nodule and lateral root development, we undertook a comparative analysis of these two root developmental programs. Here, we demonstrate that despite differential induction, lateral roots and nodules share overlapping developmental programs, with mutants in LOB-DOMAIN PROTEIN 16 (LBD16) showing equivalent defects in nodule and lateral root initiation. The cytokinin-inducible transcription factor NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) allows induction of this program during nodulation through activation of LBD16 that promotes auxin biosynthesis via transcriptional induction of STYLISH (STY) and YUCCAs (YUC). We conclude that cytokinin facilitates local auxin accumulation through NIN promotion of LBD16, which activates a nodule developmental program overlapping with that induced during lateral root initiation.

Supporting Information for: Scale-dependent evanescence of river dunes during discharge extremes
Naqshband, Suleyman ; Hoitink, Ton - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
river dunes - sediment transport - upper stage plane bed
Data contains dune slipface angles (steepest part of the dune lee-face) for different experimental conditions as shown in figure 4 of the submitted manuscript. The slipface angles are derived using a widely used bedform tracking tool.
The Impact of Genomic and Traditional Selection on the Contribution of Mutational Variance to Long-Term Selection Response and Genetic Variance
Mulder, Herman A. ; Lee, Sang Hong ; Clark, Sam ; Hayes, Ben J. ; Werf, Julius H.J. van der - \ 2019
Genetics 213 (2019)2. - ISSN 0016-6731 - p. 361 - 378.
de novo mutation - genetic variance - genomic selection - response to selection - selection strategies

De novo mutations (DNM) create new genetic variance and are an important driver for long-term selection response. We hypothesized that genomic selection exploits mutational variance less than traditional selection methods such as mass selection or selection on pedigree-based breeding values, because DNM in selection candidates are not captured when the selection candidates' own phenotype is not used in genomic selection, DNM are not on SNP chips and DNM are not in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP on the chip. We tested this hypothesis with Monte Carlo simulation. From whole-genome sequence data, a subset of ∼300,000 variants was used that served as putative markers, quantitative trait loci or DNM. We simulated 20 generations with truncation selection based on breeding values from genomic best linear unbiased prediction without (GBLUP_no_OP) or with own phenotype (GBLUP_OP), pedigree-based BLUP without (BLUP_no_OP) or with own phenotype (BLUP_OP), or directly on phenotype. GBLUP_OP was the best strategy in exploiting mutational variance, while GBLUP_no_OP and BLUP_no_OP were the worst in exploiting mutational variance. The crucial element is that GBLUP_no_OP and BLUP_no_OP puts no selection pressure on DNM in selection candidates. Genetic variance decreased faster with GBLUP_no_OP and GBLUP_OP than with BLUP_no_OP, BLUP_OP or mass selection. The distribution of mutational effects, mutational variance, number of DNM per individual and nonadditivity had a large impact on mutational selection response and mutational genetic variance, but not on ranking of selection strategies. We advocate that more sustainable genomic selection strategies are required to optimize long-term selection response and to maintain genetic diversity.

3R Kenya (Robust, Reliable and Resilient) - From aid to trade project : Annual report 2018
Koge, Jessica ; Kilelu, Catherine ; Coninx, I. ; Vugt, S.M. van; Lee, J. van der; Koomen, I. ; Soma, K. ; Obwanga, Benson ; Gema, Joyce ; Omedo Bebe, Bockline - \ 2019
Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (WCDI-19-057 )
Selection and gene flow shape niche-associated variation in pheromone response
Lee, Daehan ; Zdraljevic, Stefan ; Cook, Daniel E. ; Frézal, Lise ; Hsu, Jung-Chen ; Sterken, Mark G. ; Riksen, Joost A.G. ; Wang, John ; Kammenga, Jan E. ; Braendle, Christian ; Félix, Marie-Anne ; Schroeder, Frank C. ; Andersen, Erik C. - \ 2019
Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1455 - 1463.
From quorum sensing in bacteria to pheromone signalling in social insects, chemical communication mediates interactions among individuals in local populations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, ascaroside pheromones can dictate local population density; high levels of pheromones inhibit the reproductive maturation of individuals. Little is known about how natural genetic diversity affects the pheromone responses of individuals from diverse habitats. Here, we show that a niche-associated variation in pheromone receptor genes contributes to natural differences in pheromone responses. We identified putative loss-of-function deletions that impair duplicated pheromone receptor genes (srg-36 and srg-37), which were previously shown to be lost in population-dense laboratory cultures. A common natural deletion in srg-37 arose recently from a single ancestral population that spread throughout the world; this deletion underlies reduced pheromone sensitivity across the global C. elegans population. We found that many local populations harbour individuals with a wild-type or a deletion allele of srg-37, suggesting that balancing selection has maintained the recent variation in this pheromone receptor gene. The two srg-37 genotypes are associated with niche diversity underlying boom-and-bust population dynamics. We hypothesize that human activities likely contributed to the gene flow and balancing selection of srg-37 variation through facilitating the migration of species and providing a favourable niche for the recently arisen srg-37 deletion.

FgPex3, a Peroxisome Biogenesis Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Vegetative Growth, Conidiation, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum
Kong, Xiangjiu ; Zhang, Hao ; Wang, Xiaoliang ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Brankovics, Balázs ; Xu, Jin ; Xu, Jingsheng ; Chen, Wanquan ; Feng, Jie - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X
Peroxisomes are involved in a wide range of important cellular functions. Here, the role of the peroxisomal membrane protein PEX3 in the plant-pathogen and mycotoxin producer Fusarium graminearum was studied using knock-out and complemented strains. To fluorescently label peroxisomes’ punctate structures, GFP and RFP fusions with the PTS1 and PTS2 localization signal were transformed into the wild type PH- 1 and 1FgPex3 knock-out strains. The GFP and RFP transformants in the 1FgPex3 background showed a diffuse fluorescence pattern across the cytoplasm suggesting the absence of mature peroxisomes. The 1FgPex3 strain showed a minor, non-significant reduction in growth on various sugar carbon sources. In contrast, deletion of FgPex3 affected fatty acid b-oxidation in F. graminearum and significantly reduced the utilization of fatty acids. Furthermore, the 1FgPex3 mutant was sensitive to osmotic stressors
as well as to cell wall-damaging agents. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the mutant had increased significantly, which may be linked to the reduced longevity of cultured strains. The mutant also showed reduced production of conidiospores, while sexual reproduction was completely impaired. The pathogenicity of 1FgPex3, especially during the process of systemic infection, was strongly reduced on both tomato and on wheat, while to production of deoxynivalenol (DON), an important factor for virulence, appeared to be unaffected.
Assessment of policy instruments for pesticide use reduction in Europe; Learning from a systematic literature review
Lee, Rhiannon ; Uyl, Roos den; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2019
Crop Protection 126 (2019). - ISSN 0261-2194
Agrochemicals - Biodiversity - Environmental Governance - IPM (Integrated Pest Management) - Sustainable Agriculture

Intensive and worldwide usage of conventional pesticides on arable land has led to varying problems for the environment and human health. Consequently, many governments and several private actors actively stimulate reduction of pesticide use. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of public and private policy instruments in terms of reducing pesticide use by farmers via a systematic literature review of 78 articles published between 1967 and 2017. The geographical focus area was Europe. The review determined that no specific instrument is guaranteed to reduce pesticide use. Instead, characteristics comprising an instrument were confirmed to be beneficial to reducing pesticide use. In particular, mixes of instruments, with varying degrees of authoritative force, applied at multiple scales with stakeholder collaboration were identified as beneficial to reducing farmer pesticide use. It is implied within the literature that instruments comprised of such characteristics aid reducing pesticide use due to facilitating consideration of heterogeneous farm and farmer characteristics.

Enhancing knowledge and skills for the agri-food sector: The emerging market-led extension and advisory services in Kenya
Kilelu, C.W. ; Lee, J. van der; Opola, Felix - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research (3R Kenya Issue Brief 002) - 7 p.
An Alternative Bioassay for Synchytrium endobioticum Demonstrates the Expression of Potato Wart Resistance in Aboveground Plant Parts
Vossenberg, B.T.L.H. van de; Gent-Pelzer, M.P.E. van; Boerma, M. ; Gouw, L.P. van der; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Vossen, J.H. - \ 2019
Phytopathology 109 (2019)6. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 1043 - 1052.
Genetics and resistance - Molecular verification - Mycology - Pathogen proliferation - Plant–pathogen interaction - RNAseq - Species richness - Techniques

The obligate biotrophic chytrid species Synchytrium endobioticum is the causal agent of potato wart disease. Currently, 39 pathotypes have been described based on their interaction with a differential set of potato varieties. Wart resistance and pathotyping is performed using bioassays in which etiolated tuber sprouts are inoculated. Here, we describe an alternative method in which aboveground plant parts are inoculated. Susceptible plants produced typical wart symptoms in developing but not in fully expanded aboveground organs. Colonization of the host by S. endobioticum was verified by screening for resting spores by microscopy and by molecular techniques using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction and RNAseq analysis. When applied to resistant plants, none of these symptoms were detectable. Recognition of S. endobioticum pathotypes by differentially resistant potato varieties was identical in axillary buds and the tuber-based bioassays. This suggests that S. endobioticum resistance genes are expressed in both etiolated “belowground” sprouts and green aboveground organs. RNAseq analysis demonstrated that the symptomatic aboveground materials contain less contaminants compared with resting spores extracted from tuber-based assays. This reduced microbial contamination in the aboveground bioassay could be an important advantage to study this obligate biotrophic plant–pathogen interaction. Because wart resistance is active in both below- and aboveground organs, the aboveground bioassay can potentially speed up screening for S. endobioticum resistance in potato breeding programs because it omits the requirement for tuber formation. In addition, possibilities arise to express S. endobioticum effectors in potato leaves through agroinfiltration, thereby providing additional phenotyping tools for research and breeding.

National Reference Laboratories WFSR : annual report 2018
Noordam, M.Y. ; Silletti, E. ; Alewijn, A. ; Scholtens, I.M.J. ; Jong, J. de; Raamsdonk, L. aan; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Gerssen, A. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Mol, J.G.J. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research (WFSR-report 2018.011) - 51
Author Correction: Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2
Bolyen, Evan ; Rideout, Jai Ram ; Dillon, Matthew R. ; Bokulich, Nicholas A. ; Abnet, Christian C. ; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A. ; Alexander, Harriet ; Alm, Eric J. ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Asnicar, Francesco ; Bai, Yang ; Bisanz, Jordan E. ; Bittinger, Kyle ; Brejnrod, Asker ; Brislawn, Colin J. ; Brown, C.T. ; Callahan, Benjamin J. ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Chase, John ; Cope, Emily K. ; Silva, Ricardo Da; Diener, Christian ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Douglas, Gavin M. ; Durall, Daniel M. ; Duvallet, Claire ; Edwardson, Christian F. ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Estaki, Mehrbod ; Fouquier, Jennifer ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Gibbons, Sean M. ; Gibson, Deanna L. ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Gorlick, Kestrel ; Guo, Jiarong ; Hillmann, Benjamin ; Holmes, Susan ; Holste, Hannes ; Huttenhower, Curtis ; Huttley, Gavin A. ; Janssen, Stefan ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Jiang, Lingjing ; Kaehler, Benjamin D. ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Keefe, Christopher R. ; Keim, Paul ; Kelley, Scott T. ; Knights, Dan ; Koester, Irina ; Kosciolek, Tomasz ; Kreps, Jorden ; Langille, Morgan G.I. ; Lee, Joslynn ; Ley, Ruth ; Liu, Yong Xin ; Loftfield, Erikka ; Lozupone, Catherine ; Maher, Massoud ; Marotz, Clarisse ; Martin, Bryan D. ; McDonald, Daniel ; McIver, Lauren J. ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Metcalf, Jessica L. ; Morgan, Sydney C. ; Morton, Jamie T. ; Naimey, Ahmad Turan ; Navas-Molina, Jose A. ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Orchanian, Stephanie B. ; Pearson, Talima ; Peoples, Samuel L. ; Petras, Daniel ; Preuss, Mary Lai ; Pruesse, Elmar ; Rasmussen, Lasse Buur ; Rivers, Adam ; Robeson, Michael S. ; Rosenthal, Patrick ; Segata, Nicola ; Shaffer, Michael ; Shiffer, Arron ; Sinha, Rashmi ; Song, Se Jin ; Spear, John R. ; Swafford, Austin D. ; Thompson, Luke R. ; Torres, Pedro J. ; Trinh, Pauline ; Tripathi, Anupriya ; Turnbaugh, Peter J. ; Ul-Hasan, Sabah ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki ; Vogtmann, Emily ; Hippel, Max von; Walters, William ; Wan, Yunhu ; Wang, Mingxun ; Warren, Jonathan ; Weber, Kyle C. ; Williamson, Charles H.D. ; Willis, Amy D. ; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech ; Zaneveld, Jesse R. ; Zhang, Yilong ; Zhu, Qiyun ; Knight, Rob ; Caporaso, J.G. - \ 2019
Nature Biotechnology (2019). - ISSN 1087-0156

In the version of this article initially published, some reference citations were incorrect. The three references to Jupyter Notebooks should have cited Kluyver et al. instead of Gonzalez et al. The reference to Qiita should have cited Gonzalez et al. instead of Schloss et al. The reference to mothur should have cited Schloss et al. instead of McMurdie & Holmes. The reference to phyloseq should have cited McMurdie & Holmes instead of Huber et al. The reference to Bioconductor should have cited Huber et al. instead of Franzosa et al. And the reference to the biobakery suite should have cited Franzosa et al. instead of Kluyver et al. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2
Bolyen, Evan ; Rideout, Jai Ram ; Dillon, Matthew R. ; Bokulich, Nicholas A. ; Abnet, Christian C. ; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A. ; Alexander, Harriet ; Alm, Eric J. ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Asnicar, Francesco ; Bai, Yang ; Bisanz, Jordan E. ; Bittinger, Kyle ; Brejnrod, Asker ; Brislawn, Colin J. ; Brown, Titus C. ; Callahan, Benjamin J. ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Chase, John ; Cope, Emily K. ; Silva, Ricardo da; Diener, Christian ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Douglas, Gavin M. ; Durall, Daniel M. ; Duvallet, Claire ; Edwardson, Christian F. ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Estaki, Mehrbod ; Fouquier, Jennifer ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Gibbons, Sean M. ; Gibson, Deanna L. ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Gorlick, Kestrel ; Guo, Jiarong ; Hillmann, Benjamin ; Holmes, Susan ; Holste, Hannes ; Huttenhower, Curtis ; Huttley, Gavin A. ; Janssen, Stefan ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Jiang, Lingjing ; Kaehler, Benjamin D. ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Keefe, Christopher R. ; Keim, Paul ; Kelley, Scott T. ; Knights, Dan ; Koester, Irina ; Kosciolek, Tomasz ; Kreps, Jorden ; Langille, Morgan G.I. ; Lee, Joslynn ; Ley, Ruth ; Liu, Yong Xin ; Loftfield, Erikka ; Lozupone, Catherine ; Maher, Massoud ; Marotz, Clarisse ; Martin, Bryan D. ; McDonald, Daniel ; McIver, Lauren J. ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Metcalf, Jessica L. ; Morgan, Sydney C. ; Morton, Jamie T. ; Naimey, Ahmad Turan ; Navas-Molina, Jose A. ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Orchanian, Stephanie B. ; Pearson, Talima ; Peoples, Samuel L. ; Petras, Daniel ; Preuss, Mary Lai ; Pruesse, Elmar ; Rasmussen, Lasse Buur ; Rivers, Adam ; Robeson, Michael S. ; Rosenthal, Patrick ; Segata, Nicola ; Shaffer, Michael ; Shiffer, Arron ; Sinha, Rashmi ; Song, Se Jin ; Spear, John R. ; Swafford, Austin D. ; Thompson, Luke R. ; Torres, Pedro J. ; Trinh, Pauline ; Tripathi, Anupriya ; Turnbaugh, Peter J. ; Ul-Hasan, Sabah ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki ; Vogtmann, Emily ; Hippel, Max von; Walters, William ; Wan, Yunhu ; Wang, Mingxun ; Warren, Jonathan ; Weber, Kyle C. ; Williamson, Charles H.D. ; Willis, Amy D. ; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech ; Zaneveld, Jesse R. ; Zhang, Yilong ; Zhu, Qiyun ; Knight, Rob ; Caporaso, J.G. - \ 2019
Nature Biotechnology 37 (2019)8. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 852 - 857.
antiSMASH 5.0: updates to the secondary metabolite genome mining pipeline
Blin, Kai ; Shaw, Simon ; Steinke, Katharina ; Villebro, Rasmus ; Ziemert, Nadine ; Lee, Sang Yup ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Weber, Tilmann - \ 2019
Nucleic acids research 47 (2019)W1. - ISSN 0305-1048 - p. W81 - W87.

Secondary metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi are an important source of antimicrobials and other bioactive compounds. In recent years, genome mining has seen broad applications in identifying and characterizing new compounds as well as in metabolic engineering. Since 2011, the 'antibiotics and secondary metabolite analysis shell-antiSMASH' (https://antismash.secondarymetabolites.org) has assisted researchers in this, both as a web server and a standalone tool. It has established itself as the most widely used tool for identifying and analysing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in bacterial and fungal genome sequences. Here, we present an entirely redesigned and extended version 5 of antiSMASH. antiSMASH 5 adds detection rules for clusters encoding the biosynthesis of acyl-amino acids, β-lactones, fungal RiPPs, RaS-RiPPs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, C-nucleosides, PPY-like ketones and lipolanthines. For type II polyketide synthase-encoding gene clusters, antiSMASH 5 now offers more detailed predictions. The HTML output visualization has been redesigned to improve the navigation and visual representation of annotations. We have again improved the runtime of analysis steps, making it possible to deliver comprehensive annotations for bacterial genomes within a few minutes. A new output file in the standard JavaScript object notation (JSON) format is aimed at downstream tools that process antiSMASH results programmatically.

Quantitative trait loci analysis of hormone levels in Arabidopsis roots
Lee, Sangseok ; Sergeeva, Lidiya I. ; Vreugdenhil, Dick - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1932-6203

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses for five groups of hormones, including cytokinins in Arabidopsis roots were performed using recombinant inbred lines (Ler×Cvi). Significant QTLs were detected for cytokinins, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Separate analysis of two sub-populations, viz., vegetative and flowering plants revealed that many of the QTLs were development-specific. Using near-isogenic lines, several significant QTLs were confirmed; three co-localized QTL regions were responsible for determining several cytokinin metabolites. Using a knock-out plant, a functional role of zeatin N-glucosyltransferase gene (UGT76C2) underlying a large-effect QTL for levels of tZ-N-glucosides and tZRMP was evaluated in the metabolism of cytokinins. Pleotropic effects of this gene were found for cytokinin levels in both roots and leaves, but significant changes of morphological traits were observed only in roots. Hormone QTL analysis reveals development-specific and organ-dependent aspects of the regulation of plant hormone content and metabolism.

Comparative genomics of chytrid fungi reveal insights into the obligate biotrophic and pathogenic lifestyle of Synchytrium endobioticum
Vossenberg, Bart T.L.H. van de; Warris, Sven ; Nguyen, Hai D.T. ; Gent-Pelzer, Marga P.E. van; Joly, David L. ; Geest, Henri C. van de; Bonants, Peter J.M. ; Smith, Donna S. ; Lévesque, André C. ; Lee, Theo A.J. van der - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Synchytrium endobioticum is an obligate biotrophic soilborne Chytridiomycota (chytrid) species that causes potato wart disease, and represents the most basal lineage among the fungal plant pathogens. We have chosen a functional genomics approach exploiting knowledge acquired from other fungal taxa and compared this to several saprobic and pathogenic chytrid species. Observations linked to obligate biotrophy, genome plasticity and pathogenicity are reported. Essential purine pathway genes were found uniquely absent in S. endobioticum, suggesting that it relies on scavenging guanine from its host for survival. The small gene-dense and intron-rich chytrid genomes were not protected for genome duplications by repeat-induced point mutation. Both pathogenic chytrids Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and S. endobioticum contained the largest amounts of repeats, and we identified S. endobioticum specific candidate effectors that are associated with repeat-rich regions. These candidate effectors share a highly conserved motif, and show isolate specific duplications. A reduced set of cell wall degrading enzymes, and LysM protein expansions were found in S. endobioticum, which may prevent triggering plant defense responses. Our study underlines the high diversity in chytrids compared to the well-studied Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, reflects characteristic biological differences between the phyla, and shows commonalities in genomic features among pathogenic fungi.

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